• Targeting Molecular Mechanism of Vascular Smooth Muscle Senescence Induced by Angiotensin II, A Potential Therapy via Senolytics and Senomorphics

      Cardiovascular Research Center (Temple University) (2020-09-09)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent issue in the global aging population. Premature vascular aging such as elevated arterial stiffness appears to be a major risk factor for CVD. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are one of the essential parts of arterial pathology and prone to stress-induced senescence. The pervasiveness of senescent VSMCs in the vasculature increases with age and can be further expedited by various stressing events such as oxidative stress, mitochondria dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and chronic inflammation. Angiotensin II (AngII) can induce many of these responses in VSMCs and is thus considered a key regulator of VSMC senescence associated with CVD. Understanding the precise mechanisms and consequences of senescent cell accumulation may uncover a new generation of therapies including senolytic and senomorphic compounds against CVD. Accordingly, in this review article, we discuss potential molecular mechanisms of VSMC senescence such as those induced by AngII and the therapeutic manipulations of senescence to control age-related CVD and associated conditions such as by senolytic.
    • Targeting SARS-CoV-2 M3CLpro by HCV NS3/4a Inhibitors: In Silico Modeling and In Vitro Screening

      Institute of Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2021-02-04)
      Currently the entire human population is in the midst of a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2). This highly pathogenic virus has to date caused >71 million infections and >1.6 million deaths in >180 countries. Several vaccines and drugs are being studied as possible treatments or prophylactics of this viral infection. M3CLpro (coronavirus main cysteine protease) is a promising drug target as it has a significant role in viral replication. Here we use the X-ray crystal structure of M3CLpro in complex with boceprevir to study the dynamic changes of the protease upon ligand binding. The binding free energy was calculated for water molecules at different locations of the binding site, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for the M3CLpro/boceprevir complex, to thoroughly understand the chemical environment of the binding site. Several HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors were tested in vitro against M3CLpro. Specifically, asunaprevir, narlaprevir, paritaprevir, simeprevir, and telaprevir all showed inhibitory effects on M3CLpro. Molecular docking and MD simulations were then performed to investigate the effects of these ligands on M3CLpro and to provide insights into the chemical environment of the ligand binding site. Our findings and observations are offered to help guide the design of possible potent protease inhibitors and aid in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Telehealth in school-based practice: Perceived viability to bridge global OT practitioner shortages prior to COVID-19 global health emergency

      Abbott-Gaffney, Cynthia; Jacobs, Karen (2020-10-20)
      BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, telehealth was an emerging occupational therapy (OT) service delivery model possessing many positive attributes. These include the potential to offset well-documented global occupational therapy practitioner (OTP) shortages. However, wide-spread adoption of telehealth as a delivery model in school-based practice is lacking in the OT evidence literature. While the COVID-19 global health emergency propelled many OTPs into the use of telehealth technologies, in some cases with minimal preparation, an investigation was conducted into the likelihood of telehealth adoption when comprehensive training was provided so that appropriateness of student fit for telehealth could be determined and essential planning could take place. OBJECTIVE: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, a comprehensive training program was developed incorporating detailed perceptions of OTPs experienced in and new to telehealth in school-based practice as measured via surveys with the goal of increasing adoption of telehealth technologies for the delivery of OT services. Following the completion of the online New to Telehealth Pre-training Survey, OTPs new to telehealth were invited to complete the OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice training program. Analysis of pre- and post-training surveys yielded information about attitudinal changes experienced post-training. METHODS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, school-based occupational therapy practitioners (OTP) experienced in telehealth were invited to complete a survey exploring benefits and barriers encountered in the delivery of OT services using telehealth. OTPs new-to-telehealth were invited to complete a different survey intended to explore attitudes about the potential use of telehealth. Data collected from both surveys were used to develop a comprehensive training program, The OT Telehealth Primer for School-based Practice. OTPs new-to-telehealth were invited to complete the training program and a post-training survey. A descriptive data analysis was completed on responses from pre- to post-training surveys and the chi-square test of independence was used to evaluate difference in reported likelihood of adopting telehealth into practice before and after training. RESULTS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, the top benefits identified by the OTP Experienced Telehealth-User Survey included: 1) service access, 2) collaboration and carry-over with team members, 3) efficiency themes, and 4) student engagement and comfort. Top benefits identified by the OTP New to Telehealth Survey identified the same top benefits after participating in the training program. A significant decrease in perceived barriers was noted in scores from pre- to post-training by OTPs new to telehealth. The perceived barriers that did not significantly decrease post-training suggest the need for future education and future protocol development. These included: unreliable internet, lack of hands-on opportunity and e-helpers’ (parent, caregiver or support system available to assist the student in person during a telehealth session) decreased comfort with technology. Of the participants who completed the OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice, 80% reported being likely to add telehealth as a delivery model for future OT practice. CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the COVID-19 global health emergency, completion of the comprehensive training program OT Telehealth Primer: School-based Practice program yielded improved perceived benefits and an increased likelihood of telehealth adoption into practice by OTPs. However, both OTPs and school administrators require ongoing education for successful widespread adoption to be achieved thus offsetting the global shortage of OTPs and increasing service access. Future research, particularly related to available training and support for the rapid adoption of telehealth technologies during the COVID-19 global health emergency, will yield helpful information about the likelihood of continued use of telehealth in practice.
    • Temple University’s ITA Placement Test in Times of COVID-19

