Now showing items 1-20 of 324

    • Future Proofing Civic Data: Exploring the Challenges of Preserving Open Civic Data for the Long Term

      Bauer, Jillian; Carolan, Kistine; Cheetham, Robert; Swanson, Tom; Hand, Joe; MacMillan, Jim; Ogden, Max; Pilhofer, Aron; Wisniewski, Time; Lucia, Joe (2017-09-29)
      Temple University Libraries received a Knight Foundation Grant, “Knight News Challenge on Libraries” to lead an exploratory research project, Future Proofing Civic Data, investigating the challenges of long-term preservation for open civic datasets. The project team interviewed over a dozen stakeholders about their use cases and needs and looked at several open civic data initiatives in Philadelphia, Boston, San Francisco, and the Pittsburgh area, to compare practices and examine real-life examples. We found that there is still much to do in the community to develop systematic best practices in regard to the long-term preservation of datasets. In this white paper we explore 10 important factors that need to be taken into consideration to tackle this challenge successfully. We also look at how libraries could take the lead, or at least participate in the process. First, awareness of existing digital preservation frameworks is key when putting in place a data curation and preservation plan and developing relevant workflows and budget. The library community has developed strong “best practices” in that realm, and models such as OAIS (Open Archival Information System), TRAC (“Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification”), and LOCKSS (“Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) provide robust guidelines that apply to all types of digital materials. We then looked at the selection process for deciding what datasets should be archived. Selection decisions are made based on various criteria, such as the known or expected users of datasets and their needs, what datasets can be archived and made available more easily, and what datasets represent a city or state’s activities more comprehensively. Among other things, single file objects such as CSV or KML files are much easier to archive than more complex formats or API-mediated content. Next we considered concerns related to the description of datasets, examining current metadata practices from a number of open civic data initiatives, and gave suggestions on possible improvements. We then turned our attention to the notion of dataset reliability and authenticity, that is, how do users know that an archived dataset has the same content as the original and can be trusted? We found that datasets require careful stewardship at several levels to remain complete and reliable over time. The loss of reliability or authenticity could be due to a multitude of unintentional causes, or derive from a more intentional temptation to “rewrite history” by one of the parties involved. Versioning is another important factor, as datasets may evolve over time and several versions might be generated for a single dataset, either through regularly scheduled harvests or occasional data restructuring. Versioning may require the development of policies and procedures to ensure that the collection of successive versions is done in an orderly and systematic manner, and that change requests and deletions are handled uniformly. To enable the successful discovery of archived datasets, we need to answer two questions: (1) how will users searching for open civic data know that preserved historical copies of the data exist?, and (2) how can they distinguish between the current active copy of a dataset and the archived versions? The software interface must facilitate a seamless navigation between active copy and archived versions. We looked at intellectual property rights and other legal issues, and the potential need to develop agreements between data creating agencies and archiving agencies in order to clarify the rights to preserve and provide long-term access to a dataset. The organizational model and governance structure chosen for the overall civic data initiative also have consequences for the ability to ensure successful long-term preservation functions. In particular, involving a multiplicity of partners and stakeholders is the best way to ensure that diverse voices are heard and that the project is run with a maximal level of transparency. Furthermore, open communication flows are also essential to ensure that preservation-related policies are applied optimally. This includes communication among the archiving agencies, the civic data creators, and the civic data portal managers. One more important notion when looking at digital preservation endeavors is that technology is only a small part of successful long-term digital preservation, and thinking proactively about organizational commitment and economic sustainability is essential. Finally, we described two prototypes that we developed to explore concrete technical solutions to archive datasets, using OpenDataPhilly as a testbed. Archive-It, or Prototype 1, uses the Internet Archive’s web crawling platform, which takes scheduled virtual captures of websites over time. Dat, or Prototype 2, is a secure and distributed package manager that does versioning of datasets locally, or shares and syncs dataset versions through a peer-to-peer network. Each prototype has pros and cons. We believe that there are clear and advantageous opportunities for libraries, both academic and public, to take a role in supporting the long-term preservation of open civic data, especially given libraries' pre-existing expertise and collection practices. It comports with libraries’ commitments to serve its users, provide research resources, and provide access to information. Furthermore, libraries can also get involved meaningfully in open civic data initiatives in other capacities, such as helping with outreach and community engagement, developing metadata standards and providing search optimization techniques for discovery.
    • Eviction and the Necessary Conditions for Health

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2021-10-09)
      The COVID-19 pandemic both highlighted eviction as a public health crisis and exacerbated the problem. In a new article published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, housing law experts, Katie Moran-McCabe and Scott Burris at the Temple University Center for Public Health Law Research, call for a realignment in how we think about and approach the housing crisis — and eviction in particular — in America. Moran-McCabe and Burris call for a national recognition of housing as a fundamental need, and offer a few practical recommendations on where governments may start: 1. Removing barriers to affordable, integrated development to increase the supply of new affordable housing in neighborhoods of opportunity; 2. Using legal tools to stabilize housing prices and tenancy, such as rent-stabilization laws and just-cause eviction laws; 3. Addressing economic barriers, such as high housing costs and low income for tenants, by raising the minimum wage, changing tax policies, and fully funding the federal housing voucher program. These recommendations are among many others originally presented in the sixth report in a comprehensive series for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in 2020, Health Equity through Housing: A Blueprint for Systematic Legal Action.
    • Exploring the Legal Response to Unpredictable Scheduling Burdens for Women in the Workplace

