Now showing items 21-40 of 196

    • Beyond the Neuron: Myelination’s Role in Disorder and Disease

      Shah, Mansi; Silva, Margaret; Kumar, Gauri (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
    • The Pill and The Brain: The Dismissal of Hormonal Birth Control’s Neurological Side Effects

      Shah, Mansi; Fartachuk, Yuliana; Moola, Esther (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
    • Developments in Psychological Therapies for the Treatment of Chronic Pain

      Shah, Mansi; Martin, Georgia; Shoenberger, Taylor (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      What is pain? Is it physical or psychological? Why do we experience pain? These are some of the common questions that scientists and clinicians ask themselves to be better able to assist patients dealing with chronic pain. Pain is a signal in your nervous system that tells your body that something is wrong [1]. The external feeling of pain can differ depending on many factors, but it will usually be some type of prick, tingle, sting, burn, or ache [1]. It is true that not all pain is the same. Generally, it is categorized into two types–chronic and acute pain. Chronic pain is defined as pain that lasts for longer than three months and occurs in a specific location in the body [2]. It can be divided into two categories: nociceptive, which is caused by tissue damage, or neuropathic, which is caused by damage to the peripheral or central nervous system [2]. The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system is composed of the nerves that extend throughout the body. Arthritis, an inflammatory joint disease, is one such example of nociceptive pain since it involves the destruction of tissues; multiple sclerosis, a chronic illness affecting the brain, is an example of neuropathic pain since it affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves [3]. In comparison, acute pain is pain that occurs immediately after the pain response is received, and is typically very severe. If acute pain lasts longer than a given recovery period, it may become chronic pain [4]. This will usually occur if the injury or trauma that caused acute pain is not treated properly [4]. When chronic pain occurs, there is an obvious physical burden on an individual, and their day-to-day life is immensely impacted in a variety of ways. However, chronic pain is not simply a physical burden–chronic pain conditions have been found to be in the top 10 leading causes of disability across the world [5].Thus, most, if not all, chronic pain conditions are a contributing factor to unemployment rates [6]. Additionally, different pain and research groups evaluated the risk for suicide in those with different chronic pain disorders, and it was found that they were at a higher risk [7]. Specifically, pain-related depression and migraines were at the highest risk for a suicide attempt [7]. Overall, chronic pain has an impact on many aspects of an individual's life and well-being. Despite the dire need to find solutions for chronic pain, pain research only receives approximately 1-2% of the NIH funding [8]. In general, the treatment of chronic pain has been a matter of controversy in many research and clinical settings for years. Because of the complicated neurological pathways behind pain, many treatments, such as opioids, are ineffective and result in addiction. Recently, however, chronic pain has begun to be addressed through psychotherapies, drugs outside of opioids, and virtual reality technology.
    • Florence Syndrome: Beautiful Madness

      Shah, Mansi; Barrone, Alex; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      The elegant Italian clock strikes noon. You are standing in the middle of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, embraced by the grandeur of time itself. Vibrant Florence fades away into the comfort of tabula rasa (1). The skylight in the intricate, ornate dome above your head serves you a gulp of fresh air. An echo of euphoria expands in your chest: you are free. All will come, but it does not matter because you are alive and you ride the time. Suddenly, the sunlight seeping through the skylight starts getting thick. The weight of time crushes your shoulders. The lace of holy hands towering over you from the paintings on the ceiling circulate in their ritual against you. Are you a sacrificial lamb? The dome closes in around you as you struggle to catch your breath. You are falling and darkness follows you. The narrative described above demonstrates how positive emotions can take negative dimensions based on the point of view. Although intense positive experiences, such as those associated with sightseeing, are frequently overlooked as potential triggers for psychological disturbances, Florence Syndrome presents distinct cognitive and behavioral patterns in which fascination with art leads to a psychosomatic disorder. Florence Syndrome is a maladaptive response to the exposure to recognized objects of artistic value that manifests as a range of symptoms comorbid in anxiety and affective disorders. This article will investigate the nature of Florence Syndrome from a clinical and cultural perspective.
    • Neuralink Brings a Saving Light to Neural Care