      Center for American Language and Culture (Temple University) (2020-12-24)
      When the COVID-19 pandemic made it impossible to do in-person, on campus testing, we were forced to create a new system to screen International Teaching Assistants (ITA) for Temple university. We used this opportunity to address many of the concerns and problems that we had identified with the previous test, and created a new test that could be administered virtually. The new test (the TU ITA Test) makes it possible to test potential ITAs at any time, allowing departments to make instructor placement decisions far in advance. The TU ITA Test also seems to better assess ITAs’ interactional competence than the previous test, suggesting it might be a more valid ITA screening measure.
    • The Convergence of the COVID-19 and Opioid Health Crises in the US

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2020-08-18)
    • The durability of immunity against reinfection by SARS-CoV-2: a comparative evolutionary study

      Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (Temple University) (2021-10-01)
      Background: Among the most consequential unknowns of the devastating COVID-19 pandemic are the durability of immunity and time to likely reinfection. There are limited direct data on SARS-CoV-2 long-term immune responses and reinfection. The aim of this study is to use data on the durability of immunity among volutionarily close coronavirus relatives of SARS-CoV-2 to estimate times to reinfection by a comparative evolutionary analysis of related viruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63. Methods: We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the S, M, and ORF1b genes to reconstruct a maximum-likelihood molecular phylogeny of human-infecting coronaviruses. This phylogeny enabled comparative analyses of peak-normalised nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and whole-virus lysate IgG antibody optical density levels, in conjunction with reinfection data on endemic human-infecting coronaviruses. We performed ancestral and descendent states analyses to estimate the expected declines in antibody levels over time, the probabilities of reinfection based on antibody level, and the anticipated times to reinfection after recovery under conditions of endemic transmission for SARS-CoV-2, as well as the other human-infecting coronaviruses. Findings: We obtained antibody optical density data for six human-infecting coronaviruses, extending from 128 days to 28 years after infection between 1984 and 2020. These data provided a means to estimate profiles of the typical antibody decline and probabilities of reinfection over time under endemic conditions. Reinfection by SARS-CoV-2 under endemic conditions would likely occur between 3 months and 5·1 years after peak antibody response, with a median of 16 months. This protection is less than half the duration revealed for the endemic coronaviruses circulating among humans (5–95% quantiles 15 months to 10 years for HCoV-OC43, 31 months to 12 years for HCoV-NL63, and 16 months to 12 years for HCoV-229E). For SARS-CoV, the 5–95% quantiles were 4 months to 6 years, whereas the 95% quantiles for MERS-CoV were inconsistent by dataset. Interpretation: The timeframe for reinfection is fundamental to numerous aspects of public health decision making. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, reinfection is likely to become increasingly common. Maintaining public health measures that curb transmission—including among individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2—coupled with persistent efforts to accelerate vaccination worldwide is critical to the prevention of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.
    • The Effects of Persistent Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunctions on Quality of Life in Long-COVID-19 Patients

