• Administration of intravenous antibiotics in patients with open fractures is dependent on emergency room triaging

      Phillips, Cameron (2018-08-14)
      Recent literature has demonstrated that emergent administration of antibiotics is perhaps more critical than even emergent debridement. Most recent studies recommend patients receive antibiotics no later than 1 hour after injury to prevent infection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the time to antibiotic administration after patients with open fractures arrive to a trauma center depending on triaging team.
    • Does interacting with trustworthy people enhance mindfulness? An experience sampling study of mindfulness in everyday situations

      Capraro, Valerio (2019-04-26)
      Mindfulness is known to increase after meditation interventions. But might features of our everyday situations outside of meditation not also influence our mindfulness from moment-to-moment? Drawing from psychological research on interpersonal trust, we suggest that interacting with trustworthy people could influence the expression of mindfulness. And, extending this research on trust, we further suggest that the influence of trustworthy social interactions on mindfulness could proceed through two pathways: a particularized pathway (where specific interactions that are especially high (or low) in trustworthiness have an immediate influence on mindfulness) or a generalized pathway (where the typical level of trustworthiness a person perceives across all their interactions exerts a more stable influence on their mindfulness). To explore these two pathways, study participants (N = 201) repeatedly reported their current levels of mindfulness and their prior interactions with trustworthy leaders and teammates during their everyday situations using an experience sampling protocol ( = 3,605 reports). Results from mixed-effects models provide little support for the particularized pathway: specific interactions with trustworthy leaders and teammates had little immediate association with mindfulness. The generalized pathway, however, was strongly associated with mindfulness—and remained incrementally predictive beyond relevant individual differences and features of situations. In sum, people who typically interact with more trustworthy partners may become more mindful.
    • Examining Adolescence as a Sensitive Period for High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet Exposure: A Systematic Review of the Animal Literature

      Ozanne, Susan (2019-10-25)
      Animal studies suggest that poor nutrition (e.g., high-fat, high-sugar diets) may lead to impairments in cognitive functioning. Accumulating evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of these diets appear more pronounced in animals maintained on this diet early in life, consistent with the notion that the developing brain may be especially vulnerable to environmental insults. The current paper provides the first systematic review of studies comparing the effects of high-fat, high-sugar diet exposure during adolescence and adulthood on memory performance. The majority of studies (7/8) identified here report diet-induced memory problems when diet exposure began in adolescence but not adulthood. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that adolescence is a sensitive period during which palatable diets may contribute to negative neurocognitive effects. The current review explores putative mechanisms involved in diet-induced cognitive dysfunction and highlights promising areas for further research.
    • Interpersonal Influences on Body Representations in the Infant Brain

      Somogyi, Eszter (2018-12-21)
      Within cognitive neuroscience, there is burgeoning interest in how the body is represented in the adult brain. However, there are large gaps in the understanding of neural body representations from a developmental perspective. Of particular interest are the interconnections between somatosensation and vision, specifically infants’ abilities to register correspondences between their own bodies and the bodies of others. Such registration may play an important role in social learning and in engendering feelings of connectedness with others. In the current study, we further explored the interpersonal aspects of neural body representations by examining whether responses to tactile stimulation in 7-month-old infants are influenced by viewing another’s body. During EEG recording, infants (N= 60) observed a live presentation of an experimenter’s hand or foot being touched. During the presentation of touch to the adult’s hand or foot, the infant received a brief tactile touch to their right hand or right foot. This resulted in four conditions: (i) receive hand stimulation/observe hand stimulation, (ii) receive hand stimulation/observe foot stimulation, (iii) receive foot stimulation/observe hand stimulation, and (iv) receive foot stimulation/observe foot stimulation. Analyses compared responses overlying hand and foot regions when the observed limb matched the stimulated limb (congruent) and did not match (incongruent). In line with prior work, tactile stimulation elicited a somatotopic pattern of results in the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and the sensorimotor mu rhythm (6–9 Hz). Cross-modal influences were observed in the beta rhythm (11–13 Hz) response and in the late potential of the SEP response (400–600 ms). Beta desynchronization was greater for congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Additionally, tactile stimulation to the foot elicited larger mean amplitudes for congruent compared to incongruent conditions. The opposite was true for stimulation to the hand. This set of novel findings suggests the importance of considering cross-modal effects in the study of neural body representations in the infant brain. Continued work in this new area of infant neuroscience research can inform how interpersonal aspects of body representations may serve to undergird early social learning.
    • Is Parent–Child Disagreement on Child Anxiety Explained by Differences in Measurement Properties? An Examination of Measurement Invariance Across Informants and Time