      Shah, Mansi; Comly, Alex; Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      Recent technological development is creating the possibility for individuals with disabilities and neural diseases to hopefully regain some control over their lives. Improvement in Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI’s) might allow the brain and a computer to communicate directly with each other. The most simple of these methods is an EEG (Electroencephalogram), during which electrodes (conductors that measure electrical activity) are placed on the scalp to allow researchers to read brain activity. However, our skulls block many electronic signals and distort the small amount of data that gets through [1]. Scientists can obtain much more detail when they can place these electrodes directly on the brain. This internal placement, although more invasive, opens a world of opportunities to scientists. Since the electrodes can communicate directly with a computer, this allows a blend between man and machine in a way that seems right out of a sci-fi movie. For those with paralysis, this could mean changing the channels on a TV with the mind, sending emails with just a thought, or being able to use a paralyzed part of the body once again. These kinds of changes can revolutionize medical treatment for immediate issues like Parkinson’s disease, neural issues from depression and anxiety, dementia, and paralysis. One company, Neuralink, is at the front line of this technology and is paving the way for its use in the medical field.
    • Restless Reprieve: Understanding the Dangers of Sleep Deprivation

      Shah, Mansi; Trifan, Juliana; Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      RING RING RING. Your alarm on your phone goes off at 7:00 AM on the dot. You sigh as you roll over to your phone, and press the stop button to turn it off. You went to bed at 2:30 AM last night after working on assignments you procrastinated on, and as you get up to go to the bathroom, you already wish for the day to be over so you can go back home and nap. Once you get ready to leave, you head downstairs and start to walk out the door, only to realize that you forgot about your phone upstairs. You sigh as you go back upstairs, as anger starts to build up inside of you. As you head back downstairs to walk out the door, you think to yourself, “today is gonna be a long day”. As college students, there are a variety of reasons as to why one might not get much rest such as having to work late hours or thinking about stress from the day. It is stereotypical for students to stay up for long hours working on assignments or partying until the early morning. Many are willing to work through the effects of sleep deprivation by doing things such as catching up on sleep at “a later time,” or consuming caffeine to work through the tiredness. While it seems like the short term effects of sleep deprivation only stick around temporarily, a lack of sleep can cause serious damage to the body and brain in the long term. Even though it seems tempting to pull that all nighter, the effects sleep deprivation has on one’s body will cause both short and long term damage.
    • Aging in Reverse: The Devastating Consequences of Sanfilippo Syndrome

      Shah, Mansi; Maligireddy, Sandeep; George, Caroline (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      Everyone is familiar with Alzheimer’s and dementia. Many have a loved one who suffers from the disease. It is unlikely though that you have met a child who suffers from the same symptoms that progress even faster. Sanfilippo syndrome is deemed a rare disease with less than 5,000 current cases in the United States [1]. As opposed to adults who can live for years without symptoms of Alzheimer’s, Sanfilippo creeps in on vulnerable children and snatches their innocence only to realize it once it is too late. Sanfilippo syndrome is an extremely rare, genetic, metabolic disorder that mimics the brain damage found in patients with dementia or Alzheimer’s disease but in children; this article will examine the genetic causes, symptoms, and new, cutting-edge treatments.
    • Female Sex: The Second Greatest Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

      Shah, Mansi; Skudlarek, Regan; Al-Tikriti, Dahlia (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      On November 25, 1901, Auguste Deter was admitted to the Institution for the Mentally Ill in Frankfurt, Germany, where she was first introduced to Dr. Aloysius Alzheimer. Deter, who was 55 at the time, would reply “I have lost myself, so to say,” when asked questions she felt like she could no longer answer [8]. As the first patient diagnosed, Deter did not know how accurately her words described the now widespread condition named after her doctor, Alzheimer’s disease [8]. Today, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects over 6 million people above the age of 65 in the United States alone and is the seventh leading cause of death in the country. Of these 6 million people, 4 million are women [1]. Research studies have shown that, following age, being of the female sex is the second greatest risk factor to developing AD [1]. Although the exact correlation between sex and AD is yet to be determined, this article will explore the possible mechanisms and explanations as to why women are more prone to developing Alzheimer’s disease.
    • Grey Matters, Issue 4, Fall 2022 (Front and Back Matter)

      Shah, Mansi; Rojek, Olivia; Sigler, Danni; Myers, Hailey; Lipovsky, Caedyn (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
    • Brief Guide to Sustainable Practices in Hospitals

      Siddiqi, Syed (2023-09-21)
      With the impacts of climate change becoming more apparent than ever, it is time to look at the leading causes of the worsening state of the globe. Not only will resolving these sources of environmental decay create a safer planet, it will lead to better health for those that populate it. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has found that environmental hazards, to include air pollution, chemical exposures and extreme weather changes, can lead to several illnesses to include chronic disease such as cancer and asthma and acute symptoms such as heat exhaustion. Resolving these issues will lead to better lifestyles and life longevity. Surprisingly enough, researchers at Yale University and Northeastern University have found that hospital buildings are ranked second in the amount of energy that is used amongst all commercial buildings. The harmful health effects caused by the ones that treat and care for illnesses is ironic to say the least. It is important for changes in the healthcare industry to improve the community by practicing safer and greener methods of care. A few of the major areas that can improve sustainable practices within hospital systems are discussed below.
    • Language Hurdles in Healthcare: Bridging the Gap

