A collection of articles related to coronaviruses that have been authored by researchers at Temple University.

Recent Submissions

  • Addressing the Housing Crisis: Challenges and Innovations

    Levine, Judith A.; Hammar, Colin J.; Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2021)
  • Males Receive Low-Tidal Volume Component of Lung Protective Ventilation More Frequently than Females in the Emergency Department

    Isenberg, Derek L.; Bloom, Benjamin; Gentile, Nina; Reimer, Hannah; Glaze, Owen D.; Palumbo, Paige; Fenstermacher, Rachel (2020)
    Introduction: Mechanical ventilation is a commonly performed procedure in the emergency department (ED). Approximately 240,000 patients per year receive mechanical ventilation in the ED representing 0.23% of ED visits. An ED-based trial published in 2017 showed that a bundle of interventions in mechanically ventilated patients, including low tidal volume ventilation, reduced the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome by nearly 50%. Prior literature has shown that as many as 40% of ED patients do not receive lung protective ventilation. Our goal was to determine whether differences exist between the percent of males vs females who are ventilated at ≥ 8 milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) of predicted body weight. Methods: We conducted this study at Temple University Hospital, a tertiary care center located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This was a planned subgroup analysis of study looking at interventions to improve adherence to recommended tidal volume settings. We used a convenience sample of mechanically ventilated patients in our ED between September 1, 2017, and September 30, 2018. All adult patient > 18 years old were eligible for inclusion in the study. Our primary outcome measure was the number of patients who had initial tidal volumes set at > 8 mL/kg of predicted body weight. Our secondary outcome was the number of patients who had tidal volumes set at ≥ 8 mL/kg at 60 minutes after initiation of mechanical ventilation. Results: A total of 130 patients were included in the final analysis. We found that significantly more females were initially ventilated with tidal volumes ≥ 8 mL/kg compared to men: 56% of females vs 9% of males (p=<0.001). Data was available for 107 patients (82%) who were in the ED at 60 minutes after initiation of mechanical ventilation. Again, a significantly larger percentage of females were ventilated with tidal volumes ≥ 8 mL/kg at 60 minutes: 56% of females vs 10% of males (p<0.001). Conclusion: The vast majority of tidal volumes ≥ 8 mL/kg during mechanical ventilation occurs in females. We suggest that objective measurements, such as a tape measure and tidal volume card, be used when setting tidal volumes for all patients, especially females.
  • To be or not to be: negotiating leisure constraints with technology and data analytics amid the COVID-19 pandemic

    Du, James; Floyd, Carter; Kim, Amy C. H.; Baker, Bradley J.; Sato, Mikihiro; James, Jeffrey D.; Funk, Daniel C. (2020-12-24)
    The COVID-19 pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on the leisure industry. Mandatory directives such as social distancing and stay-at-home/shelter-in-place orders reduce disease transmission and protect the health and well-being of the public. However, such strategies might impair active leisure participation. We identify challenges and constraints of engaging in active leisure activities during the pandemic and explore how the general public can use technology and big data analytics to negotiate constraints during this uncertain time. Creative applications of big data analytics demonstrate that negotiating active leisure constraints and battling the pandemic are not contradictory goals. We recommend society to harness the power of these data-driven tools to effectively navigate interpersonal, structural, and intrapersonal constraints to active leisure while improving the efficiency with which we combat the spread of COVID-19.
  • A deficit of more than 250,000 public health workers is no way to fight Covid-19

    Taylor Wilson, Robin; Troisi, Catherine L.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L. (2020-04-05)
  • Healthcare resource use among solid organ transplant recipients hospitalized with COVID‐19

