• A Mixed Method Analysis of Burnout and Turnover Intentions Among Higher Education Professionals During COVID-19

      Winfield, Jake; Paris, Joseph; Paris|0000-0001-7636-903X; Winfield|0000-0001-6181-8664 (2021-10-11)
      The COVID-19 pandemic rapidly and dramatically altered higher education including changes to the workplace. Many staff and faculty positions were eliminated while other employees experienced furloughs or reduced work hours. Our study examines the experiences of 1,080 higher education professionals serving in various functional roles during the COVID-19 pandemic from 830 institutions of higher education in the United States. We utilized an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design to examine quantitative and qualitative survey data from October 2020 to understand how jobs in higher education changed during the pandemic and how these changes were associated with an individual's burnout and intention to leave higher education. Using multiple regression and thematic analysis and the job-demands and resources framework, we find that higher education professionals who experienced significant disruption in their work had increased odds of experiencing burnout. We also find that eliminating staff positions and significant levels of burnout were associated with increased intentions to leave their current profession in higher education. In open ended responses, higher education professionals described how increased job demands through decreased staff and increased workloads were not accompanied with increased resources, leading to burnout. These working conditions negatively affected participants' personal lives, including their physical and mental health. We conclude with recommendations for research on working conditions in higher education in the pandemic-era and emphasize that institutional leaders should seek systemic changes to support employees.
    • A Statistical Approach to Batched Prevalence Testing for Coronavirus

      Berger, William; Dabrowski, Konrad; Robinson, Jake; Sales, Adam (2020-03-30)
      As cases of novel coronavirus mount, the ability to conduct expeditious prevalence testing becomes paramount. A statistical approach to batched prevalence testing offers a more rapid and efficient means of monitoring at-risk populations.
    • Challenges Experienced by Older People During the Initial Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Siminoff Research Group (Temple University) (2020-09-21)
      Background and Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unique stressors for older people to manage. Informed by the Stress Process Model and the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, we examined the extent to which older people are adhering to physical distancing mandates and the pandemic-related experiences that older people find most challenging. Research Design and Methods: From May 4 to May 17, 2020, a web-based questionnaire focused on the COVID-19 pandemic was completed by 1,272 people (aged 64 and older) who were part of an ongoing research panel in New Jersey recruited in 2006. Frequencies for endorsement of physical distancing behaviors were tabulated, and open-ended responses to the biggest challenge of the pandemic were systematically coded and classified using content analysis. Results: More than 70% of participants reported adhering to physical distancing behaviors. Experiences appraised as most difficult by participants fell into 8 domains: Social Relationships, Activity Restrictions, Psychological, Health, Financial, Global Environment, Death, and Home Care. The most frequently appraised challenges were constraints on social interactions (42.4%) and restrictions on activity (30.9%). Discussion and Implications: In the initial weeks of the pandemic, the majority of older adults reported adhering to COVID-19 physical distancing mandates and identified a range of challenging experiences. Results highlight the factors having the greatest impact on older adults, informing quantitative modeling for testing the impact of the pandemic on health and well-being outcomes, and identifying how intervention efforts may be targeted to maximize the quality of life of older adults.
    • Coronaviruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future

      Pellegrino, Robert; Cooper, Keiland W.; Di Pizio, Antonella; Joseph, Paule V.; Bhutani, Surabhi; Parma, Valentina; 0000-0003-0276-7072 (2020-05-14)
      A wealth of rapidly evolving reports suggests that olfaction and taste disturbances may be manifestations of the novel COVID-19 pandemic. While otolaryngological societies worldwide have started to consider chemosensory evaluation as a screening tool for COVID-19 infection, the true nature of the relationship between the changes in chemosensory ability and COVID-19 is unclear. Our goal with this review is to provide a brief overview of published and archived literature, as well as the anecdotal reports and social trends related to this topic up to April 29, 2020. We also aim to draw parallels between the clinical/chemosensory symptomology reported in association to past coronavirus pandemics (such as SARS and MERS) and the novel COVID-19. This review also highlights current evidence on persistent chemosensory disturbances after the infection has resolved. Overall, our analysis pinpoints the need for further studies: (1) to better quantify olfaction and taste disturbances associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to those of other viral and respiratory infections, (2) to understand the relation between smell, taste, and chemesthesis disturbances in COVID-19, and (3) to understand how persistent are these disturbances after the infection has resolved.
    • COVID Moonshot: Open Science Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors by Combining Crowdsourcing, High-Throughput Experiments, Computational Simulations, and Machine Learning