      Monell Chemical Senses Center (2022-01-19)
      Background: Persistent olfactory (POD) and gustatory (PGD) dysfunctions are one of the most frequent symptoms of long-Coronavirus Disease 2019 but their effect on the quality of life (QoL) of patients is still largely unexplored. (2) Methods: An online survey was administered to individuals who reported to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection at least 6 months prior with persisting COVID-19 symptoms (using the COVID symptom index), including ratings of POD and PGD, and their physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of quality of life were assessed using the standardized short form 12 questionnaire (SF-12). (3) Results: Responses from 431 unique individuals were included in the analyses. The most frequent persistent symptoms were: fatigue (185 cases, 42.9%), olfactory dysfunction (127 cases, 29.5%), gustatory dysfunction (96 cases, 22.3%) and muscle pain (83 cases, 19.3%). Respondents who reported persisting muscle pain, joint pain, fatigue, headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, and dyspnea had significantly worse PCS. Those experiencing persistent fatigue and dyspnea also showed significantly lower MCS. Respondents reporting POD or PGD showed significantly worse QoL, but only pertaining to the MCS. Multiple regressions predicted MCS based on olfactory and marginally on gustatory ratings, but not PCS. Age significantly affected the prediction of PCS but not MCS, and gender and temporal distance from the COVID-19 diagnosis had no effect. (4) Conclusions: POD and PGD are frequent symptoms of the long-COVID-19 syndrome and significantly reduce QoL, specifically in the mental health component. This evidence should stimulate the establishment of appropriate infrastructure to support individuals with persistent CD, while research on effective therapies scales up.
    • The emergence and ongoing convergent evolution of the N501Y lineages coincides with a major global shift in the SARS-CoV-2 selective landscape

      NGS-SA; COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) (2021-07-25)
      The emergence and rapid rise in prevalence of three independent SARS-CoV-2 “501Y lineages’’, B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1, in the last three months of 2020 prompted renewed concerns about the evolutionary capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to adapt to both rising population immunity, and public health interventions such as vaccines and social distancing. Viruses giving rise to the different 501Y lineages have, presumably under intense natural selection following a shift in host environment, independently acquired multiple unique and convergent mutations. As a consequence, all have gained epidemiological and immunological properties that will likely complicate the control of COVID-19. Here, by examining patterns of mutations that arose in SARS-CoV-2 genomes during the pandemic we find evidence of a major change in the selective forces acting on various SARS-CoV-2 genes and gene segments (such as S, nsp2 and nsp6), that likely coincided with the emergence of the 501Y lineages. In addition to involving continuing sequence diversification, we find evidence that a significant portion of the ongoing adaptive evolution of the 501Y lineages also involves further convergence between the lineages. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring how members of these known 501Y lineages, and others still undiscovered, are convergently evolving similar strategies to ensure their persistence in the face of mounting infection and vaccine induced host immune recognition.
    • The Hardest Hit: Post-COVID Unemployment in Immigrant-Dense Industries

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2020-08-18)
    • The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on older adults with an intellectual disability during the first wave of the pandemic in Ireland

