THE PROMOTION OF THE AFRICAN HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS SYSTEM IN THE GAMBIA, A CROSS CULTURAL & AFRICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
AuthorLedbetter Jr, Clyde Ledbetter,
AdvisorAsante, Molefi Kete
Committee memberMazama, Ama
DepartmentAfrican American Studies
SubjectAfrican American Studies
African Human Rights
Human Rights Law
Human Rights Organizations
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1701
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractPrimarily, this study seeks to examine the means and effectiveness of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, African human and Peoples' rights organizations, and the government of the Gambia in their efforts to propagate the institutions and legal instruments of the African Human and Peoples' Rights System (AHPRS) in general and the rights and duties of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights in the country of The Gambia in particular since the Charter came into force in 1986. The work explores the history of the AHPRS from ancient conceptions of rights and duties within Classical Africa to its formal establishment in the 1980s and 1990s with emphasis placed on the particular political and social history of The Gambia. Further, the work presents and analyzes the work of three African human rights organizations operating within The Gambia and offers an Afrocentric critique of the promotion of the African Human and Peoples' Rights System.
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FIGHTING A "CRUEL AND SAVAGE FOE": COUNTERINSURGENCY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES FROM THE INDIAN WARS TO THE PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR (1899-1902)Urwin, Gregory J. W.; McPherson, Alan L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)Many scholars have written about the counterinsurgency phase of the Philippine- American War (1899-1902). Military historians often downplayed the impact of human rights abuses, while emphasizing the success of the U.S. Army’s counterinsurgency instead. In contrast, social historians frequently focused on human rights abuses at the expense of understanding the U.S. Army’s counterinsurgency efforts. Unlike the majority of earlier works, this thesis unifies military, social, and legal history to primarily answer these questions: what significant factors led U.S. soldiers to commit human rights abuses during the war, and at what cost did the U.S. pacify the Filipino rebellion? The war was successfully waged at the tactical, operational, and strategic level, but wavered at the grand strategic level.1 This study argues that racism, ambiguous rules and regulations, and a breakdown of discipline contributed to U.S. soldiers committing human rights abuses against Filipinos during the counterinsurgency. Primary sources from the perspectives of American policy makers, military leaders, and common soldiers—in addition to documents on U.S. Army regulations and its past traditions—reveal a comprehensive story of what happened during this conflict. The U.S. Army’s abuse were not a historical anomaly, but a growing trend extending from nineteenth century conflicts against other races. The counterinsurgency revealed that beneath the stated principles of 1 For the purposes of this thesis, grand strategy is “the direction and use made of any and all of the assets of a security community, including its military instruments, for the purposes of policy as decided by politics.” This differs from the strategic level of war, which is the direction and exclusive use of military forces for the purposes of policy as decided by politics. Finally, the operational level is the level of war where the tasks, decided by strategy, are coordinated and individual units are commanded. These units, in turn, engaging in tactics to achieve operational objectives. Colin S. Gray, The Future of Strategy (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2015), 29, 47. iii America’s benevolent mission, violent racial underpinnings existed in U.S. desires for global and domestic hegemony. The U.S. Army’s counterinsurgency resulted in a flawed victory, won at the cost of combatants, innocent civilians, and American idealism.
Mediating Gender Violence: "Witnessing Publics," Activism, and the Ethics of Human Rights Claim MakingGoode, Judith; White, Sydney Davant; Stoller, Paul; Hyatt, Susan Brin (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)Based on fieldwork with human rights organizations in New York City and Belize, Central America, this dissertation explores--through the prism of ethics--how non-governmental organizations (NGOs) represent violence against indigenous women--in text, image, and action--as human rights "evidence." By ethics I mean the deliberate use of morals, stated or unstated, in the representation of human rights abuses. In New York, my research focuses on the production, launch, and circulation of a United Nations shadow report on violence against indigenous women. In Belize, I contextualize indigenous women's experiences of gender violence within an indigenous movement to obtain collective land rights, a national women's movement, and national rhetoric on culture and gender. In both locales, I consider and compare: 1) how the "ethical" stance of NGOs shapes human rights activism; 2) how NGOs create visual and discursive "evidence" to represent violence and indigenous women's experiences; and 3) very real neoliberal state repression that immobilizes social movements for human rights and social justice. My concern is with the ways social movement NGOs struggle to maintain their feminist and social justice objectives as they interface with the demands of a transnational human rights system, and the strategies they use as they suffer from vilification, marginalization or mainstreaming, and lack of resources. Far from protective, human rights claims, explored here as "evidence," often obscure both social inequalities and the response of state-level policies to these inequalities, especially for marginalized women.