      The COVID Moonshot Consortium (2020-10-30)
      Herein we provide a living summary of the data generated during the COVID Moonshot project focused on the development of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. Our approach uniquely combines crowdsourced medicinal chemistry insights with high throughput crystallography, exascale computational chemistry infrastructure for simulations, and machine learning in triaging designs and predicting synthetic routes. This manuscript describes our methodologies leading to both covalent and non-covalent inhibitors displaying protease IC50 values under 150 nM and viral inhibition under 5 uM in multiple different viral replication assays. Furthermore, we provide over 200 crystal structures of fragment-like and lead-like molecules in complex with the main protease. Over 1000 synthesized and ordered compounds are also reported with the corresponding activity in Mpro enzymatic assays using two different experimental setups. The data referenced in this document will be continually updated to reflect the current experimental progress of the COVID Moonshot project, and serves as a citable reference for ensuing publications. All of the generated data is open to other researchers who may find it of use.
    • COVID-19 in solid organ transplant: A multi-center cohort study

      Kates, Olivia S.; Haydel, Brandy M.; Florman, Sander S.; Rana, Meenakshi M.; Chaudhry, Zohra S.; Ramesh, Mayur S.; Safa, Kassem; Kotton, Camille Nelson; Blumberg, Emily A.; Besharatian, Behdad D.; Tanna, Sajal D.; Ison, Michael G.; Malinis, Maricar; Azar, Marwan M.; Rakita, Robert M.; Morilla, Jose A.; Majeed, Aneela; Sait, Afrah S.; Spaggiari, Mario; Hemmige, Vagish; Mehta, Sapna A.; Neumann, Henry; Badami, Abbasali; Goldman, Jason D.; Lala, Anuradha; Hemmersbach-Miller, Marion; McCort, Margaret E.; Bajrovic, Valida; Ortiz-Bautista, Carlos; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel; Sehgal, Sameep; Lease, Erika D.; Fisher, Cynthia E.; Limaye, Ajit P. (2020-08-07)
      Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant reductions in transplantation, motivated in part by concerns of disproportionately more severe disease among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, clinical features, outcomes, and predictors of mortality in SOT recipients are not well described. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study of SOT recipients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Data were collected using standardized intake and 28-day follow-up electronic case report forms. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the primary endpoint, 28-day mortality, among hospitalized patients. Results: Four hundred eighty-two SOT recipients from >50 transplant centers were included: 318 (66%) kidney or kidney/pancreas, 73 (15.1%) liver, 57 (11.8%) heart, and 30 (6.2%) lung. Median age was 58 (interquartile range [IQR] 46–57), median time post-transplant was 5 years (IQR 2–10), 61% were male, and 92% had ≥1 underlying comorbidity. Among those hospitalized (376 [78%]), 117 (31%) required mechanical ventilation, and 77 (20.5%) died by 28 days after diagnosis. Specific underlying comorbidities (age >65 [adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–5.5, P < .001], congestive heart failure [aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4–7.0, P = .004], chronic lung disease [aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2, P = .018], obesity [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.4, P = .039]) and presenting findings (lymphopenia [aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.5, P = .033], abnormal chest imaging [aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.1–7.5, P = .027]) were independently associated with mortality. Multiple measures of immunosuppression intensity were not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Mortality among SOT recipients hospitalized for COVID-19 was 20.5%. Age and underlying comorbidities rather than immunosuppression intensity-related measures were major drivers of mortality.
    • Disengaged and Nearing Departure: Students at Risk for Dropping Out in the Age of COVID-19