      McCarron, Mary; McCausland, Darren; Luus, Retha; Allen, Andrew; Sheerin, Fintan; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; Flannery, Fidelma; McCallion, Philip; McCallion|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2021-08-19)
      Background: People with intellectual disability have increased risk of exposure to and adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).They also face challenges to mental health and well-being from COVID-19-related social restrictions and service closures. Methods: Data from a supplemental COVID-19 survey from the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) (n=710) was used to assess outcomes from the first infection wave of COVID-19 among adults with intellectual disability aged 40+ years in Ireland. Data was gathered on testing, for symptoms and outcomes; procedures to manage COVID-19; and both stress/anxiety and positive experiences during the pandemic. Demographic and health-related data from the main IDS-TILDA dataset was included in analyses. Results: High rates were identified of health conditions associated with poorer COVID-19 outcomes, including overweight/obesity (66.6%, n=365), high cholesterol (38.6%, n=274) and cardiovascular disease (33.7%, n=239). Over half (53.5%, n=380) reported emotional, nervous or psychiatric disorders. Almost two-thirds (62.4%, n=443) were tested for COVID-19, with 10% (n=71) reporting symptoms and 2.5% (n=11) testing positive. There were no instances of COVID-19 related mortality. Common symptoms included fatigue, fever, and cough. Some participants (7.8%, n=55) moved from their usual home to isolate, most often (n=31) or relocate to a family home (n=11). Three-quarters (78.7%) of those who were symptomatic or who tested positive had plans to manage self-isolation and two-thirds were able to comply with guidelines. Over half (55%, n=383) reported some COVID-19 related stress/anxiety; and a similar proportion reported positive aspects during this period (58%, n=381). Conclusions: Our data suggests that people with intellectual disability avoided the worst impacts of COVID-19 during the first infection wave in Ireland. Nevertheless, participants’ health profiles suggest that this population remains at high risk for adverse infection outcomes. Repeated measures are needed to track health and well-being outcomes across multiple infection waves.
    • The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on older adults with an intellectual disability during the first wave of the pandemic in Ireland

      McCarron, Mary; McCausland, Darren; Luus, Retha; Allen, Andrew; Sheerin, Fintan; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; Flannery, Fidelma; McCallion, Philip; McCallion|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2021-12-13)
      Background: People with intellectual disability have increased risk of exposure to and adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).They also face challenges to mental health and well-being from COVID-19-related social restrictions and service closures. Methods: Data from a supplemental COVID-19 survey from the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) (n=710) was used to assess outcomes from the first infection wave of COVID-19 among adults with intellectual disability aged 40+ years in Ireland. Data was gathered on testing, for symptoms and outcomes; procedures to manage COVID-19; and both stress/anxiety and positive experiences during the pandemic. Demographic and health-related data from the main IDS-TILDA dataset was included in analyses. Results: High rates were identified of health conditions associated with poorer COVID-19 outcomes, including overweight/obesity (66.6%, n=365), high cholesterol (38.6%, n=274) and cardiovascular disease (33.7%, n=239). Over half (53.5%, n=380) reported emotional, nervous or psychiatric disorders. Almost two-thirds (62.4%, n=443) were tested for COVID-19, with 10% (n=71) reporting symptoms and 2.5% (n=11) testing positive. There were no instances of COVID-19 related mortality. Common symptoms included fatigue, fever, and cough. Some participants (7.8%, n=55) moved from their usual home, most often to isolate (n=31) or relocate to a family home (n=11). Three-quarters (78.7%) of those who were symptomatic or who tested positive had plans to manage self-isolation and two-thirds were able to comply with guidelines. Over half (55%, n=383) reported some COVID-19 related stress/anxiety; and a similar proportion reported positive aspects during this period (58%, n=381). Conclusions: Our data suggests that people with intellectual disability avoided the worst impacts of COVID-19 during the first infection wave in Ireland. Nevertheless, participants’ health profiles suggest that this population remains at high risk for adverse infection outcomes. Repeated measures are needed to track health and well-being outcomes across multiple infection waves.
    • The impact of COVID-19 on people ageing with an intellectual disability in Ireland: Protocol for a follow-up survey