      Innamorati, Marco (2018-07-31)
      There are numerous empirical studies demonstrating that agreement between parent-reports of youth and youth self-reports of internalizing behavior problems is modest at best. This has spurred much research on factors that influence the magnitude of associations between informants, including individual difference characteristics of the informants and contexts through which individuals interact with the child. There is also tremendous interest in understanding symptom trajectories longitudinally. However, each of these lines of work are predicated on the assumptions that the psychometric construct that is being assessed from each informant and at each measurement occasion is the same. This study examined measurement invariance between maternal and child reports and longitudinally across ages 9 and 12 on five dimensions of anxiety using the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al., 1999). No cross-informant models for anxiety dimensions achieved acceptable fit and at least partial metric and scalar invariance. Moreover, few longitudinal models demonstrated acceptable fit and at least partial metric and scalar invariance. Thus, using the SCARED as an example, these results show that inter-informant agreement may be compromised by different item functioning, and highlight the need for testing invariance before using measures for longitudinal tracking of symptoms.
    • Magnesium diboride coated bulk niobium: a new approach to higher acceleration gradient

      Tan, Teng; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Xi, X. X.; Tajima, T.; Civale, L. (2016-10-24)
      Bulk niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency cavities are a leading accelerator technology. Their performance is limited by the cavity loss and maximum acceleration gradient, which are negatively affected by vortex penetration into the superconductor when the peak magnetic field at the cavity wall surface exceeds the vortex penetration field (Hvp). It has been proposed that coating the inner wall of an SRF cavity with superconducting thin films increases Hvp. In this work, we utilized Nb ellipsoid to simulate an inverse SRF cavity and investigate the effect of coating it with magnesium diboride layer on the vortex penetration field. A significant enhancement of Hvp was observed. At 2.8K, Hvp increased from 2100Oe for an uncoated Nb ellipsoid to 2700Oe for a Nb ellipsoid coated with ~200nm thick MgB2 thin film. This finding creates a new route towards achieving higher acceleration gradient in SRF cavity accelerator beyond the theoretical limit of bulk Nb.
    • MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

      Acharya, Narendra; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Lang, Andrew C.; Taheri, Mitra; Cunnane, Dan; Karasik, Boris S.; Xi, X. X.; 0000-0003-2297-2321 (2016-08-29)
      In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.
    • Multi-trophic native and non-native prey naïveté shape marine invasion success

      Eklöv, Peter (2019-09-06)
      Invasive predators have caused rapid declines in many native prey species across the globe. Predator invasion success may be attributed to prey naïvete´, or the absence of antipredator behavior between native and non-native species. An understanding of the effects of naïvete´ at different timescales since introduction and across multiple trophic levels is lacking, however, particularly in marine systems. Given the central role of trophic interactions in invasion dynamics, this knowledge gap limits the ability to predict high impact predator invasions. Naïvete´ was examined across three trophic levels of marine invertebrates: a native basal prey (hard clam), two non-native intermediate predators (the recently-introduced Asian shore crab and the long-established European green crab), a native intermediate predator (juvenile blue crabs), and a native top predator (adult blue crab). We hypothesized that naïvete´ would be more pronounced in trophic interactions involving the recently-introduced non-native predator in comparison to the long-established non-native and native intermediate predators. We further hypothesized that the recently-introduced intermediate predator would both benefit from naïvete´ of the native basal prey and be hindered by higher mortality through its own naïvete´ to the native top predator. To test these hypotheses, three laboratory experiments and a field experiment were used. Consistent with our hypotheses, basal prey naïvete´ was most pronounced with the recently-introduced intermediate predator, and this increased the predator’s foraging success. This recently-introduced intermediate predator, however, exhibited an ineffective anti-predator response to the native top predator, and was also preyed upon more in the field than its long-established and native counterparts. Therefore, despite direct benefits from basal prey naïvete´, the recently-introduced intermediate predator’s naïvete´ to its own predators may limit its invasion success. These results highlight the importance of a multi-trophic perspective on predator-prey dynamics to more fully understand the consequences of naïvete´ in invasion biology.
    • Neuroethics of Non-primary Brain Computer Interface: Focus on Potential Military Applications

