Now showing items 1-20 of 219

    • COVID-19 Sparks an Overdue Discussion on Education Reform: An Optimistic Vision

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2021-05-25)
    • State Policy, Local Impact: How Policy Choices Will Shape the Financial Future of Pennsylvania School Districts

      Sances, Michael W.; Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2021-06)
    • COVID-19, Mental Health, and Socioeconomic Status

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2021-06-17)
    • Short- and Long-Term Impacts of COVID-19 on Outdoor Public Spaces

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2021-07-20)
    • Computerized Assessment of Psychosis Risk

      Mittal, Vijay A.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Strauss, Gregory P.; Walker, Elaine F.; Corlett, Philip R.; Schiffman, Jason; Woods, Scott W.; Powers, Albert R.; Silverstein, Steven M.; Waltz, James A.; Zinbarg, Richard; Chen, Shuo; Williams, Trevor; Kenney, Joshua; Gold, James M. (2021-06-29)
      Early detection and intervention with young people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis is critical for prevention efforts focused on altering the trajectory of psychosis. Early CHR research largely focused on validating clinical interviews for detecting at-risk individuals; however, this approach has limitations related to: (1) specificity (i.e., only 20% of CHR individuals convert to psychosis) and (2) the expertise and training needed to administer these interviews is limited. The purpose of our study is to develop the computerized assessment of psychosis risk (CAPR) battery, consisting of behavioral tasks that require minimal training to administer, can be administered online, and are tied to the neurobiological systems and computational mechanisms implicated in psychosis. The aims of our study are as follows: (1A) to develop a psychosis-risk calculator through the application of machine learning (ML) methods to the measures from the CAPR battery, (1B) evaluate group differences on the risk calculator score and test the hypothesis that the risk calculator score of the CHR group will differ from help-seeking and healthy controls, (1C) evaluate how baseline CAPR battery performance relates to symptomatic outcome two years later (i.e., conversion and symptomatic worsening). These aims will be explored in 500 CHR participants, 500 help-seeking individuals, and 500 healthy controls across the study sites. This project will provide a next-generation CHR battery, tied to illness mechanisms and powered by cutting-edge computational methods that can be used to facilitate the earliest possible detection of psychosis risk.
    • Crucial Role of miR-433 in Regulating Cardiac Fibrosis: Erratum

      Cardiovascular Research Center (Temple University) (2021-06-08)
    • Some characteristics of hyperglycaemic crisis differ between patients with and without COVID-19 at a safety-net hospital in a cross-sectional study

      Shah, Arnav; Deak, Andrew; Allen, Shaneisha; Silfani, Elayna; Koppin, Christina; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Sirisena, Imali; Rose, Christina; Rubin, Daniel; Zisman-Ilani|0000-0001-6852-2583; Rubin|0000-0002-6871-6246 (2021-09-11)
      Objective: To compare patients with DKA, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), or mixed DKA-HHS and COVID-19 [COVID (+)] to COVID-19-negative (−) [COVID (−)] patients with DKA/HHS from a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse catchment area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients admitted to an urban academic medical center between 1 March and 30 July 2020. Eligible patients met lab criteria for either DKA or HHS. Mixed DKA-HHS was defined as meeting all criteria for either DKA or HHS with at least 1 criterion for the other diagnosis. Results: A total of 82 participants were stratified by COVID-19 status and type of hyperglycaemic crisis [26 COVID (+) and 56 COVID (−)]. A majority were either Black or Hispanic. Compared with COVID (−) patients, COVID (+) patients were older, more Hispanic and more likely to have type 2 diabetes (T2D, 73% vs 48%, p < .01). COVID(+) patients had a higher mean pH (7.25 ± 0.10 vs 7.16 ± 0.16, p < .01) and lower anion gap (18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.7 ± 6.9, p = .01) than COVID (−) patients. COVID (+) patients were given less intravenous fluids in the first 24 h (2.8 ± 1.9 vs 4.2 ± 2.4 L, p = .01) and were more likely to receive glucocorticoids (95% vs. 11%, p < .01). COVID (+) patients may have taken longer to resolve their hyperglycaemic crisis (53.3 ± 64.8 vs 28.8 ± 27.5 h, p = .09) and may have experienced more hypoglycaemia <3.9 mmol/L (35% vs 19%, p = .09). COVID (+) patients had a higher length of hospital stay (LOS, 14.8 ± 14.9 vs 6.5 ± 6.0 days, p = .01) and in-hospital mortality (27% vs 7%, p = .02). Discussion: Compared with COVID (−) patients, COVID (+) patients with DKA/HHS are more likely to have T2D. Despite less severe metabolic acidosis, COVID (+) patients may require more time to resolve the hyperglycaemic crisis and experience more hypoglycaemia while suffering greater LOS and risk of mortality. Larger studies are needed to examine whether differences in management between COVID (+) and (−) patients affect outcomes with DKA/HHS.
    • IEEE Access Special Section Editorial: Security and Privacy in Emerging Decentralized Communication Environments

