Developing a Leisure Meanings Gained & Outcomes Scale (LMGOS) and Exploring Associations of Leisure Meanings to Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) Adherence among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D)
AuthorPorter, Heather R.
Committee memberShank, John (John W.)
Gordon, Thomas F.
DuCette, Joseph P.
SubjectHealth Sciences, Recreation
Health Sciences, Public Health
Health Sciences, General
Leisure Meanings Gained & Outcomes Scale (lmgos)
Type 2 Diabetes
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/2175
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractIt is estimated that 61% of people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) don't engage in any form of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) (Morrato, Hill, Wyatt, Ghushchyan, & Sullivan, 2007). One of the primary interventions to manage T2D is regular engagement in Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) (Sigal, Kenny, Wasserman, Castaneda-Sceppa, & White, 2006). Many studies have tried to increase the frequency of LTPA in this population with little success (e.g., Williams, Bezner, Chesbro, & Leavitt, 2005). A new innovative approach to increasing engagement in LTPA is needed. Feelings of enjoyment have been found to correlate with adherence to LTPA (e.g., Williams, Papandonatos, Napolitano, Lewis, Whiteley, & Marcus, 2006) and theorized to be an outcome of experiencing something that is personally meaningful (Snyder & Lopez, 2002). It has also been found that "participation in leisure...continues when the experiences and/or the activity are meaningful to the individual" (Ragheb, 1996, p. 247). Thus, exploration of personal meanings that are valued and experienced within LTPA may be a key approach to effectively increasing LTPA. A content-analysis of the literature yielded the identification of five leisure meanings and three outcomes that are derived within and/or from leisure activity engagement. A new scale, the Leisure Meanings Gained and Outcomes Scale (LMGOS), was developed to reflect the findings. It was confirmed by an expert panel for face and content validity and then administered to Temple University students (n = 163). Exploratory factor analyses provided evidence for construct validity and reliability and led to further refinement. The refined LMGOS was given to adults with T2D (n = 26). The results showed significant correlations between specific leisure meanings gained and LTPA engagement, as well as between outcomes of meanings gained and LTPA engagement. The implications of the study include demonstrating: (a) the utility of a theoretically and psychometrically sound measure of the meanings gained and its outcomes via leisure (i.e., LMGOS), (b) the need for acknowledging meaning-oriented experiential and emotional properties of LTPA from a more holistic and humanistic perspective, and (c) the importance of meaning-seeking or meaning-making through leisure as a key facilitator to active living and health promotion for people including individuals with T2D.
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