    Heldman, Madeleine R.; Kates, Olivia S.; Haydel, Brandy M.; Florman, Sander S.; Rana, Meenakshi M.; Chaudhry, Zohra S.; Ramesh, Mayur S.; Safa, Kassem; Kotton, Camille N.; Blumberg, Emily A.; Besharatian, Behdad D.; Tanna, Sajal D.; Ison, Michael G.; Malinis, Maricar; Azar, Marwan M.; Rakita, Robert M.; Morillas, Jose A.; Majeed, Aneela; Sait, Afrah S.; Spaggiari, Mario; Hemmige, Vagish; Mehta, Sapna A.; Neumann, Henry; Badami, Abbasali; Jeng, Amy; Goldman, Jason D.; Lala, Anuradha; Hemmersbach‐Miller, Marion; McCort, Margaret E.; Bajrovic, Valida; Ortiz‐Bautista, Carlos; Friedman‐Moraco, Rachel; Sehgal, Sameep; Lease, Erika D.; Limaye, Ajit P.; Fisher, Cynthia E. (2020-12-22)
  • The role of epidemiologists in SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research

    International Network for Epidemiology in Policy COVID-19 Group (2020-10-17)
  • User reactions to COVID-19 screening chatbots from reputable providers

    Dennis, Alan R.; Kim, Antino; Rahimi, Mohammad; Ayabakan, Sezgin (2020-06-06)
    Objectives: The objective was to understand how people respond to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening chatbots. Materials and Methods: We conducted an online experiment with 371 participants who viewed a COVID-19 screening session between a hotline agent (chatbot or human) and a user with mild or severe symptoms. Results: The primary factor driving user response to screening hotlines (human or chatbot) is perceptions of the agent’s ability. When ability is the same, users view chatbots no differently or more positively than human agents. The primary factor driving perceptions of ability is the user’s trust in the hotline provider, with a slight negative bias against chatbots’ ability. Asian individuals perceived higher ability and benevolence than did White individuals. Conclusions: Ensuring that COVID-19 screening chatbots provide high-quality service is critical but not sufficient for widespread adoption. The key is to emphasize the chatbot’s ability and assure users that it delivers the same quality as human agents.
  • Recent Smell Loss Is the Best Predictor of COVID-19 Among Individuals With Recent Respiratory Symptoms

    Gerkin, Richard C.; Ohla, Kathrin; Veldhuizen, Maria G.; Joseph, Paule V.; Kelly, Christine E.; Bakke, Alyssa J.; Steele, Kimberley E.; Farruggia, Michael C.; Pellegrino, Robert; Pepino, Marta Y.; Bouysset, Cédric; Soler, Graciela M.; Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Dibattista, Michele; Cooper, Keiland W.; Croijmans, Ilja; Di Pizio, Antonella; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Fjaeldstad, Alexander W.; Lin, Cailu; Sandell, Mari A.; Singh, Preet B.; Brindha, V. Evelyn; Olsson, Shannon B.; Saraiva, Luis R.; Ahuja, Gaurav; Alwashahi, Mohammed K.; Bhutani, Surabhi; D'Errico, Anna; Fornazieri, Marco A.; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Hwang, Liang Dar; Öztürk, Lina; Roura, Eugeni; Spinelli, Sara; Whitcroft, Katherine L.; Faraji, Farhoud; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S.; Heinbockel, Thomas; Hsieh, Julien W.; Huart, Caroline; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Menini, Anna; Morini, Gabriella; Olofsson, Jonas K.; Philpott, Carl M.; Pierron, Denis; Shields, Vonnie D.C.; Voznessenskaya, Vera V.; Albayay, Javier; Altundag, Aytug; Bensafi, Moustafa; Bock, María Adelaida; Calcinoni, Orietta; Fredborg, William; Laudamiel, Christophe; Lim, Juyun; Lundström, Johan N.; Macchi, Alberto; Meyer, Pablo; Moein, Shima T.; Santamaría, Enrique; Sengupta, Debarka; Dominguez, Paloma Rohlfs; Yanik, Hüseyin; Hummel, Thomas; Hayes, John E.; Reed, Danielle R.; Niv, Masha Y.; Munger, Steven D.; Parma, Valentina (2020-12-25)
    In a preregistered, cross-sectional study, we investigated whether olfactory loss is a reliable predictor of COVID-19 using a crowdsourced questionnaire in 23 languages to assess symptoms in individuals self-reporting recent respiratory illness. We quantified changes in chemosensory abilities during the course of the respiratory illness using 0–100 visual analog scales (VAS) for participants reporting a positive (C19+; n = 4148) or negative (C19−; n = 546) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome. Logistic regression models identified univariate and multivariate predictors of COVID-19 status and post-COVID-19 olfactory recovery. Both C19+ and C19− groups exhibited smell loss, but it was significantly larger in C19+ participants (mean ± SD, C19+: −82.5 ± 27.2 points; C19−: −59.8 ± 37.7). Smell loss during illness was the best predictor of COVID-19 in both univariate and multivariate models (ROC AUC = 0.72). Additional variables provide negligible model improvement. VAS ratings of smell loss were more predictive than binary chemosensory yes/no-questions or other cardinal symptoms (e.g., fever). Olfactory recovery within 40 days of respiratory symptom onset was reported for ~50% of participants and was best predicted by time since respiratory symptom onset. We find that quantified smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19 amongst those with symptoms of respiratory illness. To aid clinicians and contact tracers in identifying individuals with a high likelihood of having COVID-19, we propose a novel 0–10 scale to screen for recent olfactory loss, the ODoR-19. We find that numeric ratings ≤2 indicate high odds of symptomatic COVID-19 (4 < OR < 10). Once independently validated, this tool could be deployed when viral lab tests are impractical or unavailable.
  • Cellular mechanisms underlying neurological/neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID‐19