      Cheng, Xiaochun; Liu, Zheli; DU, XIAOJIANG; Yu, Shui; Mostarda, Leonardo; Du|0000-0003-4235-9671 (2021-05-13)
      Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, face-to-face team working has changed into distanced work from home. Modern, decentralized digital communication environments are changing with the availability of new technologies and the development of new real-world applications, which lead to novel challenges in security and privacy protection. 5G/6G mobile applications, the smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices, big data applications, and cloud systems are developing to better meet new requirements. Mobile–cloud architecture is emerging as 5G /6G mobile IoT devices are generating large volumes of data which need cloud infrastructure to process. Many IoT systems and cloud systems are decentralized, and new security and privacy protection solutions are emerging in decentralized networks. The increasing interdependence of IT solutions accepted by society has led to a sharp increase in data. As a result, the chances of data leakage or privacy infringement also increase, along with the need for new solutions for digital security and privacy protection.
    • The Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With COVID-19 Among Black Patients: A Qualitative Study

      Aliyu, Sainfer; Travers, Jasmine L.; Norful, Allison A.; Clarke, Michael; Schroeder, Krista; Schroeder|0000-0002-2034-7525 (2021-03-18)
      Diagnosis and hospitalization for COVID-19 are disproportionately higher among black persons. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of being diagnosed with COVID-19 among black patients. Semistructured one-on-one interviews with black patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were conducted. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and a directed content approach. Fifteen patients participated and 3 themes were identified: Panic amidst a COVID-19 diagnosis, Feeling the repercussion of the diagnosis, and Personal assessment of risks within one’s individual environment. Fear of dying, inadequate health benefits, financial issues, and worries about spreading the virus to loved ones were acknowledged by the patients as critical areas of concerns. Majority of the patients looked to God as the ultimate way of surviving COVID-19. However, none of the patients reported receiving support for spiritual needs from health care providers. This is the first study to investigate the lived experience of being diagnosed with COVID-19 among black patients. Our results highlight several factors that put this group at increased risk for COVID-19 and where additional strategies are needed to address these inadequacies. Integrating public health interventions to reduce socioeconomic barriers and integrating spirituality into clinical care could improve patient care delivery.
    • Study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial of a virtual intervention (STRIDE) for symptom management, distress and adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy after breast cancer