      Machado, Andre (2018-10-23)
      The field of neuroethics has had to adapt rapidly in the face of accelerating technological advancement; a particularly striking example is the realm of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). A significant source of funding for the development of new BCI technologies has been the United States Department of Defense, and while the predominant focus has been restoration of lost function for those wounded in battle, there is also significant interest in augmentation of function to increase survivability, coordination, and lethality of US combat forces. While restoration of primary motor and sensory function (primary BCI) has been the main focus of research, there has been marked progress in interface with areas of the brain subserving memory and association. Non-Primary BCI has a different subset of potential applications, each of which also carries its own ethical considerations. Given the amount of BCI research funding coming from the Department of Defense, it is particularly important that potential military applications be examined from a neuroethical standpoint.
    • Restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants: Effects on enrollment in the food stamp program by U.S. citizen children in immigrant families

      Cuong Viet, Nguyen (2019-05-01)
      This paper examines whether a chilling effect of restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants creates a barrier to enrollment in the food stamp program (now called the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP) for U.S. citizen children in low-income immigrant families. This analysis looks at 20 states in the continental United States from 2000 to 2008 that were either at or above the U.S. average for percentage of foreign-born population, or states that ranked in the top 10 percent in terms of change in foreign-born population for that time period. To examine this issue, a multivariate, regression-based difference-in-differences (DD) analysis was applied. The “treatment” group is immigrant families with a U.S. citizen child that is 130% of the federal poverty level or below in states with restrictive immigrant related legislation and the “control” group is native families meeting the same federal poverty level guidelines as well as low-income immigrant families in states without the restrictive legislation. The research findings show that there does not appear to be a chilling effect associated with restrictive state laws on participation in the food stamp program. Food insecurity is an immediate need that may override the impediments to enrollment due to immigration status, causing families to apply despite a negative climate toward immigrants. For policy makers and immigrant advocates it is important to know where chilling effects might not occur in order to work with politicians and federal agencies on crafting sound evidence-based policy. Independent of any chilling effect, the model shows that immigrant families are less likely to enroll in food stamp benefits, consistent with other literature. In addition, independent of the effects of restrictive immigration legislation, both non-citizen and naturalized mothers were less likely to be in a family with food stamp benefits compared to similar native-born mothers. This indicates that all states have a gap in food stamp program enrollment that merits further attention and research.
    • Sensorimotor Oscillations During a Reciprocal Touch Paradigm With a Human or Robot Partner

      Tirassa, Maurizio (2018-12-10)
      Robots provide an opportunity to extend research on the cognitive, perceptual, and neural processes involved in social interaction. This study examined how sensorimotor oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) activity can be influenced by the perceived nature of a task partner – human or robot – during a novel “reciprocal touch” paradigm. Twenty adult participants viewed a demonstration of a robot that could “feel” tactile stimulation through a haptic sensor on its hand and “see” changes in light through a photoreceptor at the level of the eyes; the robot responded to touch or changes in light by moving a contralateral digit. During EEG collection, participants engaged in a joint task that involved sending tactile stimulation to a partner (robot or human) and receiving tactile stimulation back. Tactile stimulation sent by the participant was initiated by a button press and was delivered 1500 ms later via an inflatable membrane on the hand of the human or on the haptic sensor of the robot partner. Stimulation to the participant’s finger (from the partner) was sent on a fixed schedule, regardless of partner type. We analyzed activity of the sensorimotor mu rhythm during anticipation of tactile stimulation to the right hand, comparing mu activity at central electrode sites when participants believed that tactile stimulation was initiated by a robot or a human, and to trials in which “nobody” received stimulation. There was a significant difference in contralateral mu rhythm activity between anticipating stimulation from a human partner and the “nobody” condition. This effect was less pronounced for anticipation of stimulation from the robot partner. Analyses also examined beta rhythm responses to the execution of the button press, comparing oscillatory activity when participants sent tactile stimulation to the robot or the human partner. The extent of beta rebound at frontocentral electrode sites following the button press differed between conditions, with a significantly larger increase in beta power when participants sent tactile stimulation to a robot partner compared to the human partner. This increase in beta power may reflect greater predictably in event outcomes. This new paradigm and the novel findings advance the neuroscientific study of human–robot interaction.
    • The Effects of Selective Muscle Weakness on Muscle Coordination in the Human Arm

