Measuring the impact of advanced placement failure on students' academic achievement and retention in college
AdvisorDuCette, Joseph P.
Committee memberShapiro, Joan Poliner
Gross, Steven Jay
Davis, James Earl
Laurence, Janice H.
SubjectHigher Education Administration
Advanced Placement Credit
Advanced Placement Failures
Advanced Placement in College
Impact of Advanced Placement in College
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1675
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AbstractThis quantitative study examined the impact that Advanced Placement (AP) coursework had on students attending college with specific emphasis on those who failed the exam. The study comprised four years of entering freshmen students between the academic years 2006-2009. The study was comprehensive in that it revealed all AP attempts regardless of score and student's desire to submit results to Temple University and the universities' acceptance of the same for college credit. For consistency, college success was determined based on data in the first two academic years of study. Students' grade point average (GPA) and retention were analyzed as the two primary assessments defining college access. The sample consisted of 16,731 students over four years of entering first-time freshmen to Temple University. The results indicated that AP score had a significant effect on both GPA and retention, although the effects for GPA were much stronger than for retention. Essentially, the results showed that the GPA of students decreases linearly from those who obtained an average AP score of "5", through "4", "3" and "2". Students whose average AP score was "1", however, performed at a lower level than students who had taken no AP course at all. Moreover, when various pre-college factors (specifically, SAT scores, high school GPA, mothers' and fathers' educational level and family income) were used as covariates, the effect for AP performance was markedly reduced. As such, it became evident that the real issue in evaluating the impact of AP performance is not whether students who take and pass AP courses do better in college. The real issue is whether AP performance provides an advantage over and above the advantages that students already possess. This study also revealed a threshold at which AP exposure correlated to college success when studying the AP failures with a score of `1'. The study findings contribute to emerging literature examining the relationship that AP failures have on students and colleges.
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EQUITY IN ADVANCED PLACEMENT COURSE-TAKING: A CASE STUDY OF AN INNER-RING SUBURBAN HIGH SCHOOLCucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Jordan, Will J.; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; McGinley, Christopher W.; Witham, Keith (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)The academic intensity of one's high school experience is most important to success in college. Tracking causes in-school segregation that most often results in low levels of participation by students of color and low socioeconomic status (SES) in upper level classes, including Advanced Placement (AP). Using a practitioner's vantage point, this dissertation is a mixed-method case study of AP course-taking at one inner-ring suburban high school that eliminated its lowest track prior to the first year of data analysis and allowed open enrollment to AP courses prior to the third. To track the impact of these changes, five years of AP course-taking data were analyzed for participation by students of color and those of low SES. The data revealed an increase in AP course enrollment by students of color from 12% to 22%, and by students of low SES from 2% to 8%. Interviews with 19 influential educators followed the quantitative analysis. In five years, this diverse Pennsylvania public high school moved from a system characterized by a number of barriers preventing low-income and minority students from taking higher level courses to an institution that has provided a rich choice of AP course offerings, established a Black Scholars program to encourage the academic success of students of color, and created open enrollment to its AP courses. While all teachers had some struggles adjusting to teaching AP courses in open enrollment era, teachers assumed either a resistant stance and intimidating approach to non-traditional AP students or a progressive stance, inviting and supporting non-traditional students in their course. Those teachers who created an emotionally and academically safe environment, expressed caring for their students, and employed flexible approaches to instruction and assessment attracted the most diverse set of students to their AP courses. Lincoln is not necessarily a model school as more work is needed to continue to create rigorous, inclusive learning environments in all classes, yet this study indicates that if students have the opportunity to take on challenging coursework like AP and work to master the course with the support of excellent teachers, long-term reward is sure to follow.
Early College Academic Performance: Studying the Effects of Earning College Credits from Advanced Placement and Dual EnrollmentCaldwell, Corrinne A.; Davis, James Earl; DuCette, Joseph P.; Jordan, Will J.; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)This quantitative study examined the impact of Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) on early college academic performance by analyzing and comparing first year and sophomore year persistence rates and grade point averages (GPAs) of four student cohorts who began their education at a large urban research I university in fall 2007. These cohorts of fall 2007 first year and first time college admits comprise students who earned college credits in high school by participation in Credit Based Transition Programs (CBTPs), specifically AP and DE, and students who did not earn college credits during high school. This study has contributed to literature examining the relationship between earning college credits in high school and early college academic performance. CBTPs were created for the benefit of high school students and the K-16 educational system. These programs were specifically created and implemented to introduce students to the rigors of college and ease the academic and social transition from high school to college. Student AP and DE participation increases yearly (The Fifth Annual, 2009; Kleiner & Lewis, 2005) and the first year of college is pivotal in terms of student retention (Astin, 1984; Bailey & Karp, 2003; Bailey, Hughes, & Karp, 2002; Cohen & Brawer, 1996; Coomes & Debard, 2004; Klekotka, 2005; Kuh, 2005; Light, 2001; Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005; Plucker, Chien, & Zaman, 2006; Tinto, 1987). These are the two primary impetuses for studying this phenomenon. This study utilized multiple chi-square, Pearson correlation, multiple regression, oneway ANOVA, and ANCOVA statistical analyses. These analyses provided ample data for answering the research questions. The sample comprised four cohorts of first year, first time college, students entering a large urban research institution in fall 2007. 1) students entering with only Advanced Placement (AP) credits ("AP" cohort), 2) students entering with only Dual Enrollment (DE) credits ("DE" cohort), 3) students entering with both AP and DE credits ("AP and DE" cohort), and 4) students entering with no college credits ("Non AP and/or DE" cohort. Statistical analyses presented results showing no statistically significant difference in early college academic performance amongst the cohorts in the study.
THE EFFECTS OF PUBLIC POSTING, GOAL SETTING, AND POSTING PLACEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF DIRECT SERVICE PROFESSIONALS’ COMPLETION OF REQUIRED DOCUMENTATIONFisher, Amanda G.; Axelrod, Saul; Tincani, Matthew J.; Hantula, Donald A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)Staff members supporting individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities often provide the primary supervision and direct instruction to those served. These services are often provided in locations with limited resources and funding, especially within adult services. Supervisors in these settings must ensure necessary documentation and job responsibilities are completed in order to meet regulatory requirements and ensure appropriate care and treatment for individuals’ served. By providing simple and cost effective feedback, supervisors can ensure the staff members are meeting job expectations while ensuring the individuals’ served are having their needs met. This study implemented a reversal design in two separate program rooms within an adult day program to examine the effects of posted group feedback, posted group feedback paired with goal setting, as well as the effect of the placement of the postings in a conspicuous versus non conspicuous location with staff completion of required daily documentation. Results in both rooms indicated that posting group feedback alone did not have as much effect on staff performance unless paired with goal setting. The posting locations in each room also did not seem to have an effect on staff performance.