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dc.contributor.advisorSmith, George M.
dc.creatorKeefe, Kathleen Mary
dc.date.accessioned2020-10-26T19:19:45Z
dc.date.available2020-10-26T19:19:45Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1589
dc.description.abstractMuch of our understanding of the fascinating complexity of neuronal circuits comes from anatomical tracing studies that use dyes or fluorescent markers to highlight pathways that run through the brain and spinal cord. Viral vectors have been utilized by many previous groups as tools to highlight pathways or deliver transgenes to neuronal populations to stimulate growth after injury. In a series of studies, we explore anterograde and retrograde tracing with viral vectors to trace spinal pathways and explore their contribution to behavior in a rodent model. In a separate study, we explore the effect of stimulating intrinsic growth programs on regrowth of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after contusive injury. In the first study, we use self-complimentary adeno associated viral (scAAV) vectors to trace long descending tracts in the spinal cord. We demonstrate clear and bright labeling of cortico-, rubro- and reticulospinal pathways without the need for IH, and show that scAAV vectors transduce more efficiently than single stranded AAV (ssAAV) in neurons of both injured and uninjured animals. This study demonstrates the usefulness of these tracers in highlighting pathways descending from the brain. Retrograde tracing is also a key facet of neuroanatomical studies involving long distance projection neurons. In the next study, we highlight a lentivirus that permits highly efficient retrograde transport (HiRet) from synaptic terminals within the cervical and lumbar enlargements of the spinal cord. By injecting HiRet, we can clearly identify supraspinal and propriospinal circuits innervating MN pools relating to forelimb and hindlimb function. We observed robust labeling of propriospinal neurons, including high fidelity details of dendritic arbors and axon terminals seldom seen with chemical tracers. In addition, we examine changes in interneuronal circuits occurring after a thoracic contusion, highlighting populations that potentially contribute to spontaneous behavioral recovery in this lesion model. In a related study, we use a modified version of HiRet as part of a multi-vector system that synaptically silences neurons to explore the contribution of the rubrospinal tract (RST) and CST to forelimb motor behavior in an intact rat. This system employs Tetanus toxin at the neuronal synapse to prevent release of neurotransmitter via cleavage of vesicle docking proteins, effectively preventing the propagation of action potentials in those neurons. We find that shutdown of the RST has no effect on gross forelimb motor function in the intact state, and that shutdown of a small population of CST neurons in the FMC has a modest effect on grip strength. These studies demonstrate that the HiRet lentivirus is a unique tool for examining neuronal circuitry and its contribution to function. In the final study, we explore stimulation of the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Rac-alpha serine/threonine Protein Kinase (PI3K/AKT) growth pathway by antagonizing phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a major inhibitor, to encourage growth of CST axons after a contusive injury. We use systemic infusions of four distinct PTEN antagonist peptides (PAPs) targeted at different sites of the PTEN protein. We find robust axonal growth and sprouting caudal to a contusion in a subset of animals infused with PAPs targeted to the PTEN enzymatic pocket, including typical morphology of growing axons. Serotonergic fiber growth was unaffected by peptide infusion and did not correlate with CST fiber density. Though some variability was seen in the amount of growth within our animal groups, we find these PTEN antagonist peptides a promising and clinically relevant tool to encourage CST sprouting, and a potentially useful addition to therapies using combinatory strategies to enhance growth. These studies demonstrate that viral tracing is a powerful tool for mapping spinal pathways and elucidating their ability to reform spinal circuits after injury. Viral vectors can be used in both anterograde and retrograde tracing studies to highlight intricacies of neuronal cell bodies, axons and dendritic arbors with a high degree of fidelity. In the injured state, these tools can help identify pathways that contribute to spontaneous recovery of function by highlighting those that reform circuits past an injury site. In the uninjured state, these vectors can contain neuronal silencing methods that help define the contribution of specific pathways to behavior.
dc.format.extent186 pages
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherTemple University. Libraries
dc.relation.ispartofTheses and Dissertations
dc.rightsIN COPYRIGHT- This Rights Statement can be used for an Item that is in copyright. Using this statement implies that the organization making this Item available has determined that the Item is in copyright and either is the rights-holder, has obtained permission from the rights-holder(s) to make their Work(s) available, or makes the Item available under an exception or limitation to copyright (including Fair Use) that entitles it to make the Item available.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectNeurosciences
dc.subjectHealth Sciences
dc.subjectCellular Biology
dc.subjectAav
dc.subjectCorticospinal Tract
dc.subjectHiret Lentivirus
dc.subjectRubrospinal Tract
dc.subjectSpinal Cord Injury
dc.subjectTract Tracing
dc.titleIn Vivo Visualization of Neural Pathways in the Rat Spinal Cord Using Viral Tracing
dc.typeText
dc.type.genreThesis/Dissertation
dc.contributor.committeememberKrynska, Barbara
dc.contributor.committeememberHu, Wenhui
dc.contributor.committeememberLi, Shuxin
dc.contributor.committeememberLemay, Michel A.
dc.description.departmentNeuroscience
dc.relation.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.34944/dspace/1571
dc.ada.noteFor Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) accommodation, including help with reading this content, please contact scholarshare@temple.edu
dc.description.degreePh.D.
refterms.dateFOA2020-10-26T19:19:45Z


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