Recent Submissions

  • Identifying profiles of brain structure and associations with current and future psychopathology in youth

    Mattoni, Matthew; Wilson, Sylia; Olino, Thomas M. (2021-09-14)
    Brain structure is often studied as a marker of youth psychopathology by examining associations between volume or thickness of individual regions and specific diagnoses. However, these univariate approaches do not address whether the effect of a particular region may depend on the structure of other regions. Here, we identified subgroups of individuals with distinct profiles of brain structure and examined how these profiles were associated with concurrent and future youth psychopathology. We used latent profile analysis to identify distinct neuroanatomical profiles of subcortical region volume and orbitofrontal cortical thickness in the ABCD study (N = 9376, mean age = 9.91, SD = 0.62). We identified a five-profile solution consisting of a reduced subcortical volume profile, a reduced orbitofrontal thickness profile, a reduced limbic and elevated striatal volume profile, an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and reduced striatal volume profile, and an elevated orbitofrontal thickness and subcortical volume profile. While controlling for age, sex, and intracranial volume, profiles exhibited differences in concurrent psychopathology measured dimensionally and categorically and in psychopathology at 1-year follow-up measured dimensionally. Results show that profiles of brain structure have incremental validity for associations with youth psychopathology beyond intracranial volume.
  • Improving Interlayer Adhesion of Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA)/Ultra-high-molecular-weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Laminates Prepared by Plasma Treatment and Hot Pressing Technique

    Temple Materials Institute (Temple University) (2021-08-05)
    Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) is a high-performance polymer that has been utilized in a range of applications. Although PPTA fibers are widely used in various composite materials, laminar structures consisting of PPTA and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), are less reported. The difficulty in making such composite structures is in part due to the weakness of the interface formed between these two polymers. In this study, a layered structure was produced from PPTA fabrics and UHMWPE films via hot pressing. To improve the interlayer adhesion, oxygen plasma was used to treat the PPTA and the UHMWPE surfaces prior to lamination. It has been found that while plasma treatment on the UHMWPE surface brought about a moderate increase in interlayer adhesion (up to 14%), significant enhancement was achieved on the samples fabricated with plasma treated PPTA (up to 91%). It has been assumed that both surface roughening and the introduction of functional groups contributed to this improvement.
  • NICE shared decision making guidelines and mental health: challenges for research, practice and implementation

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Chmielowska, Marta; Dixon, Lisa B.; Ramon, Shulamit; Zisman-Ilani|0000-0001-6852-2583 (2021-09-21)
    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) initiated an ambitious effort to develop the first shared decision making guidelines. The purpose of this commentary is to identify three main concerns pertaining to the new published guidelines for shared decision making research, practice, implementation and cultural differences in mental health.
  • The Shared Origins of Embodiment and Development

    Marshall, Peter J.; Houser, Troy M.; Weiss, Staci M. (2021-08-17)
  • Some characteristics of hyperglycaemic crisis differ between patients with and without COVID-19 at a safety-net hospital in a cross-sectional study