      Antoni, Jennifer; 0000-0001-8238-560X (2020-09-18)
      In this article, the author examines the turbulence of the current educational context in light of COVID-19 and the associated school closures, for disengaged, older students nearing the end of their high school journeys. She provides concise overviews of the way high school dropout problem has been conceptualized, the theoretical framework of turbulence theory, and the relevant challenges and barriers that disengaged, older students at risk for dropout/pushout are currently experiencing. She asserts that even with established supports in place, more attention is needed to developing approaches that consider the turbulence that older students experience nearing high school departure during this period of school closure and remote instruction. The author offers vignettes, both from her own experience as a school counselor and one from another educators about what this turbulence looks like for vulnerable students and families. She concludes by offering recommendations for further supporting older, disengaged students at-risk for pushout or dropout.
    • Etoposide as Salvage Therapy for Cytokine Storm due to COVID-19

      COVID-19 Research Group (Temple University) (2020-09-12)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality because of a lack of effective therapies. Therapeutic strategies under investigation target the overactive cytokine response with anti-cytokine or immunomodulators therapies. We present a unique case of severe cytokine storm resistant to multiple anti-cytokine therapies, but eventually responsive to etoposide. Thus, etoposide may have a role as salvage therapy in treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of use of etoposide in COVID-19.
    • Evidence of significant natural selection in the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in bats, not humans

      Institute for Genomics and Evolutionary Medicine (Temple University) (2020-05-29)
      RNA viruses are proficient at switching to novel host species due to their fast mutation rates. Implicit in this assumption is the need to evolve adaptations in the new host species to exploit their cells efficiently. However, SARS-CoV-2 has required no significant adaptation to humans since the pandemic began, with no observed selective sweeps to date. Here we contrast the role of positive selection and recombination in the Sarbecoviruses in horseshoe bats to SARS-CoV-2 evolution in humans. While methods can detect some evidence for positive selection in SARS-CoV-2, we demonstrate these are mostly due to recombination and sequencing artefacts. Purifying selection is also substantially weaker in SARS-CoV-2 than in the related bat Sarbecoviruses. In comparison, our results show evidence for positive, specifically episodic selection, acting on the bat virus lineage SARS-CoV-2 emerged from. This signature of selection can also be observed among synonymous substitutions, for example, linked to ancestral CpG depletion on this bat lineage. We show the bat virus RmYN02 has recombinant CpG content in Spike pointing to coinfection and evolution in bats without involvement of other species. Our results suggest the non-human progenitor of SARS-CoV-2 was capable of human-human transmission as a consequence of its natural evolution in bats.
    • From examining the relationship between (corona)viral adhesins and galectins to glyco-perspectives

      Institute of Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2021-03-16)
      Glycan-lectin recognition is vital to processes that impact human health, including viral infections. Proceeding from crystallographical evidence of case studies on adeno-, corona-, and rotaviral spike proteins, the relationship of these adhesins to mammalian galectins was examined by computational similarity assessments. Intrafamily diversity among human galectins was in the range of that to these viral surface proteins. Our findings are offered to inspire the consideration of lectin-based approaches to thwart infection by present and future viral threats, also mentioning possible implications for vaccine development.
    • Healthcare resource use among solid organ transplant recipients hospitalized with COVID‐19

      Heldman, Madeleine R.; Kates, Olivia S.; Haydel, Brandy M.; Florman, Sander S.; Rana, Meenakshi M.; Chaudhry, Zohra S.; Ramesh, Mayur S.; Safa, Kassem; Kotton, Camille N.; Blumberg, Emily A.; Besharatian, Behdad D.; Tanna, Sajal D.; Ison, Michael G.; Malinis, Maricar; Azar, Marwan M.; Rakita, Robert M.; Morillas, Jose A.; Majeed, Aneela; Sait, Afrah S.; Spaggiari, Mario; Hemmige, Vagish; Mehta, Sapna A.; Neumann, Henry; Badami, Abbasali; Jeng, Amy; Goldman, Jason D.; Lala, Anuradha; Hemmersbach‐Miller, Marion; McCort, Margaret E.; Bajrovic, Valida; Ortiz‐Bautista, Carlos; Friedman‐Moraco, Rachel; Sehgal, Sameep; Lease, Erika D.; Limaye, Ajit P.; Fisher, Cynthia E. (2020-12-22)
    • Impact of Tobacco Smoking Status on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: Observational study