    Center for Metabolic Disease Research (Temple University) (2020-12-10)
    Patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) infection manifest mainly respiratory symptoms. However, clinical observations frequently identified neurological symptoms and neuropsychiatric disorders related to COVID‐19 (Neuro‐SARS2). Accumulated robust evidence indicates that Neuro‐SARS2 may play an important role in aggravating the disease severity and mortality. Understanding the neuropathogenesis and cellular mechanisms underlying Neuro‐SARS2 is crucial for both basic research and clinical practice to establish effective strategies for early detection/diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this review, we comprehensively examine current evidence of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection in various neural cells including neurons, microglia/macrophages, astrocytes, pericytes/endothelial cells, ependymocytes/choroid epithelial cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. Although significant progress has been made in studying Neuro‐SARS2, much remains to be learned about the neuroinvasive routes (transneuronal and hematogenous) of the virus and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying the development/progression of this disease. Future and ongoing studies require the establishment of more clinically relevant and suitable neural cell models using human induced pluripotent stem cells, brain organoids, and postmortem specimens.
  • Should I leave this industry? The role of stress and negative emotions in response to an industry negative work event

    Yu, Heyao; Lee, Lindsey; Popac, Iuliana; Madera, Juan M. (2021-04)
    The effects of subjective stress and negative emotions on work have been theorized and widely researched, but the literature has mostly focused on organization-specific contexts. The purpose of the current paper was to understand the impact of subjective stress and negative emotions associated with COVID-19 on employee attitudes and behaviors toward the hospitality industry. In Study 1, qualitative interviews showed that the COVID-19 pandemic is (1) perceived as a negative event affecting the industry, rather than only affecting a particular job or company, and (2) distressful, provoking negative emotions. In Study 2, a quantitative study examined subjective stress and negative emotions associated with COVID-19, as well as industry turnover intentions and industry negative word-of-mouth as responses to the stress and negative emotions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The current research underscores the importance of studying work events that impact an industry and attitudes and behaviors toward the industry.
  • Will Investments in Human Resources During the COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis Pay Off After the Crisis?

    Oh, In‐Sue; Han, Joo Hun (2021-02-03)
    Rudolph et al. (2020), in their focal article, discussed two areas of strategic human resources (HR) policies/practices in which the COVID-19 pandemic crisis calls for action and attention from both HR managers and researchers. The first area is downsizing, which is unavoidable in many firms due to the immediate negative impact of the COVID-19 crisis on firm financial performance. The other area is online training, which deserves more attention due to the immediate need for educating employees for skills that are necessary to deal with the COVID-19 crisis. Whereas Rodolph et al. drew on evidence from research when they suggested that “HR managers should strive for a transparent and fair way of communication about downsizing measures” (p. XX), they did not provide evidence-based advice regarding the use of online training. Instead, given the lack of relevant research evidence, Rodolph et al. advanced an interesting research question – “empirical HR research will have to test if [investing in online training during the crisis] indeed pays off in increasing employee skills and productivity in the mid and long run” (p. XX). We believe that recent strategic HR research can provide some useful insights into this question, as discussed below.
  • From examining the relationship between (corona)viral adhesins and galectins to glyco-perspectives