    Shah, Arnav; Deak, Andrew; Allen, Shaneisha; Silfani, Elayna; Koppin, Christina; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Sirisena, Imali; Rose, Christina; Rubin, Daniel; Zisman-Ilani|0000-0001-6852-2583 (2021-09-11)
    Objective: To compare patients with DKA, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), or mixed DKA-HHS and COVID-19 [COVID (+)] to COVID-19-negative (−) [COVID (−)] patients with DKA/HHS from a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse catchment area. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients admitted to an urban academic medical center between 1 March and 30 July 2020. Eligible patients met lab criteria for either DKA or HHS. Mixed DKA-HHS was defined as meeting all criteria for either DKA or HHS with at least 1 criterion for the other diagnosis. Results: A total of 82 participants were stratified by COVID-19 status and type of hyperglycaemic crisis [26 COVID (+) and 56 COVID (−)]. A majority were either Black or Hispanic. Compared with COVID (−) patients, COVID (+) patients were older, more Hispanic and more likely to have type 2 diabetes (T2D, 73% vs 48%, p < .01). COVID(+) patients had a higher mean pH (7.25 ± 0.10 vs 7.16 ± 0.16, p < .01) and lower anion gap (18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.7 ± 6.9, p = .01) than COVID (−) patients. COVID (+) patients were given less intravenous fluids in the first 24 h (2.8 ± 1.9 vs 4.2 ± 2.4 L, p = .01) and were more likely to receive glucocorticoids (95% vs. 11%, p < .01). COVID (+) patients may have taken longer to resolve their hyperglycaemic crisis (53.3 ± 64.8 vs 28.8 ± 27.5 h, p = .09) and may have experienced more hypoglycaemia <3.9 mmol/L (35% vs 19%, p = .09). COVID (+) patients had a higher length of hospital stay (LOS, 14.8 ± 14.9 vs 6.5 ± 6.0 days, p = .01) and in-hospital mortality (27% vs 7%, p = .02). Discussion: Compared with COVID (−) patients, COVID (+) patients with DKA/HHS are more likely to have T2D. Despite less severe metabolic acidosis, COVID (+) patients may require more time to resolve the hyperglycaemic crisis and experience more hypoglycaemia while suffering greater LOS and risk of mortality. Larger studies are needed to examine whether differences in management between COVID (+) and (−) patients affect outcomes with DKA/HHS.
  • Novel Scalable and Simplified System to Generate Microglia-Containing Cerebral Organoids From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Center for Metabolic Disease Research (Temple University) (2021-07-05)
    Human cerebral organoid (CO) is a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that recapitulates the developing human brain. While CO has proved an invaluable tool for studying neurological disorders in a more clinically relevant matter, there have still been several shortcomings including CO variability and reproducibility as well as lack of or underrepresentation of certain cell types typically found in the brain. As the technology to generate COs has continued to improve, more efficient and streamlined protocols have addressed some of these issues. Here we present a novel scalable and simplified system to generate microglia-containing CO (MCO). We characterize the cell types and dynamic development of MCOs and validate that these MCOs harbor microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and neural stem/progenitor cells, maturing in a manner that reflects human brain development. We introduce a novel technique for the generation of embryoid bodies (EBs) directly from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that involves simplified steps of transitioning directly from 3D cultures as well as orbital shaking culture in a standard 6-well culture plate. This allows for the generation of MCOs with an easy-to-use system that is affordable and accessible by any general lab.
  • Shared Decision Making in Primary Care Based Depression Treatment: Communication and Decision-Making Preferences Among an Underserved Patient Population

    Matthews, Elizabeth B.; Savoy, Margot; Paranjape, Anuradha; Washington, Diana; Hackney, Treanna; Galis, Danielle; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Zisman-Ilani|0000-0001-6852-2583 (2021-07-12)
    Objectives: Although depression is a significant public health issue, many individuals experiencing depressive symptoms are not effectively linked to treatment by their primary care provider, with underserved populations have disproportionately lower rates of engagement in depression care. Shared decision making (SDM) is an evidence-based health communication framework that can improve collaboration and optimize treatment for patients, but there is much unknown about how to translate SDM into primary care depression treatment among underserved communities. This study seeks to explore patients' experiences of SDM, and articulate communication and decision-making preferences among an underserved patient population receiving depression treatment in an urban, safety net primary care clinic. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with a depressive disorder completed a brief, quantitative survey and an in-depth semi-structured interview. Surveys measured patient demographics and their subjective experience of SDM. Qualitative interview probed for patients' communication preferences, including ideal decision-making processes around depression care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Univariate statistics report quantitative findings. Results: Overall qualitative and quantitative findings indicate high levels of SDM. Stigma related to depression negatively affected patients' initial attitude toward seeking treatment, and underscored the importance of patient-provider rapport. In terms of communication and decision-making preferences, patients preferred collaboration with doctors during the information sharing process, but desired control over the final, decisional outcome. Trust between patients and providers emerged as a critical precondition to effective SDM. Respondents highlighted several provider behaviors that helped facilitated such an optimal environment for SDM to occur. Conclusion: Underserved patients with depression preferred taking an active role in their depression care, but looked for providers as partner in this process. Due to the stigma of depression, effective SDM first requires primary care providers to ensure that they have created a safe and trusting environment where patients are able to discuss their depression openly.
  • An unusual presentation of non-IBD related colorectal primary extranodal diffuse large B cell lymphoma with a colo-colonic fistula