      Fernandez Romero, Gustavo; Dominguez-Castillo, Eduardo; Zheng, Matthew; Yousef, Ibraheem; Darnell, Melinda; Ganghemi, Andrew; Dorey-Stein, Zack; Zantah, Massa; Townsend, Ryan; Myers, Catherine; Ku, Tse-Shuen; Patel, Maulin; Patlakh, Nicole; Jacobs, Michael; Zhao, Huaqing; Gupta, Rohit; Rali, Parth; Criner, Gerard J. (2020-11-14)
      Background: Determine the impact of tobacco smoking status on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in the need for ICU care, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study, that involved chart review. All adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized from March 15th, 2020 to May 06th, 2020 with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. We used chi-squared test for categorical variables and student t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. We further used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression to assess risk factors for mortality and intubation. Results: Among 577 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 268 (46.4%) had a history of smoking including 187 former and 81 active smokers. The former smokers when compared with non-smokers were predominantly older with more comorbidities. Also, when compared with never smokers D Dimer levels were elevated in active (p=0.05) and former smokers (p<0.01). The former smokers versus non-smokers required increased need for advanced non-invasive respiratory support on admission (p<0.05), ICU care (p<0.05) and had higher mortality [1.99 (CI 95% 1.03-3.85, p<0.05)]. Active smokers versus non-smokers received more mechanical ventilation [OR 2.11 (CI 95% 1.06-4.19, p<0.05)]. Conclusions: In our cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, former smokers had higher need for non-invasive respiratory support on admission, ICU care, and mortality compared to non-smokers. Also, active smokers versus non-smokers needed more mechanical ventilation.
    • Individual Hurricane Preparedness During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights for Risk Communication and Emergency Management Policies

      Botzen, W.J.W.; Mol, Jantsje M.; Robinson, Peter John; Zhang, Juan; Czajkowski, Jeffrey (2020-01-01)
      Climate change adaptation strategies should anticipate that the 2020 situation which resembles an above average hurricane season coinciding with a pandemic may occur more frequently in the future. This study draws lessons on how individual hurricane preparedness is influenced by a pandemic, which turns out to be a combination of perceptions of flood and pandemic risks that have opposite effects on preparedness behavior. We conducted three waves of surveys during 2019-2020 to monitor hurricane preparedness activities in flood-prone coastal areas in Florida, including a survey of 600 respondents in early June 2020 to obtain insights into households’ risk perceptions and preparedness for this hurricane season under COVID-19. The results show that this hurricane season is dominated by concerns over COVID-19 which influences people’s evacuation intentions. Whereas hotel costs were the main obstacle to evacuating during Hurricane Dorian in 2019, the main evacuation obstacle identified in the 2020 hurricane season is COVID-19. Our statistical analyses that investigates the factors influencing evacuation intentions consistently show that older individuals are less likely to evacuate voluntarily, because they are concerned about becoming infected by COVID-19. We discuss the implications of our findings for adaptation policies that aim to improve hurricane preparedness in situations of a pandemic, such as risk communication and emergency management policies.
    • Managing through a crisis: Managerial implications for business-to-business firms

      Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Ritter, Thomas; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony (2020-06-05)
    • Mathematical model and simulations of COVID-19 2020 outbreak in New York: Predictions and implications for control measures