      Zaffagnini, Stefano (2018-09-19)
      Despite the fundamental importance of muscle coordination in daily life, it is currently unclear how muscle coordination adapts when the musculoskeletal system is perturbed. In this study, we quantified the impact of selective muscle weakness on several metrics of muscle coordination. Seven healthy subjects performed 2D and 3D isometric force target matches, while electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 13 elbow and shoulder muscles. Subsequently, muscle weakness was induced by a motor point block of brachialis muscle. Postblock subjects repeated the force generation tasks. We quantified muscle coordination pre- and postblock using three metrics: tuning curve preferred direction, tuning curve area, and motor modules analysis via nonnegative matrix factorization. For most muscles, the tuning direction for the 2D protocol was not substantially altered postblock, while tuning areas changed more drastically. Typically, five motor modules were identified from the 3D task, and four motor modules were identified in the 2D task; this result held across both pre- and postblock conditions. The composition of one or two motor modules, ones that involved mainly the activation of shoulder muscles, was altered postblock. Our results demonstrate that selective muscle weakness can induce nonintuitive alternations in muscle coordination in the mechanically redundant human arm.
    • Tonic Neuromuscular Processing Affects Postural Adaptation Differently in Aging and Parkinson's Disease

      Fung, Joyce (2019-01-21)
      The combination of phasic and tonic neuromuscular processes are involved in the maintenance of normal upright posture. The latter is of particular importance in some pathologies, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), which is known by one of its cardinal symptoms—tonic dysfunction (i.e., rigidity). Changes in tonic function may also occur during healthy aging. In this investigation, somatosensory input was manipulated by changing the support surface orientation for prolonged periods of quiet stance (QS). The aim was to shed light on how long-term tonic responses called postural lean after-effects are affected by aging and age-related neuropathology. Forty one participants were tested: 19 healthy young (25±5 years), 13 healthy older (63±8 years), and 9 adults with PD (63±5 years). Baseline conditions were eyes-closed QS on a stable surface or standing on an unstable, sway-referenced (SR) surface. Four experimental conditions combined two types of toes-up ramp tilt adaptation (120 s of toes-up static 7° tilt or sinusoidal 7° ± 3° tilt) with two types of post-adaptation (120 s of QS or SR). Results revealed postural after-effects during post-adaptation QS showing significant anterior COP shift for both young and older adults (p < 0.0001), but not PD (p > 0.06, n.s.). Compared to young, postural after-effects in older adults showed longer decay constants and did not return to baseline COP within the 120 s post-adaptation period (p < 0.05). Postural after-effects during SR, which appeared as toes-up surface tilt were highly significant in healthy populations (p = 0.001), but took longer to develop in PD. Younger adults showed significantly larger dorsiflexion (p < 0.01) and faster decay constants than older adults (p < 0.05). In summary, (1) postural after-effects decayed to baseline when post-tilt surface was stable but were retained and even grew larger post-adaptation in the SR surface conditions in all groups, (2) postural after-effects differed between healthy age groups, (3) PD showed less adaptation to surface changes. Differences in size and decay of after-effects between healthy and PD groups suggest tonic neuromuscular processes play a role in how adaptable postural control is to changing surface conditions and this is affected by healthy aging and basal ganglia function.