      Jacobs, Jamie M.; Rapoport, Chelsea S.; Horenstein, Arielle; Clay, Madison; Walsh, Emily A.; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Temel, Jennifer S.; Greer, Joseph A.; Horenstein|0000-0002-8612-7955 (2021-01-04)
      Introduction: Patient adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) after a diagnosis of hormone-sensitive breast cancer is poor. Previous interventions have failed to produce changes in adherence, address patient preferences or include theoretically informed and evidence-based components. Therefore, we iteratively developed a patient-centred, evidence-based, small-group, videoconference intervention to improve adherence and symptom management as well as reduce distress for patients taking AET after breast cancer (Symptom-Targeted Randomised Intervention for Distress and Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy, STRIDE). Methods and analysis: The current study is a non-blinded, randomised, controlled, feasibility trial of STRIDE compared with a medication monitoring control group. The primary objective is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of STRIDE, while secondary objectives are to assess changes in objective and subjective adherence, symptom distress and satisfaction with AET. Patients will be recruited from the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center in Boston, Massachusetts. The total number of patients accrued will be 75, with ≥60 patients completing the study. All patients will store their AET in an electronic pill bottle for objective adherence monitoring. Patients randomly assigned to the STRIDE intervention will receive 6 weekly 1-hour sessions, in small groups of two, delivered via videoconferencing by a trained mental health professional. Patients assigned to the control group will store their medication in the electronic pill bottle and receive follow-up oncology care as usual. All participants will complete self-report psychosocial measures at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks postbaseline. Ethics and dissemination: The study is funded by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and is approved by the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center Institutional Review Board (Protocol #18–603, V.1.2, first approval date 1 February 2019). The study will be reported in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement for non-pharmacological trials. Results will be published in peer-reviewed academic journals, presented at scientific meetings and disseminated to patient organisations and media outlets.
    • Progress for Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2020

      Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2021-01-22)
    • QAIS-DSNN: Tumor Area Segmentation of MRI Image with Optimized Quantum Matched-Filter Technique and Deep Spiking Neural Network

      Ahmadi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Abbas; Hassantabar, Shayan; Enayati, Saman (2021-01-21)
      Tumor segmentation in brain MRI images is a noted process that can make the tumor easier to diagnose and lead to effective radiotherapy planning. Providing and building intelligent medical systems can be considered as an aid for physicians. In many cases, the presented methods’ reliability is at a high level, and such systems are used directly. In recent decades, several methods of segmentation of various images, such as MRI, CT, and PET, have been proposed for brain tumors. Advanced brain tumor segmentation has been a challenging issue in the scientific community. The reason for this is the existence of various tumor dimensions with disproportionate boundaries in medical imaging. This research provides an optimized MRI segmentation method to diagnose tumors. It first offers a preprocessing approach to reduce noise with a new method called Quantum Matched-Filter Technique (QMFT). Then, the deep spiking neural network (DSNN) is implemented for segmentation using the conditional random field structure. However, a new algorithm called the Quantum Artificial Immune System (QAIS) is used in its SoftMax layer due to its slowness and nonsegmentation and the identification of suitable features for selection and extraction. The proposed approach, called QAIS-DSNN, has a high ability to segment and distinguish brain tumors from MRI images. The simulation results using the BraTS2018 dataset show that the accuracy of the proposed approach is 98.21%, average error-squared rate is 0.006, signal-to-noise ratio is 97.79 dB, and lesion structure criteria including the tumor nucleus are 80.15%. The improved tumor is 74.50%, and the entire tumor is 91.92%, which shows a functional advantage over similar previous methods. Also, the execution time of this method is 2.58 seconds.
    • Supply-chain strategies for essential medicines in rural western Kenya during COVID-19

      Tran, Dan; Were, Phelix M.; Kangogo, Kibet; Amisi, James A.; Manji, Imran; Pastakia, Sonak D.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Tran|0000-0002-8332-8196 (2021-02-10)
      Problem: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted health systems worldwide and threatened the supply of essential medicines. Especially affected are vulnerable patients in low- and middle-income countries who can only afford access to public health systems. Approach: Soon after physical distancing and curfew orders began on 15 March 2020 in Kenya, we rapidly implemented three supply-chain strategies to ensure a continuous supply of essential medicines while minimizing patients’ COVID-19 exposure risks. We redistributed central stocks of medicines to peripheral health facilities to ensure local availability for several months. We equipped smaller, remote health facilities with medicine tackle boxes. We also made deliveries of medicines to patients with difficulty reaching facilities. Local setting Τo implement these strategies we leveraged our 30-year partnership with local health authorities in rural western Kenya and the existing revolving fund pharmacy scheme serving 85 peripheral health centres. Relevant changes: In April 2020, stocks of essential chronic and non-chronic disease medicines redistributed to peripheral health facilities increased to 835 140 units, as compared with 316 330 units in April 2019. We provided medicine tackle boxes to an additional 46 health facilities. Our team successfully delivered medications to 264 out of 311 patients (84.9%) with noncommunicable diseases whom we were able to reach. Lessons learnt: Our revolving fund pharmacy model has ensured that patients’ access to essential medicines has not been interrupted during the pandemic. Success was built on a community approach to extend pharmaceutical services, adapting our current supply-chain infrastructure and working quickly in partnership with local health authorities.
    • 2021 ISHNE/HRS/EHRA/APHRS Collaborative Statement on mHealth in Arrhythmia Management: Digital Medical Tools for Heart Rhythm Professionals