    Temple University. Hospital (2021-09-20)
    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the sigmoid colon and rectum is relatively uncommon and aggressive. Due to its nonspecific symptomatology, patients are often diagnosed late into the disease and present with life-threatening complications, such as hemorrhage, obstruction, or perforation, requiring emergent surgical intervention. Patients with colorectal lymphoma typically have inflammatory bowel disease or immunosuppression. We present a case of a 79-year-old male with no known inflammatory bowel disease or immunosuppression, who had significant weight loss, diarrhea, and abdominal fullness, found by CT to have irregular wall thickening of the recto-sigmoid colon along with a colo-colonic fistula, concerning for bowel perforation. Endoscopic evaluation and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of recto-sigmoid Diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with a PET/CT scan revealing stage IV disease. He had a partial response to six cycles of palliative reduced dose R-CHOP and is currently receiving palliative radiation to the sigmoid colon and rectum. Surgery and/or chemoradiation remain the mainstay therapy for this condition. Clinicians, however, must consider patient's functional, nutritional, and clinical status prior to choosing an optimal therapeutic regimen. This case illustrates a unique clinical presentation of this condition and the associated diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that arise in order to prevent life-threatening complications.
  • New genomic resources and comparative analyses reveal differences in floral gene expression in selfing and outcrossing Collinsia sister species

    Frazee, Lauren J.; Rifkin, Joanna; Maheepala, Dinusha C.; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Wright, Stephen; Kalisz, Susan; Litt, Amy; Spigler, Rachel; Spigler|0000-0002-5997-9781 (2021-08-01)
    The evolutionary transition from outcross- to self-fertilization is one of the most common in angiosperms and is often associated with a parallel shift in floral morphological and developmental traits, such as reduced flower size and pollen to ovule ratios, known as the “selfing syndrome.” How these convergent phenotypes arise, the extent to which they are shaped by selection, and the nature of their underlying genetic basis are unsettled questions in evolutionary biology. The genus Collinsia (Plantaginaceae) includes seven independent transitions from outcrossing or mixed mating to high selfing rates accompanied by selfing syndrome traits. Accordingly, Collinsia represents an ideal system for investigating this parallelism, but requires genomic resource development. We present a high quality de novo genome assembly for the highly selfing species Collinsia rattanii. To begin addressing the basis of selfing syndrome developmental shifts, we evaluate and contrast patterns of gene expression from floral transcriptomes across three stages of bud development for C. rattanii and its outcrossing sister species Collinsia linearis. Relative to C. linearis, total gene expression is less variable among individuals and bud stages in C. rattanii. In addition, there is a common pattern among differentially expressed genes: lower expression levels that are more constant across bud development in C. rattanii relative to C. linearis. Transcriptional regulation of enzymes involved in pollen formation specifically in early bud development may influence floral traits that distinguish selfing and outcrossing Collinsia species through pleiotropic functions. Future work will include additional Collinsia outcrossing-selfing species pairs to identify genomic signatures of parallel evolution.
  • The Role of Local Communities and Well-Being in UNESCO World Heritage Site Conservation: An Analysis of the Operational Guidelines, 1994–2019

    Jang, Hanbyeol; Mennis, Jeremy; Jang|0000-0003-4203-3620; Mennis|0000-0001-6319-8622 (2021-06)
    UNESCO’s world heritage program aims to protect sites of cultural and natural heritage worldwide. Issues of local communities and well-being have been given increasing attention by heritage conservation scholars, but a systemic review of UNESCO guidelines has not been performed. Here, we examine the evolution of the ‘Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention,’ documents representing the heritage conservation policies of UNESCO over the period 1994–2019. Using keyword analysis and document analysis, the findings show evidence of an increasing emphasis on local communities, growing primarily since 2005. However, the theme of well-being only first emerged in the operational guidelines in 2019. Political, economic, and environmental challenges idiosyncratic to specific places often complicate the role of local communities and well-being in heritage conservation priorities. Future research should investigate the potential implementation and implications of these changes for the guidelines at specific UNESCO world heritage sites.
  • Hyperammonemia Post Lung Transplantation: A Review