    Institute of Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2021-03-16)
    Glycan-lectin recognition is vital to processes that impact human health, including viral infections. Proceeding from crystallographical evidence of case studies on adeno-, corona-, and rotaviral spike proteins, the relationship of these adhesins to mammalian galectins was examined by computational similarity assessments. Intrafamily diversity among human galectins was in the range of that to these viral surface proteins. Our findings are offered to inspire the consideration of lectin-based approaches to thwart infection by present and future viral threats, also mentioning possible implications for vaccine development.
  • COVID Moonshot: Open Science Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Inhibitors by Combining Crowdsourcing, High-Throughput Experiments, Computational Simulations, and Machine Learning

    The COVID Moonshot Consortium (2020-10-30)
    Herein we provide a living summary of the data generated during the COVID Moonshot project focused on the development of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. Our approach uniquely combines crowdsourced medicinal chemistry insights with high throughput crystallography, exascale computational chemistry infrastructure for simulations, and machine learning in triaging designs and predicting synthetic routes. This manuscript describes our methodologies leading to both covalent and non-covalent inhibitors displaying protease IC50 values under 150 nM and viral inhibition under 5 uM in multiple different viral replication assays. Furthermore, we provide over 200 crystal structures of fragment-like and lead-like molecules in complex with the main protease. Over 1000 synthesized and ordered compounds are also reported with the corresponding activity in Mpro enzymatic assays using two different experimental setups. The data referenced in this document will be continually updated to reflect the current experimental progress of the COVID Moonshot project, and serves as a citable reference for ensuing publications. All of the generated data is open to other researchers who may find it of use.
  • Impact of Tobacco Smoking Status on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: Observational study

    Fernandez Romero, Gustavo; Dominguez-Castillo, Eduardo; Zheng, Matthew; Yousef, Ibraheem; Darnell, Melinda; Ganghemi, Andrew; Dorey-Stein, Zack; Zantah, Massa; Townsend, Ryan; Myers, Catherine; Ku, Tse-Shuen; Patel, Maulin; Patlakh, Nicole; Jacobs, Michael; Zhao, Huaqing; Gupta, Rohit; Rali, Parth; Criner, Gerard J. (2020-11-14)
    Background: Determine the impact of tobacco smoking status on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia in the need for ICU care, mechanical ventilation and mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study, that involved chart review. All adults 18 years or older with a diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized from March 15th, 2020 to May 06th, 2020 with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. We used chi-squared test for categorical variables and student t-tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. We further used adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression to assess risk factors for mortality and intubation. Results: Among 577 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, 268 (46.4%) had a history of smoking including 187 former and 81 active smokers. The former smokers when compared with non-smokers were predominantly older with more comorbidities. Also, when compared with never smokers D Dimer levels were elevated in active (p=0.05) and former smokers (p<0.01). The former smokers versus non-smokers required increased need for advanced non-invasive respiratory support on admission (p<0.05), ICU care (p<0.05) and had higher mortality [1.99 (CI 95% 1.03-3.85, p<0.05)]. Active smokers versus non-smokers received more mechanical ventilation [OR 2.11 (CI 95% 1.06-4.19, p<0.05)]. Conclusions: In our cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, former smokers had higher need for non-invasive respiratory support on admission, ICU care, and mortality compared to non-smokers. Also, active smokers versus non-smokers needed more mechanical ventilation.
  • Response to: ‘Correspondence on ‘Preliminary predictive criteria for COVID-19 cytokine storm’’ by Tampe et al