      McCarron, Mary; Allen, Andrew; McCausland, Darren; Haigh, Margaret; Luus, Retha; Bavussantakath, Fathima Rosmin; Sheerin, Fintan; Mulryan, Niamh; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; Flannery, Fidelma; McCallion, Philip; McCallion|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2021-08-23)
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns have had a dramatic impact on many people, but individuals with an intellectual disability, given the prevalence of congregate living and high levels of co-morbid conditions, may be particularly vulnerable at this time. A prior initial survey of participants of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) found that, despite a majority of participants being tested, only a small proportion had tested positive for COVID-19. Furthermore, despite some reporting positive aspects to the lockdown, a similar proportion were experiencing stress or anxiety during the pandemic. The pandemic and lockdowns have continued, and it is possible that experiences and consequences have changed over time. Aim: To explore over time and in greater depth the impact of COVID-19 and associated lockdowns and to further establish rates of infection, rates of vaccination and participants’ experiences. Methods: A structured questionnaire for people with intellectual disability participating in the IDS-TILDA longitudinal study, to be administered by telephone/video in summer 2021. Where participants are unable to respond independently, a proxy respondent will be invited to either assist the participant or answer questions on their behalf. This questionnaire will include questions from the first COVID-19 questionnaire, with extra questions assessing “long COVID” (i.e. COVID-19 lasting for 12 weeks or longer), infection control behaviours, changes in mental health, social contacts and loneliness, frailty, healthcare, and incidence of vaccination. Impact: The results of this survey will be used to inform healthcare provision for people with intellectual disability during the latter stages of the lockdown and into the future.
    • The impact of COVID-19 on people ageing with an intellectual disability in Ireland: Protocol for a follow-up survey

      McCarron, Mary; Allen, Andrew; McCausland, Darren; Haigh, Margaret; Luus, Retha; Rosmin Bavussantakath, Fathima; Sheerin, Fintan; Mulryan, Niamh; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; Flannery, Fidelma; McCallion, Philip; McCallion|0000-0001-5129-6399 (2021-10-15)
      Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns have had a dramatic impact on many people, but individuals with an intellectual disability, given the prevalence of congregate living and high levels of co-morbid conditions, may be particularly vulnerable at this time. A prior initial survey of participants of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) found that, despite a majority of participants being tested, only a small proportion had tested positive for COVID-19. Furthermore, despite some reporting positive aspects to the lockdown, a similar proportion were experiencing stress or anxiety during the pandemic.The pandemic and lockdowns have continued, and it is possible that experiences and consequences have changed over time. Aim: To explore over time and in greater depth the impact of COVID-19 and associated lockdowns and to further establish rates of infection, rates of vaccination and participants’ experiences. Methods: A structured questionnaire for people with intellectual disability participating in the IDS-TILDA longitudinal study, to be administered by telephone/video in summer 2021. Where participants are unable to respond independently, a proxy respondent will be invited to either assist the participant or answer questions on their behalf. This questionnaire will include questions from the first COVID-19 questionnaire, with extra questions assessing “long COVID” (i.e. COVID-19 lasting for 12 weeks or longer), infection control behaviours, changes in mental health, social contacts and loneliness, frailty, healthcare, and incidence of vaccination. Impact: The results of this survey will be used to inform healthcare provision for people with intellectual disability during the latter stages of the lockdown and into the future.
    • The impact of physical activity on psychological health during Covid-19 pandemic in Italy

      Center for Biotechnology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2020-06-24)
      The worldwide spread of COVID-19 has upset the normality of Italian daily life, forcing population to social distancing and self-isolation. Since the containment precautions also concern sport-related activities, home workout remained the only possibility to play sports and stay active during the pandemic. The present study aimed to examine changes in the physical activity levels during self-quarantine in Italy, and the impact of exercise on psychological health. A total of 2974 Italian subjects has completed an online survey, but only 2524 subjects resulted eligible for this study. The questionnaire measured the total weekly physical activity energy expenditure before and during quarantine (i.e. the sum of walking, moderate-intensity physical activities, and vigorous-intensity physical activities) in Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET–min/wk) using an adapted version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and their psychological well-being using the Psychological General Well Being Index. Of the 2524 Italian subjects included in the study, 1426 were females (56.4%) and 1098 males (43.6%). Total physical activity significantly decreased between before and during COVID-19 pandemic (Mean: 2429 vs. 1577 MET–min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001), in all age groups and especially in men (Female, mean: 1994 vs. 1443 MET–min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001; Male, mean: 2998 vs. 1754 MET–min/wk, ∗∗∗∗p < 0.0001). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found between the variation of physical activity and mental well-being (r = 0.07541, ∗∗∗p = 0.0002), suggesting that the reduction of total physical activity had a profoundly negative impact on psychological health and well-being of population. Based on this scientific evidence, maintaining a regular exercise routine is a key strategy for physical and mental health during a forced rest period like the current coronavirus emergency.
    • The influence of empowered work environments on the psychological experiences of nursing assistants during COVID-19: a qualitative study