    Leger, Robert; Silverman, Matthew S.; Hauck, Ellen S.; Guvakova, Ksenia D.; Leger|0000-0002-2013-4685 (2020-10-26)
    Hyperammonemia is the pathological accumulation of ammonia in the blood, which can occur in many different clinical settings. Most commonly in adults, hyperammonemia occurs secondary to hepatic dysfunction; however, it is also known to be associated with other pathologies, surgeries, and medications. Although less common, hyperammonemia has been described as a rare, but consistent complication of solid organ transplantation. Lung transplantation is increasingly recognized as a unique risk factor for the development of this condition, which can pose grave health risks—including long-term neurological sequelae and even death. Recent clinical findings have suggested that patients receiving lung transplantations may experience postoperative hyperammonemia at rates as high as 4.1%. A wide array of etiologies has been attributed to this condition. A growing number of case studies and investigations suggest disseminated opportunistic infection with Ureaplasma or Mycoplasma species may drive this metabolic disturbance in lung transplant recipients. Regardless of the etiology, hyperammonemia presents a severe clinical problem with reported mortality rates as high as 75%. Typical treatment regimens are multimodal and focus on 3 main avenues of management: (1) the reduction of impact on the brain through the use of neuroprotective medications and decreasing cerebral edema, (2) augmentation of mechanisms for the elimination of ammonia from the blood via hemodialysis, and (3) the diminishment of processes producing predominantly using antibiotics. The aim of this review is to detail the pathophysiology of hyperammonemia in the setting of orthotopic lung transplantation and discuss methods of identifying and managing patients with this condition.
  • Exercise capacity is associated with hospital readmission among patients with diabetes

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Fasing, Kevin; Weiner, Mark; Rubin, Daniel; Zisman-Ilani|0000-0001-6852-2583; Rubin|0000-0002-6871-6246 (2020-10-05)
    Introduction: Patients with diabetes are at greater risk of hospital readmission than patients without diabetes. There is a need to identify more modifiable risk factors for readmission as potential targets for intervention. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is an association between exercise capacity based on the maximal workload achieved during treadmill stress testing and readmission among patients with diabetes. Research design and methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with diabetes discharged from an academic medical center between July 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018 who had a stress test documented before the index discharge. Univariate analysis and multinomial multivariable logistic regressions were used to evaluate associations with readmission within 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of discharge. Exercise capacity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Results: A total of 580 patients with 1598 hospitalizations were analyzed. Mean METs of readmitted patients were significantly lower than for non-readmitted patients (5.7 (2.6) vs 6.7 (2.6), p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a low METs level (<5) was associated with higher odds of readmission within 30 days (OR 5.46 (2.22–13.45), p<0.001), 6 months (OR 2.78 (1.36–5.65), p=0.005), and 1 year (OR 2.16 (1.12–4.16), p=0.022) compared with medium (5–7) and high (>7) METs level. During the 6.5-year study period, patients with low METs had a mean of 3.2±3.6 hospitalizations, while those with high METs had 2.5±2.4 hospitalizations (p=0.007). Conclusions: Lower exercise capacity is associated with a higher risk of readmission within 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year, as well as a greater incidence of hospitalization, in patients with diabetes. Future studies are needed to explore whether exercise reduces readmission risk in this population.
  • The IGF-II–Insulin Receptor Isoform-A Autocrine Signal in Cancer: Actionable Perspectives

    Center for Biotechnology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine (Temple University) (2020-02-05)
    Insulin receptor overexpression is a common event in human cancer. Its overexpression is associated with a relative increase in the expression of its isoform A (IRA), a shorter variant lacking 11 aa in the extracellular domain, conferring high affinity for the binding of IGF-II along with added intracellular signaling specificity for this ligand. Since IGF-II is secreted by the vast majority of malignant solid cancers, where it establishes autocrine stimuli, the co-expression of IGF-II and IRA in cancer provides specific advantages such as apoptosis escape, growth, and proliferation to those cancers bearing such a co-expression pattern. However, little is known about the exact role of this autocrine ligand–receptor system in sustaining cancer malignant features such as angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. The recent finding that the overexpression of angiogenic receptor kinase EphB4 along with VEGF-A is tightly dependent on the IGF-II/IRA autocrine system independently of IGFIR provided new perspectives for all malignant IGF2omas (those aggressive solid cancers secreting IGF-II). The present review provides an updated view of the IGF system in cancer, focusing on the biology of the autocrine IGF-II/IRA ligand–receptor axis and supporting its underscored role as a malignant-switch checkpoint target.
  • Pulmonary Artery Intimal Sarcoma: A Diagnostic Challenge Using a Multimodal Approach