    Caricchio, Roberto; Gallucci, Marcello; Dass, Chandra; Zhang, Xinyan; Gallucci, Stefania; Fleece, David; Bromberg, Michael; Criner, Gerard J.; Caricchio|0000-0002-1379-1118 (2021-01-07)
  • Assessing Legal Responses to COVID-19

    Burris, Scott; de Guia, Sarah; Gable, Lance; Levin, Donna E.; Parmet, Wendy E.; Terry, Nicolas P.; Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University); ChangeLab Solutions; Wayne State University; The Network for Public Health Law; et al. (2020-08)
    In August 2020, as the nation continued to address the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which had resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and a severe economic recession, 50 top national experts offered an assessment of the U.S. policy response to the crisis. The research details the widespread failure of the country’s leadership in planning and executing a cohesive, national response, and how the crisis exposed weaknesses in the nation’s health care and public health systems. In Assessing Legal Responses to COVID-19, the authors also offer recommendations on how federal, state and local leaders can better respond to COVID-19 and future pandemics.
  • Targeting SARS-CoV-2 M3CLpro by HCV NS3/4a Inhibitors: In Silico Modeling and In Vitro Screening

    Institute of Computational Molecular Science (Temple University) (2021-02-04)
    Currently the entire human population is in the midst of a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2). This highly pathogenic virus has to date caused >71 million infections and >1.6 million deaths in >180 countries. Several vaccines and drugs are being studied as possible treatments or prophylactics of this viral infection. M3CLpro (coronavirus main cysteine protease) is a promising drug target as it has a significant role in viral replication. Here we use the X-ray crystal structure of M3CLpro in complex with boceprevir to study the dynamic changes of the protease upon ligand binding. The binding free energy was calculated for water molecules at different locations of the binding site, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for the M3CLpro/boceprevir complex, to thoroughly understand the chemical environment of the binding site. Several HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors were tested in vitro against M3CLpro. Specifically, asunaprevir, narlaprevir, paritaprevir, simeprevir, and telaprevir all showed inhibitory effects on M3CLpro. Molecular docking and MD simulations were then performed to investigate the effects of these ligands on M3CLpro and to provide insights into the chemical environment of the ligand binding site. Our findings and observations are offered to help guide the design of possible potent protease inhibitors and aid in coping with the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • COVID-19: implications for NCDs and the continuity of care in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Owopetu, Oluwatomi; Fasehun, Luther-King; Abakporo, Uzoma (2021-02-12)
    There has been a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), driven by westernization, urbanization and unhealthy lifestyles. The prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors vary considerably in SSA between countries and the various sub-populations. A study documented the prevalence of stroke ranging from 0.07 to 0.3%, diabetes mellitus from 0 to 16%, hypertension from 6 to 48%, obesity from 0.4 to 43%, and current smoking from 0.4 to 71%. The numbers of these NCD cases are predicted to rise over the next decade. However, in the context of a global pandemic such as COVID-19, with the rising cases, lockdowns and deaths recorded worldwide, many people living with NCDs may find accessing care more difficult. The majority of the available resources on the subcontinent have been diverted to focus on the ongoing pandemic. This has caused interruptions in care, complication management, drug pick-up alongside the almost neglected silent NCD epidemic, with major consequences for the health system post the COVID-19 era. We explore the issues surrounding the continuity of care and offer some solutions for Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • COVID-19 Policy Playbook II: Legal Recommendations for a Safer, More Equitable Future

    Burris, Scott; de Guia, Sarah; Gable, Lance; Levin, Donna E.; Parmet, Wendy E.; Terry, Nicolas P.; Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University); ChangeLab Solutions; Wayne State University; The Network for Public Health Law; et al. (2021-03)
    The United States continues to address and recover from the year-old COVID-19 pandemic, which has resulted in more than 500,000 deaths so far and a historic economic recession. Fifty top legal experts convene to offer a new assessment of the U.S. policy response to the crisis, COVID-19 Policy Playbook: Legal Recommendations for a Safer, More Equitable Future, and recommend policy solutions at all levels of government, as the nation works to quell the current crisis and carry out plans to rebuild.
  • The Legal Response to COVID-19: Legal Pathways to a More Effective and Equitable Response

    Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University) (2021-01)

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