      Travers, Jasmine; Schroeder, Krista; Norful, Allison A.; Aliyu, Sainfer; 0000-0002-2034-7525 (2020-10-16)
      Background: Nursing Assistants (NA) who feel empowered tend to perform their duties better, have higher morale and job satisfaction, and are less likely to leave their jobs. Organizational empowerment practices in hospitals likely shape the psychological experiences of empowerment among these personnel; however, little is known about this relationship. Objective: We used qualitative inquiry to explore the relationship between organizational empowerment structural components and feelings of psychological empowerment among hospital frontline workers during a public health emergency. Methods: Kanter’s Theory of Structural Empowerment and Spreitzer’s Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace Framework were applied to identify the conceptual influences of organizational practices on psychological experiences of empowerment. In-depth interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of NAs, caring for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Directed content analysis was performed to generate a data matrix consisting of the psychological experiences of meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact embedded under the organizational structural components of information, resources, support, and opportunity. Results: Thirteen NAs (mean age = 42 years, 92% female) completed interviews. Information, or lack thereof, provided to the NAs influenced feelings of fear, preparation, and autonomy. Resources (e.g., protocols, equipment, and person-power) made it easier to cope with overwhelming emotions, affected the NAs’ abilities to do their jobs, and when limited, drove NAs to take on new roles. NAs noted that support was mostly provided by nurses and made the NAs feel appreciated, desiring to contribute more. While NAs felt they could consult leadership when needed, several felt leadership showed little appreciation for their roles and contributions. Similar to support, the opportunity to take care of COVID-19 patients yielded a diverse array of emotions, exposed advances and gaps in NA preparation, and challenged NAs to autonomously develop new care practices and processes. Conclusion: Management and empowerment of healthcare workers are critical to hospital performance and success. We found many ways in which the NAs’ psychological experiences of empowerment were shaped by the healthcare system’s empowerment-related structural conditions during a public health emergency. To further develop an empowered and committed critical workforce, hospitals must acknowledge the organizational practice influence on the psychological experiences of empowerment among NAs.
    • The Legal Response to COVID-19: Legal Pathways to a More Effective and Equitable Response

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University) (2021-01)
    • The Lived Experience of Being Diagnosed With COVID-19 Among Black Patients: A Qualitative Study

      Aliyu, Sainfer; Travers, Jasmine L.; Norful, Allison A.; Clarke, Michael; Schroeder, Krista; Schroeder|0000-0002-2034-7525 (2021-03-18)
      Diagnosis and hospitalization for COVID-19 are disproportionately higher among black persons. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of being diagnosed with COVID-19 among black patients. Semistructured one-on-one interviews with black patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were conducted. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis and a directed content approach. Fifteen patients participated and 3 themes were identified: Panic amidst a COVID-19 diagnosis, Feeling the repercussion of the diagnosis, and Personal assessment of risks within one’s individual environment. Fear of dying, inadequate health benefits, financial issues, and worries about spreading the virus to loved ones were acknowledged by the patients as critical areas of concerns. Majority of the patients looked to God as the ultimate way of surviving COVID-19. However, none of the patients reported receiving support for spiritual needs from health care providers. This is the first study to investigate the lived experience of being diagnosed with COVID-19 among black patients. Our results highlight several factors that put this group at increased risk for COVID-19 and where additional strategies are needed to address these inadequacies. Integrating public health interventions to reduce socioeconomic barriers and integrating spirituality into clinical care could improve patient care delivery.
    • The Mess in Texas: Litigating COVID-19 Abortion Restrictions

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2020-05-18)
    • The Post-Lockdown Era: What Is Next in Italy?

      Pomara, Cristoforo; Li Volti, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; 0000-0001-9288-1148 (2020-07-15)
    • The role of epidemiologists in SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research

      International Network for Epidemiology in Policy COVID-19 Group (2020-10-17)