    Nakrani, Rima; Yeung, Ho-Man; Kim, Jin Sun; Kamat, Bhishak; Kumaran, Maruti; 0000-0002-7188-9738 (2020-10-05)
    Pulmonary artery intimal sarcoma (PAIS) is a rare tumor without clear syndromic presentation other than nonspecific symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and weight loss. This diagnosis is difficult due to challenging radiographic interpretations of multiple imaging modalities. We present a case of a 60-year-old male, who presented to his pulmonologist and underwent a CT chest with IV contrast that initially suggested primary lung carcinoma. CT angiogram showed significant vascular filling defects suspicious of an intravascular mass, rather than vascular invasion by lung lesions. The PET/CT scans further suggested a malignant process, but indistinguishable between an extravascular or intravascular etiology. Taking these results together, they suggested an intravascular malignancy, prompting a tissue biopsy, which ultimately led to a diagnosis of PAIS with metastases. Establishing a definitive diagnosis is essential as treatment and prognosis are different for sarcoma compared to carcinoma. There is no standard treatment to date, and management often includes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. PAIS is a rare entity that cannot be diagnosed clinically and needs a multimodality approach for its diagnosis.
  • Case series: Failure of imaging & biochemical markers to capture disease progression in COVID-19

    Dorey-Stein, Zachariah L.; Myers, Catherine; Kumaran, Maruti; Mamary, Albert; Criner, Gerard J.; 0000-0002-3761-153X; 0000-0002-0909-5048 (2020-09-19)
    We report four individuals admitted for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who demonstrated significant clinical improvement prior to discharge and subsequently were readmitted with worsening respiratory failure, elevated inflammatory markers and worsening chest imaging. We propose a multi-disciplinary discharge criterion to establish a safer discharge process including trending inflammatory markers, daily imaging and pursuing follow up CT chest, particularly in individuals with significant morbidities and health disparities.
  • Obesity is associated with reduced orbitofrontal cortex volume: A coordinate-based meta-analysis

    Chen, Eunice; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Giovannetti, Tania; Smith, David; 0000-0002-9288-7133; 0000-0001-5661-152X; 0000-0001-5754-9633 (2020-09-09)
    Neural models of obesity vary in their focus upon prefrontal and striatal differences. Animal and human studies suggest that differential functioning of the orbitofrontal cortex is associated with obesity. However, meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging studies have not found a clear relationship between the orbitofrontal cortex and obesity. Meta-analyses of structural imaging studies of obesity have shown mixed findings with regards to an association with reduced orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume. To clarify these findings, we conducted a meta-analysis of 25 voxel-based morphometry studies, and found that greater body mass index is associated with decreased gray matter volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmanns’ areas 10 and 11), where family-wise corrected p < .05, N = 7,612. Use of the right orbitofrontal cortex as a seed in a Neurosynth Network Coactivation analysis showed that this region is associated with activity in the left frontal medial cortex, left temporal lobe, right precuneus cortex, posterior division of the left middle temporal gyrus, and right frontal pole. When Neurosynth Network Coactivation results were submitted as regions of interest in the Human Connectome Project data, we found that greater body mass index was associated with greater activity in left frontal medial cortex response to the Gambling Task, where p < .05, although this did not survive Bonferroni-correction. Our findings highlight the importance of the orbitofrontal cortex structure and functioning in neural models of obesity. Exploratory analyses suggest more studies are needed that examine the functional significance of reduced orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume in obesity, and the effect of age and weight changes on this relationship using longitudinal designs.
  • Retrospective analysis of high flow nasal therapy in COVID-19-related moderate-to-severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure

    Patel, Maulin; Gangemi, Andrew; Marron, Robert; Chowdhury, Junad; Yousef, Ibraheem; Zheng, Matthew; Mills, Nicole; Tragesser, Lauren; Giurintano, Julie; Gupta, Rohit; Gordon, Matthew; Rali, Parth; D'Alonso, Gilbert; Fleece, David; Zhao, Huaqing; Patlakh, Nicole; Criner, Gerard; 0000-0001-6558-1924; 0000-0002-8764-6538; 0000-0003-2775-2918; 0000-0002-0953-4768| (2020-08-26)
    Invasive mechanical has been associated with high mortality in COVID-19. Alternative therapy of high flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has been greatly debated around the world for use in COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for increased healthcare worker transmission.This was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted to Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 10 March 2020 to 24 April 2020 with moderate-to-severe respiratory failure treated with HFNT. Primary outcome was prevention of intubation. Of the 445 patients with COVID-19, 104 met our inclusion criteria. The average age was 60.66 (+13.50) years, 49 (47.12 %) were female, 53 (50.96%) were African-American, 23 (22.12%) Hispanic. Forty-three patients (43.43%) were smokers. Saturation to fraction ratio and chest X-ray scores had a statistically significant improvement from day 1 to day 7. 67 of 104 (64.42%) were able to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation in our cohort. Incidence of hospital-associated/ventilator-associated pneumonia was 2.9%. Overall, mortality was 14.44% (n=15) in our cohort with 13 (34.4%) in the progressed to intubation group and 2 (2.9%) in the non-intubation group. Mortality and incidence of pneumonia was statistically higher in the progressed to intubation group.
  • Case Report: Watching and Waiting? A Case of Incomplete Glenosphere Seating With Spontaneous Reversal in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    MacAskill, Micah L.; Thomas, Rachel; Barnes, Leslie A.; 0000-0001-9274-1751 (2020-08-27)
    Introduction: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty is a useful procedure with broadening applications, but it has the best outcomes when used for rotator cuff tear arthropathy. However, this procedure is not without complications. While scapular notching and aseptic loosening are more common complications that have been extensively studied in the literature, dissociation of the glenoid component and incomplete glenosphere seating has not received much attention. Specifically, little research has explored appropriate management of incomplete seating of the glenosphere component, and no gold standard for treatment of this complication has emerged. Methods: In the case described here, an elderly patient with an incompletely seated glenosphere component post-operatively opted to pursue conservative management in order to avoid revision surgery if possible. Results: The partially engaged, superiorly directed components in this case exhibited spontaneous complete and symmetric seating of the glenosphere between six and twelve months post-operatively, indicating that conservative management of this complication in low-demand patients may be a viable option to avoid the risks associated with revision surgery. Conclusion: Further research should be pursued to explore what patient and prosthesis design factors may be suited to observation with serial radiographs when incomplete seating of the glenosphere component occurs.
  • Meta-analysis of reward processing in major depressive disorder reveals distinct abnormalities within the reward circuit

    Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Alloy, Lauren B.; Smith, David; 0000-0003-4402-0081; 0000-0001-5754-9633 (2019-11-11)
    Many neuroimaging studies have investigated reward processing dysfunction in major depressive disorder. These studies have led to the common idea that major depressive disorder is associated with blunted responses within the reward circuit, particularly in the ventral striatum. Yet, the link between major depressive disorder and reward-related responses in other regions remains inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. To address this issue, we performed a coordinate-based meta-analysis of 41 whole-brain neuroimaging studies encompassing reward-related responses from a total of 794 patients with major depressive disorder and 803 healthy controls. Our findings argue against the common idea that major depressive disorder is primarily linked to deficits within the reward system. Instead, our results demonstrate that major depressive disorder is associated with opposing abnormalities in the reward circuit: hypo-responses in the ventral striatum and hyper-responses in the orbitofrontal cortex. The current findings suggest that dysregulated corticostriatal connectivity may underlie reward-processing abnormalities in major depressive disorder, providing an empirical foundation for a more refined understanding of abnormalities in the reward circuitry in major depressive disorder.
  • From leads to leadless: A convoluted journey

    Dulam, Vipin; Cooper, Joshua M.; Gangireddy, Chethan; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Keshavamurthy, Suresh; 0000-0002-5578-1911 (2020-07-21)

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