      Varma, Niraj; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Turakhia, Mintu P.; Heidbuchel, Hein; Hu, Yufeng; Chen, Lin Yee; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Cronin, Edmond M.; Estep, Jerry D.; Grieten, Lars; Lane, Deirdre A.; Mehra, Reena; Page, Alex; Passman, Rod; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Piotrowicz, Ewa; Piotrowicz, Ryszard; Platonov, Pyotr G.; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Rich, Robert E.; Russo, Andrea M.; Slotwiner, David; Steinberg, Jonathan S.; Svennberg, Emma (2021-01-29)
      This collaborative statement from the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology/Heart Rhythm Society/European Heart Rhythm Association/Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society describes the current status of mobile health ("mHealth") technologies in arrhythmia management. The range of digital medical tools and heart rhythm disorders that they may be applied to and clinical decisions that may be enabled are discussed. The facilitation of comorbidity and lifestyle management (increasingly recognized to play a role in heart rhythm disorders) and patient self-management are novel aspects of mHealth. The promises of predictive analytics but also operational challenges in embedding mHealth into routine clinical care are explored.
    • Exploring the natural origins of SARS-CoV-2 in the light of recombination

      Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (iGEM) (Temple University) (2021-05-27)
      The lack of an identifiable intermediate host species for the proximal animal ancestor of SARS-CoV-2, and the large geographical distance between Wuhan and where the closest evolutionary related coronaviruses circulating in horseshoe bats (Sarbecoviruses) have been identified, is fuelling speculation on the natural origins of SARS-CoV-2. We have comprehensively analysed phylogenetic relations between SARS-CoV-2, and the related bat and pangolin Sarbecoviruses sampled so far. Determining the likely recombination events reveals a highly reticulate evolutionary history within this group of coronaviruses. Clustering of the inferred recombination events is non-random with evidence that Spike, the main target for humoral immunity, is beside a recombination hotspot likely driving antigenic shift in the ancestry of bat Sarbecoviruses. Coupled with the geographic ranges of their hosts and the sampling locations, across southern China, and into Southeast Asia, we confirm horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus, are the likely SARS-CoV-2 progenitor reservoir species. By tracing the recombinant sequence patterns, we conclude that there has been relatively recent geographic movement and co-circulation of these viruses’ ancestors, extending across their bat host ranges in China and Southeast Asia over the last 100 years or so. We confirm that a direct proximal ancestor to SARS-CoV-2 is yet to be sampled, since the closest relative shared a common ancestor with SARS-CoV-2 approximately 40 years ago. Our analysis highlights the need for more wildlife sampling to (i) pinpoint the exact origins of SARS-CoV-2’s animal progenitor, and (ii) survey the extent of the diversity in the related Sarbecoviruses’ phylogeny that present high risk for future spillover.
    • COVID-19 and Orthopaedic International Humanitarianism

