TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF OSTEOACTIVIN EXPRESSION BY BMP-2 IN OSTEOBLASTS
|Safadi, Fayez F.
|Osteoactivin (OA) is a glycoprotein required for the differentiation of osteoblasts. In osteoblasts, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) activated Smad1 signaling enhances OA expression. However, the transcriptional regulation of OA gene expression by BMP-2 is still unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize BMP-2-induced transcription factors that regulate OA gene expression during osteoblast differentiation. The stimulatory effects of BMP-2 on OA transcription were established by cloning the proximal 0.96kb of rat OA promoter region in a luciferase reporter vector in various osteogenic cell types. Further, by deletion and mutagenesis analyses of the cloned OA promoter, key binding sites for osteogenic transcription factors namely, Runx2, Smad1, Smad4 and homeodomain proteins (Dlx3, Dlx5 and Msx2) were identified and characterized. Utilizing specific siRNAs to knock down Runx2, Smad1, Smad4, Dlx3, Dlx5 or Msx2 proteins in osteoblasts, we found that Runx2, Smad1, Smad4, Dlx3 and Dlx5 proteins up-regulate OA transcription, whereas, Msx2 down-regulated OA gene expression. These specific effects of transcription factors on OA promoter regulation were confirmed by forced expression of transcription factors. Most notably, BMP-2-stimulated cooperative and synergistic interactions between Runx2-Smad1 proteins and Dlx3-Dlx5 proteins that up-regulate OA promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays demonstrated that BMP-2 stimulates interactions between Runx2, Smad1 and Smad4 and homeodomain transcription factors with the OA promoter regions flanking the -585 Runx2 binding site, the -248 Smad binding site and the region between the -852 and the -843 homeodomain binding sites relative to transcription start site. The OA promoter region was occupied by Runx2 and also Dlx3 transcription factors during proliferation stages of osteoblast differentiation. As the osteoblasts progress from proliferation to matrix maturation stages of differentiation, the OA promoter was predominantly occupied by Runx2 and to a lesser extent Dlx5 in response to BMP-2. Finally, during matrix mineralization stages of osteoblast differentiation, BMP-2-induced a robust recruitment of Dlx5, Smad1, Dlx3 and Msx2 proteins with simultaneous dissociation of Runx2 from the OA promoter region. In conclusion, the BMP-2-induced osteogenic transcription factors Runx2, Smad1, Smad4, Dlx3, Dlx5 and Msx2 provide key molecular switches that regulate OA transcription during osteoblast differentiation.
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|Smad1 and Smad4
|TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF OSTEOACTIVIN EXPRESSION BY BMP-2 IN OSTEOBLASTS
|Popoff, Steven N.
|Barbe, Mary F.
|Monroy, Alexandra M.
|Owen, Thomas A.
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