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2021-10-28)
      Unpredictable scheduling practices subject workers to irregular and inconsistent work hours and provide them with little to no control over their schedules. These practices have been shown to cause negative health outcomes including increased stress, food and housing insecurity, and negative effects on mental and emotional wellbeing. In this project, funded by the TIME’S UP Foundation as part of the inaugural class of researchers of the Time’s Up Measure Up initiative, Center for Public Health Law Research staff explored laws at the federal, state, and local level that regulate workplace scheduling to better understand how laws that seek to address unpredictable scheduling affect women in the workplace prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • Identifying data for the empirical assessment of law (IDEAL): A realist approach to research gaps on the health effects of abortion law

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2021-06-11)
      Reproductive rights have been the focus of United Nations consensus documents, a priority for agencies like the WHO, and the subject of judgments issued by national and international courts. Human rights approaches have galvanised abortion law reform across numerous countries, but human rights analysis is not designed to empirically assess how legal provisions regulating abortion shape the actual delivery of abortion services and outcomes. Reliable empirical measurement of the health and social effects of abortion regulation is vital input for policymakers and public health guidance for abortion policy and practice, but research focused explicitly on assessing the health effects of abortion law and policy is limited at the global level. This paper describes a method for Identifying Data for the Empirical Assessment of Law (IDEAL), to assess potential health effects of abortion regulations. The approach was applied to six critical legal interventions: mandatory waiting periods, third-party authorisation, gestational limits, criminalisation, provider restrictions and conscientious objection. The IDEAL process allowed researchers to link legal interventions and processes that have not been investigated fully in empirical research to processes and outcomes that have been more thoroughly studied. To the extent these links are both transparent and plausible, using IDEAL to make them explicit allows both researchers and policy stakeholders to make better informed assessments and guidance related to abortion law. The IDEAL method also identifies gaps in scientific research. Given the importance of law to public health generally, the utility of IDEAL is not limited to abortion law.
    • The “Legal Epidemiology” of Pandemic Control

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2021-05-27)
    • Individual Liberty, Public Health, and the Battle for the Nation’s Soul

      Center for Public Health Law Research (Temple University Beasley School of Law) (2021-06-07)
    • Toward a More Level Playing Field: A Navigator Program for Philadelphia’s Debt-Collection Court

      The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University); Access to Justice Clinic (Temple University) (2022-05-09)
    • A Tenant’s Guide to Suing Your Landlord: Holding Landlords Accountable for Unsafe Housing Conditions

      Lee, Jennifer L.; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University); Tenant Union Representative Network (Temple University); Social Justice Lawyering Clinic (Temple University) (2021-09-07)
    • Redesign of the FJD Web Site

      Rieser, Len; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University) (2022-04-21)
    • Preventing Unfair Default Judgments in Debt Collection Cases: Proposals for a Compliance Checklist

      Rieser, Len; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University); Access to Justice Clinic (Temple University) (2022-01-03)
    • Strengthening the Office of the Public Defender: Analysis and Recommendations for Montgomery County

      Sibley, Shanda; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University) (2021-05-12)
    • Recommendations to Enhance the First Judicial District Web Site

      Rieser, Len; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University); Access to Justice Clinic (Temple University) (2022-04-21)
    • Dismantling ICE in Pennsylvania: Toolkit of Model Policies

      Lee, Jennifer L.; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University) (2020-02-24)
    • Enhancing Due Process in Consumer Debt Proceedings

      Rieser, Len; The Sheller Center for Social Justice (Temple University) (2020-12-30)
    • Marijuana Legalization and Automatic Criminal Record Expungement

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2022-04-12)
    • Child Poverty in America: Where Do We Go from Here?

      Levine, Judith A.; Hammar, Colin J.; Public Policy Lab (Temple University); United States. Congress. Senate; Duke University. Sanford School of Public Policy; Child Welfare League of America (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2022-04-21)
    • The Hidden Local Costs of Hurricanes

      Public Policy Lab (Temple University); 21st Century Cities Initiative (Johns Hopkins University) (Temple University. Public Policy Lab, 2022-02-08)
    • Moving to Mobile: Space as a Service in the Academic Library

      Bell, Steven; Bell|0000-0003-3916-4013 (2022-04-15)
      In an academic environment that is shifting to hybrid learning modes, librarians must reimagine their space as a service delivered to students. Where do desktop computer labs fit into this vision for libraries that prioritize mobile-first strategies? This article provides a case study of an academic library transitioning to a post-desktop space with recommendations for a successful project.
    • Chapter 11.1 Supplemental Data: Designing Place-based Experiments

      University of Queensland; George Mason University (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    • Chapter 13.3 Supplemental Data: Gunshot Detection System Evaluation

      Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)