      Talsania, Alec J.; Lavy, Chris; Khanuja, Harpal S.; Chambers, Hank; Kelly, Nancy A.; Gardner, Richard O. E.; Nelson, Scott; Wambisho, Biruk L.; Alexis, Francel; Lalonde, Donald H.; Coughlin, R. Richard; Vosseller, J. Turner; Gokcen, Eric; Gokcen|0000-0002-9621-8359 (2021-02-10)
      As the world continues to adjust to life with COVID-19, one topic that requires further thought and discussion is whether elective international medical volunteerism can continue, and, if so, what challenges will need to be addressed. During a pandemic, the medical community is attentive to controlling the disease outbreak, and most of the literature regarding physician involvement during a pandemic focuses primarily on physicians traveling to areas of need to help treat the disease. As a result, little has been written about medical volunteerism that focuses on medical treatment unrelated to the disease outbreak. In a world-wide pandemic, many factors are to be considered in determining whether, and when, a physician should travel to another region to provide care and training for medical issues not directly related to the pandemic. Leaders of humanitarian committees of orthopaedic surgery subspecialties engaged with one another and host orthopaedic surgeons and a sponsoring organization to provide thoughtful insight and expert opinion on the challenges faced and possible pathways to provide continued orthopaedic support around the globe. Although this discussion focuses on international orthopaedic care, these suggestions may have a much broader application to the international medical community as a whole.
    • Therapeutic afucosylated monoclonal antibody and bispecific T-cell engagers for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

      Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2021-02-17)
      Background: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease with a poor cure rate for relapsed/resistant patients. Due to the lack of T-cell restricted targetable antigens, effective immune-therapeutics are not presently available and the treatment of chemo-refractory T-ALL is still an unmet clinical need. To develop novel immune-therapy for T-ALL, we generated an afucosylated monoclonal antibody (mAb) (ahuUMG1) and two different bispecific T-cell engagers (BTCEs) against UMG1, a unique CD43-epitope highly and selectively expressed by T-ALL cells from pediatric and adult patients. Methods: UMG1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a wide panel of normal tissue microarrays (TMAs), and by flow cytometry on healthy peripheral blood/bone marrow-derived cells, on 10 different T-ALL cell lines, and on 110 T-ALL primary patient-derived cells. CD43-UMG1 binding site was defined through a peptide microarray scanning. ahuUMG1 was generated by Genetic Glyco-Engineering technology from a novel humanized mAb directed against UMG1 (huUMG1). BTCEs were generated as IgG1-(scFv)2 constructs with bivalent (2+2) or monovalent (2+1) CD3ε arms. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and redirected T-cell cytotoxicity assays were analysed by flow cytometry. In vivo antitumor activity of ahUMG1 and UMG1-BTCEs was investigated in NSG mice against subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of human T-ALL. Results: Among 110 T-ALL patient-derived samples, 53 (48.1%) stained positive (24% of TI/TII, 82% of TIII and 42.8% of TIV). Importantly, no expression of UMG1-epitope was found in normal tissues/cells, excluding cortical thymocytes and a minority (<5%) of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. ahUMG1 induced strong ADCC and ADCP on T-ALL cells in vitro, which translated in antitumor activity in vivo and significantly extended survival of treated mice. Both UMG1-BTCEs demonstrated highly effective killing activity against T-ALL cells in vitro. We demonstrated that this effect was specifically exerted by engaged activated T cells. Moreover, UMG1-BTCEs effectively antagonized tumor growth at concentrations >2 log lower as compared with ahuUMG1, with significant mice survival advantage in different T-ALL models in vivo. Conclusion: Altogether our findings, including the safe UMG1-epitope expression profile, provide a framework for the clinical development of these innovative immune-therapeutics for this still orphan disease.
    • Genomics and epidemiology of the P.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineage in Manaus, Brazil