      Siddiqi, Syed (2023-10-12)
      This article addresses the significant challenge posed by limited English language proficiency among the growing immigrant population in the United States, hindering effective communication in medical care. The inability to accurately convey symptoms and treatment information can lead to delayed diagnoses, prolonged treatment, increased healthcare costs, and potential complications. While in-person translator services are a common solution, logistical issues and resource constraints often impede their efficiency. The article explores the potential of digital translator services, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of tools like Google Translate. While studies show positive feedback from healthcare teams, concerns arise regarding the accuracy of translations, highlighting specific challenges in medical contexts and between certain language pairs. The need for innovative solutions to enhance the accuracy, affordability, and expediency of digital translation tools is emphasized, especially in the context of community-focused healthcare. The article underscores the pivotal role translation services play in modern medicine and the imperative for ongoing efforts to optimize their efficacy for improved patient care outcomes.
    • Proxy Warfare in Kashmir

      Khanna, Yesh (2023-01)
      The use of proxy warfare by Pakistan against India finds its roots way back in 1947 as both countries wanted complete control over the state of Kashmir. Using the tactics and resources from supporting the CIA in Afghanistan, Pakistan's ISI launched 'Operation Tupac' in Kashmir, aimed at creating multiple terror proxies to destabilize the region. A major component of Tupac was radicalizing the Kashmiri population, which was already disgruntled by harsh crackdowns by the Indian security forces in the region. Two of Pakistan's most successful proxies are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). Both of these organizations operate with direct logistical and operational support from ISI. Moreover, many of the attacks by these organizations have a policy aftermath which is very much in line with ISI's agenda, clearly indicating that Pakistan uses terrorism as an effective foreign policy tool. There have been multiple vocal criticisms of Pakistan's sponsoring of terrorist organization, however, there have been no measures taken to actively persuade it to cease its terror funding activities. Three main inferences can be drawn from the arguments in this paper- 1) Pakistan is now overdependent on its terror proxies as a tool to achieve its foreign policy objectives, 2) These proxies have so deeply embedded themselves into the social fabric of Pakistan's domestic politics that even if their armed wings are shut down, they'll still find ways to function, and 3) the balance of power in Pakistan needs to shift towards the democratically elected government from the ISI and the military elite for any meaningful progress to occur.
    • The International Criminal Court and Restorative Justice: Community Reparations for Victim-Survivors of Sexual Violence

      Fioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      This paper investigates how the philosophic justifications for punishing perpetrators of sexual violence within international law evolved as our conceptualizations of sexual violence in warfare shifted, with a focus on the tension between deterrence and restoration. In the past decade, the prevailing understanding of sexual violence has begun to shift to a focus on the ability of sexual violence to destroy the social fabric of a community, which implies an emphasis on the restoration of community in the justice process with specific attention to the reintegration of victim-survivors. I reframe the debate to the practice of reparations as an effective form of restorative justice by the International Criminal Court. By analyzing the relationship between dominant theories of wartime sexual violence and justifications of punishment emphasized by the ICC, this paper demonstrates how emerging concepts of sexual violence in armed conflict imply the need for an amplified focus on restoration in the ICC. I draw from restorative justice literature to illustrate the potential of bottom-up, gender-sensitive reparative programs to provide economic relief to the entire community while simultaneously undermining structures of gender inequality and rethreading the social fabric by returning autonomy to the community to define their needs and values.
    • French Facial Covering Ban: A Comparison of American and French Media Coverage from 2010 – 2012

      Darling-Wolf, Fabienne (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      In September 2010, France became the first European country to enact a ban on full facial coverings. French Parliament cited safety and French values of secularism as the reasoning behind the ban, but public debate around the true intentions of the ban and its implications for the country’s large Muslim population intensified. This paper seeks to analyze media coverage surrounding the ban and its ensuing effects on public perception of the event throughout the year it was passed and up to two years post-legislation. Turning a critical eye to the dissemination of information on an international scale, this research seeks to analyze the language, tone, and themes between major American and French news agencies as two countries with widely impactful media outlets, vast international influence, and a populous with access to the increasing accessibility of technology and social media of the time. Ultimately, France’s facial-covering ban includes written law that does not specify religious garments at all, differing from the articles identified within this research and showing potential correlation between the media’s reporting and the public’s perception of the law.
    • Assessment and Verification of Machine Learning Applications for Detecting False Data Injection Attacks in Automatic Generation Control