      Sinha, Durgesh; Tan, Peiwen; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-05-01)
      The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in the affected 210 countries with 2.4 million people infected and over 163 thousand deaths. The COVID-19 spike protein is effective at binding to human cells, but this COVID-19 backbone differed substantially from other, already known coronaviruses and mostly resembled viruses found in bats and pangolins. To help predict possible dynamics of COVID-19 as well as ways to contain it, this paper develops a mathematical model for the disease, which includes two different infectious routes. The model’s predictions are fitted to data from the outbreak in New York State from the first reported case from March 01, 2020 to April 19, 2020. The containment time and the severity of the outbreaks depend crucially on the contact coefficients and the isolation rate constant. When randomness is added to the model coefficients, the simulations show that the model is sensitive to the scaled contact rate among people and to the isolation rate. The model is analyzed using stability theory for ordinary differential equations and indicates that when using only isolation for control and advising self-recovery, the endemic steady state is locally stable and attractive. After reaching the peak of COVID-19 on April 14, 2020, new infections by the virus would slow down, particularly from the beginning of May at New York State if people keep the isolation. Numerical simulations with parameters estimated from New York State illustrate the analytical results and the model behavior, which may have important implications for the disease containment in other cities. Indeed, the model highlights the importance of isolation of infected individuals and advising self-recovery may be used to assess other control measures. The model is general and may be used to analyze outbreaks in other states of the United States and other countries.
    • Mathematical Modeling Study of the 2020 CoVID-19 Outbreak in the United States

      Sinha, Durgesh; Klahn, Nicholas; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-04-12)
      A mathematical model was developed for the currently evolving COVID-19 outbreak. Data analysis and model fitting using Latin Hypercube Sampling partial Correlation Coefficient Method was used to determine the model’s parameters and basic reproduction numbers. The infectivity values from symptomatic infectious people was 0.118461389 (95% CI [0.1136278, 0.12329497]), asymptomatic transmission was 0.100111427 (95% CI [0.1000297, 0.10019314]), and quarantined transmission was 0.057337278 (95% CI [0.0504738, 0.0642008]). The United states reached its peak basic reproduction number on March 10th where R0=58, but it has since lowered to 1.47 as of April 5th. Also, those in quarantine had contributed the most to the basic reproduction number, with asymptomatic people being second, and regular symptomatic people contributing the least. Our simulations showed that the United States has reached its peak occurred on April 11, 2020 with a total 461,700 number of cases and it will reach on June 12, 2020 where the confirmed case count would reach 1.439 million. As for the longevity of the virus, our prediction shows that it could be under preventive measure within two years by February 10, 2022, would be 14,130.
    • Mathematical Modeling to Estimate the Reproductive Number and the Outbreak Size of COVID-19: The case of India and the World

      Sinha, Durgesh; 0000-0001-7749-3710 (2020-05-04)
      Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with more than 218,000 deaths in 211 different countries around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for this deadliest disease. This paper describes a mathematical model for India, a country with the second highest population in the world with an extremely high population density of about 464 people per km2. This disease has multiphasic actions and reaction mode and our model SEIAQIm is based on six compartmental groups in the form of susceptible, exposed, infectious, asymptomatic, quarantine, and recovered immune factions. Latin Hypercube Sampling Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient method was used for the data analysis and model fitting. According to our model, India would reach its basic reproduction number R0=0.97 on May 14, 2020 with a total number of 73,800 estimated cases. Further, this study also equates the world's situation using the same model system and predicts by May 7, 2020 with a total number of 3,772,000 estimated confirmed cases. Moreover, the current mathematical model highlights the importance of social distancing as an effective method of containing spread of COVID-19.
    • More than just smell - COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis

      Parma, Valentina; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Nim, Masha Y.; Kelly, Christine E.; Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research; Reed, Danielle R.; Hummel, Thomas; Munger, Steven; Hayes, John E.; 0000-0003-0276-7072 (2020-05-24)
      Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, generally lacked quantitative measurements, were mostly restricted to data from single countries. Here, we report the development, implementation and initial results of a multi-lingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in three distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, 8 other, ages 19-79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change+/-100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (-79.7+/- 28.7, mean+/- SD), taste (-69.0+/- 32.6), and chemesthetic (-37.3+/- 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell, but also affects taste and chemesthesis. The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.
    • Novel approach for low‐dose pulmonary delivery of hydroxychloroquine in COVID‐19

      Fassihi, Safa C.; Nabar, Neel R.; Fassihi, Reza; 0000-0002-6952-7017 (2020-06-19)