EFFECTS OF VERBAL-ONLY AND PAIRED VERBAL-GESTURAL INSTRUCTION ON PERFORMANCE SKILL OF DEVELOPING WIND INSTRUMENTALISTS
AdvisorConfredo, Deborah A.
Committee memberConfredo, Deborah A.
Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.)
Buonviri, Nathan O.
Brunner, Matthew G. P.
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1620
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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of verbal-only and paired verbal-gestural instruction on the performance skills of wind instrumentalists with no more than three years of performance experience. Reviewed are different conducting strategies and their effects on musical expression in ensemble performance as demonstrated by small ensembles. Two sets of participants were used in this study. Audio stimulus files were derived from performances generated by the first set of participants, student musicians, who were randomly assigned to one of the two instruction groups. The primary sample consisted of students (n=30) from one intact public junior high school band. The second set of participants consisted of university undergraduate and graduate music majors (n=40) who evaluated the audio stimulus files. The first set of participants, middle school student musicians, who were randomly assigned to one of ten performance trios; trios were randomly assigned to one of two teaching conditions: (1) verbal-only, or (2) paired verbal-gestural. Students in each trio were assigned to perform Part 1, 2, or 3 of a two-minute performance selection that had been arranged purposefully to take into account participants’ performance level. Student participants performed this selection during a rehearsal in their assigned teaching condition. The student-investigator was the conductor/teacher in each condition. Rehearsals, consisting of sight-reading the work, investigator-led rehearsal, and final performance, were audio recorded for subsequent evaluation. Evaluators, undergraduate and graduate instrumental music majors (n=40) from a large research institution in the northeast United States, listened to the recordings and evaluated each rehearsal using a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) using the following criteria: musicality (phrasing, dynamics, balance, and expression) and technical accuracy (rhythm, articulation, intonation, and tempo). A paired-samples t-test was used to compare pretest (performance before rehearsal) and posttest (performance after rehearsal) outcomes. Aggregate data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparing performance ratings among the three variables (rehearsal style, music mode, and grade). All Pairs Tukey-Kramer was used to show differences among groups and performances. Analyses indicated that this sample of middle school instrumentalists was significantly successful at their performance of two different variations (musicality and technical accuracy) after a rehearsal (posttest) in both verbal-only and verbal-gestural conditions than their first performance before a rehearsal (pretest). Pretest and posttest scores of the verbal-gestural group were higher than that of the verbal-only group, but rehearsal in the verbal-only condition showed more significant effectiveness in their development than under verbal-gestural conditions. Instrumentalists’ technical accuracy was rated as higher compared to musicality ratings in both pre- and posttests. Eighth grade players received higher scores on pre- and posttest in both verbal-only and verbal-gestural conditions than that of seventh grade players which might be expected since these players had more experience. Both verbal-only and verbal-gestural instruction conditions have similar effectiveness on student performance ratings, and based on the evidence derived from this study, it seems that both verbal and nonverbal instructional methods should be considered equally effective music teaching tools in an instrumental setting for students at this level of development. These findings should be taken into account when instrumental music educators are planning and delivering instruction, particularly in light of data showing that verbal instruction is more frequently used during rehearsals than nonverbal instruction.