      Keston, Geoff (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      Although the increasing integration of Internet of Things devices into the modern grid infrastructure has improved grid performance and efficiency in many ways, cyberattacks now pose a significant threat to system stability and reliability. For instance, false data injection attacks modify sensor measurements and control signals, disrupting power balancing and supplication tasks performed by generation control systems. Detecting these attacks can mitigate their impact. In this paper, three machine learning detection methods are comparatively analyzed to determine implementation efficacy and practicality: long short-term memory, generative adversarial networks, and cluster-driven ensemble learning. The novel cluster-driven ensemble learning algorithm (and its associated intrusion detection system) best satisfies the evaluation criteria due to its accuracy, resource requirements, and decentralized architecture. Additionally, this paper proposes a framework for an open-source, portable cyber-physical testbed using the SEED Internet Emulator. With the framework described, the SEED Emulator can be used to address the lack of existing cybersecurity testbed platforms for grid applications and can be applied to verify the efficacy of the proposed solution. A successful implementation of the cluster-driven ensemble learning intrusion detection system will improve grid security and stability, mitigating the costly social, economic, and environmental consequences of data injection attacks.
    • Challenges and Opportunities in Creating an Accessible Web Application for Learning Organic Chemistry

      Fleming, Steven A. (Steven Alan) (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      This research project has three distinct contributions. First, questionnaire data were gathered from 56 participants related to the development of an organic chemistry web application, called web-based Organic Reaction Animations (webORA). Second, usability test data were collected from 12 participants which focused on accessibility challenges that users face when using webORA. Third, an accessibility analysis was conducted using Wave, a web accessibility evaluation tool.
    • Two Sides to the Story: Linguistic Assimilation in America

      Toomey, Melissa (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      This research project aims to answer the following research question: “Should immigrants work to fully assimilate into American society by only speaking English instead of their native languages?” It argues that immigrants should not work to linguistically assimilate into American life because it restricts these individuals to a superficial sense of belonging within American society and distances them from their native identity. In order to demonstrate this claim with a unique genre, the author created a satirical American survival guide promoting English only, juxtaposed with a second ethnic minority empowerment magazine.
    • Creating Positive Change for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals in the Philippines

      Hall, Matthew L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
      This research project explores the scope of sexual health issues in the Philippines.
    • Scorpion-inspired Needle Design for Insertion in Soft Tissue Materials

      K., Luys; Kelly, Orion; Nguyen, Hillary; Penetar, Elisa; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Hutapea|0000-0001-6917-1252 (2022-11-18)
      The goal of this project is to develop a bioinspired biopsy needle that takes inspiration from the structure of a scorpion stinger to reduce tissue damage and limit the needle path deflection for more accurate results. Our scorpion-inspired needle showed an 8.38% reduction in force, 29.37% reduction in tissue damage, and a 19.64% reduction in deflection in comparison to the standard biopsy needle used today.
    • The Highs and Lows of Bipolar Disorder

      Shah, Mansi; Chaturvedi, Riya; Kohol, Jaya (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
      Kanye West, Jimi Hendrix, Carrie Fisher, Frank Sinatra, and Vincent Van Gogh-what comes to mind when you hear these names? Many would say creative, gifted, accomplished, and brilliant due to the incredible art and talent they have shared with the world. However, what many do not realize is that all of these individuals have suffered from bipolar disorder (BD) [1]. BD is a psychiatric illness characterized by extreme mood swings, which include emotional highs known as mania and hypomania, and lows, otherwise known as depression [2]. Mania is described as a period when one experiences increased energy and activity, high irritability, and racing thoughts [3]. Hypomania exhibits similar symptoms as mania, however the main difference is the duration and intensity [3]. Some individuals suggest that people with BD are unstable, and prone to violence, but when treated appropriately by medical and psychology professionals, many of the symptoms of BD are manageable such that patients can have relatively normal lives [4]. Globally, the prevalence of BD is around 1%, with an equal distribution of the disorder between men and women [5]. In those with BD, around one out of three individuals attempt to commit suicide, and about 15-20% of those attempts are successful [5]. Based on these statistics, it is important to shed light on the symptoms and causes of BD, neurological changes in those diagnosed, as well as current treatments available, in order to reduce misinformation and destigmatize the disorder.