      Faria, Nuno R.; Mellan, Thomas A.; Whittaker, Charles; Claro, Ingra M.; Candido, Darlan da S.; Mishra, Swapnil; Crispim, Myuki A. E.; Sales, Flavia C.S.; Hawryluk, Iwona; McGrone, John T.; Hulswit, Ruben J.G.; Franco, Lucas A.M.; Ramundo, Mariana S.; De Jesus, Jaqueline G.; Andrade, Pamela S.; Coletti, Thais M.; Ferreira, Giulia M.; Silva, Camila A.M.; Manuli, Erika R.; Pereira, Rafael H.M.; Peixoto, Pedro S.; Kraemaer, Moritz U.G.; Gaburo Jr., Nelson; Camilo, Cecilia da C.; Hoeltgebaum, Henrique; Souza, William M.; Rocha, Esmenia C.; de Souza, Leandro M.; de Pinho, Mariana C.; Araujo, Leonardo J.T.; Malta, Frederico S.V.; de Lima, Aline B.; Silva, Joice do P.; Zauli, Danielle A.G.; Ferreira, Alessandro C. de S.; Schnekenberg, Ricardo P.; Laydon, Daniel J.; Walker, Patrick G.T.; Schluter, Hannah M.; dos Santos, Ana L.P.; Vidal, Maria S.; Del Caro, Valentina S.; Filho, Rosinaldo M.F.; dos Santos, Helem M.; Aguiar, Renato S.; Proenca-Modena, Jose L.; Nelson, Bruce; Hay, James A.; Monod, Melodie; Miscouridou, Xenia; Coupland, Helen; Sonabend, Raphael; Vollmer, Michaela; Gandy, Axel; Prete Jr., Carlos A.; Nascimento, Vitor H.; Suchard, Marc A.; Bowden, Thomas A.; Pond, Sergei; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Ratmann, Oliver; Ferguson, Neil M.; Dye, Christopher; Loman, Nick J.; Lemey, Philippe; Rambaut, Andrew; Fraiji, Nelson A.; Carvalho, Maria do P.S.S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Flaxman, Seth; Bhatt, Samir; Sabino, Ester C.; Pond|0000-0003-4817-4029 (2021-05-21)
      Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Manaus, Brazil, resurged in late 2020 despite previously high levels of infection. Genome sequencing of viruses sampled in Manaus between November 2020 and January 2021 revealed the emergence and circulation of a novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. Lineage P.1 acquired 17 mutations, including a trio in the spike protein (K417T, E484K, and N501Y) associated with increased binding to the human ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. Molecular clock analysis shows that P.1 emergence occurred around mid-November 2020 and was preceded by a period of faster molecular evolution. Using a two-category dynamical model that integrates genomic and mortality data, we estimate that P.1 may be 1.7- to 2.4-fold more transmissible and that previous (non-P.1) infection provides 54 to 79% of the protection against infection with P.1 that it provides against non-P.1 lineages. Enhanced global genomic surveillance of variants of concern, which may exhibit increased transmissibility and/or immune evasion, is critical to accelerate pandemic responsiveness.
    • COVID-19 Related Chemosensory Changes in Individuals with Self-Reported Obesity

      Monell Chemical Senses Center (Temple University) (2021-03-03)
      Background/objectives: Individuals with obesity show alterations in smell and taste abilities. Smell and taste loss are also the most prominent neurological symptoms of COVID-19, yet how chemosensory ability present in individuals with obesity with a positive COVID-19 diagnosis is unknown. Subjects/Methods: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19−; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to be obese (C19+; n = 433, C19−; n = 86) or non-obese. Results: Compared to the C19− group, C19+ exhibited a greater decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness, though these symptoms did not differ between participants with obesity and without obesity. In 68% of participants who reported recovery from respiratory illness symptoms (n=3431 C19+ and n= 539 C19−), post-recovery chemosensory perception did not differ in C19+ and C19− diagnosis, and by self-reported obesity. Finally, we found that all chemosensory and other symptoms combined predicted the C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity with a moderately good estimate (63% accuracy). However, in C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory as respiratory and GI symptoms. Conclusions: We conclude that despite a presumed lower sensitivity to chemosensory stimuli, COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity, and in both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19.
    • Policing and public health calls for service in Philadelphia

      Ratcliffe, Jerry; Ratcliffe|0000-0002-0730-6761 (2021-03-02)
      This contribution outlines various spatial and temporal aspects of medical or public-health related calls for service from the public to police in Philadelphia in 2019. These incidents comprise about 8% of the police department’s workload that originates from the public. Calls appear to be highly concentrated in a few areas, and specifically the Center City and Kensington neighborhoods. They are also more likely to occur late afternoon and evening. The article shows that some medical or public health activity initially masquerades as crime or other policing work and some events eventually determined to be police/crime activity can initially appear to be public health related. About 20% of activity in this area does not appear predictable from the initial call type as handled by police dispatch.