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Vocabulary Learning With Graphic Organizers in the EFL Environment: Inquiry Into the Involvement Load HypothesisNation, I. S. P.; Beglar, David J.; Childs, Marshall; Allen, Mitsue Tamai, 1956-; Murphey, Tim (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)This study investigates the Involvement Load Hypothesis proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001). The involvement load hypothesis posits that vocabulary learning is determined by involvement load or mental effort. Involvement load has three components, need, search, and evaluation and each component is scored for three levels: index 2 for the strongest, index 1 for a moderate degree, and index 0 for none. Each participant learned six words with graphic organizers at the high involvement load (need index 1, search index 1, evaluation index 2, total index 4) and six at the low involvement load (need index 1, search index 1, and evaluation index 0, total index 2). Immediately and one week after completing the graphic organizer task, vocabulary knowledge was measured using three vocabulary tests that tested different levels of vocabulary knowledge: a translation test, a difficult multiple-choice test, and an easy multiple-choice test. Quantitative analyses of data from 291 university and college students in Japan were conducted, and audio-recordings from five pairs were analyzed to examine learning processes. Repeated measures MANOVA and ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the conditions of the two involvement loads in the translation test and the easy multiple-choice test, but not in the difficult multiple-choice test. The effects of Task and Time were statistically significant, but there was no interaction. There were significant differences between the immediate test and delayed test observed in the translation test and the easy multiple-choice test, but not with the difficult multiple-choice test. The current study supports the involvement load hypothesis, but caution is advised. Even though the high involvement load graphic organizers yielded more vocabulary retention than those with less involvement load in two out of the three vocabulary tests, the differences in mean scores were small and extensive differences were not observed in the participants' discussions. Additional statistical analysis indicated that the three vocabulary tests measured three levels of vocabulary knowledge. Determining the effectiveness of graphic organizers for vocabulary learning was only mildly successful as forcing greater involvement load proved to be challenging.
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THE EFFECTS OF EXTENSIVE READING AND READING STRATEGIES ON READING SELF-EFFICACYBeglar, David; Sawyer, Mark; Mori, Setsuko; Gobel, Peter B.; Houck, Nöel, 1942- (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension was examined. In addition, the participants' perceptions of the utility of extensive reading and reading strategies, and how those perceptions related to reading self-efficacy were investigated. A final goal was to ascertain how retrospective ratings of reading self-efficacy influence current levels of the construct. The participants (N = 322) were first and second-year, non-English majors at a four-year, co-educational university in Osaka, Japan. The participants were divided into four groups: an intensive reading group (control group), an extensive reading group, a reading strategies group, and an extensive reading/reading strategies group. Data for the study were obtained from six major sources: a reading comprehension test, a reading strategy test, a reading self-efficacy questionnaire, a perceived utility of extensive reading questionnaire, a perceived utility of reading strategies questionnaire, and a sources of reading self-efficacy questionnaire. The questionnaires and tests were administered three times over the course of the academic year. Before conducting the quantitative analyses on the data gathered with the above instruments, the dichotomous test and questionnaire data were analyzed using the Rasch rating-scale model to confirm the validity and reliability of the instruments and to transform the raw scores into equal interval measures. By employing MANOVAs, ANOVAs, Latent Growth Curve Modeling, and Pearson correlation coefficients, the data were then analyzed to ascertain differences between groups and within groups for all tests and constructs measured. The results showed that the participants in the reading strategies and extensive reading/reading strategies groups gained significantly more in reading self-efficacy over the academic year than those in the extensive reading and intensive reading groups. In addition, all three experimental groups outperformed the intensive reading group in reading comprehension. Furthermore, results from the latent growth curve model showed that gains in reading self-efficacy were related positively to gains in reading comprehension. In a similar vein, the results showed that gains in reading strategy skill led to changes in reading self-efficacy, while reading amount was not significantly related to changes in reading self-efficacy. The results also suggested that those who more highly regard extensive reading as useful to improving reading comprehension exhibited higher levels of reading self-efficacy over the course of the study. On the contrary, there was no significant difference in levels of reading self-efficacy between those who highly rated reading strategies as useful and those who did not rate them as highly. Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients showed moderately strong relationships between junior high and high school (retrospective) levels of reading self-efficacy and university (current) levels. These results underscore the importance of self-efficacy in the learning process and how the cultivation of self-efficacy should be a goal of any educator or administrator in an EFL context. The findings also highlight the detrimental effects of teaching methodologies, such as grammar-translation, that deprive learners of the opportunity to develop their own cognitive abilities. With the introduction of reading strategy intervention and/or extensive reading practice, the participants in the experimental groups of this study were able to develop the skills needed to overcome comprehension breakdowns in the reading process, and this help them become more autonomous, empowered readers.