Now showing items 1-20 of 196

    • Sticky Fingers: A Study on Retail Crime in Philadelphia

      Simon, Bryant; Temple University. Honors Program; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      People have been shoplifting since the dawn of the in-store shopping experience. It is human to pilfer a piece of gum occasionally and put a selection of merchandise under one’s sleeve when shopping with friends. Everybody of all ages, races, and genders participates in retail theft. As the economy and political climate in the United States change, retail theft has changed with it. A crime that used to be prevented through carceral strategies has become more brazen, familiar, and unsolvable for retailers. This analysis seeks to view retail crime differently through a comprehensive review of relevant literature, an analysis of retail theft participation and prevention methodologies, and qualitative interviews of loss prevention employees and law enforcement. Retail crime in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is in a new era that shifted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. City governments and private businesses do not agree on what should be done, and retail giants have had to use private resources to get creative. Retail crime has increased in Philadelphia post-pandemic, is exacerbated by the opioid crisis, and remains common due to poverty. Initially, a new framework will be offered to establish different types of shoplifting behavior, distinguishing between thrill-seeking and non-thrill-seeking retail theft. Next, the effect of habitual shoplifting on Philadelphia businesses and loss prevention methodologies will be discussed, and then the culture of shoplifting mitigation and prevention will be addressed. As pilfering has only grown over time, the general public continues to disagree on how to solve this complex issue. This thesis is a testament to the changing nature of retail theft in Philadelphia, serving to understand the effectiveness of and future of loss prevention strategy.
    • Selective Modulation of Talin-Integrin Interactions by Cyanidin Derivatives: Implications for Cancer Therapeutics

      Wu, Jinhua; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      This thesis studies the complex relationships between talin—a critical protein involved in integrin activation and cell adhesion—and derivatives of Cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride (C3G), concentrating on their potential as cancer treatments. Talin plays a critical function in cell motility, invasion, and metastasis through its interaction with integrin β subunits. The focus of our work is to examine the impact of C3G derivatives, namely Cyanidin chloride (CC) and Pelargonidin chloride (PC), on the talin-integrin complex. This complex plays a crucial role in regulating the behavior of cancer cells. We employ advanced biochemical techniques to generate and purify talin proteins and utilize a fluorescence polarization assay to assess the binding affinities and inhibitory effects of these drugs. The research discloses a compound-specific modulation of talin activity in an isoform-specific manner, where CC exhibits a substantial effect on the talin1 isoform (TLN1) while PC demonstrates greater efficacy on the talin2 isoform (TLN2). This emphasis highlights the significance of customizing therapeutic approaches to utilize the unique molecular interactions involved, indicating a direction for the development of more precise and efficient cancer treatments. The findings presented here contribute to a deeper understanding of talin's biological roles and highlight its potential for therapeutic applications. These findings support the need for a targeted approach in the development of innovative medicines to address disorders involving talin interaction.
    • Psychopathological Impact of Stressful Workplace Environments

      Shah, Mansi; Bounyarith, Tiara; O’Hanlon, Kaitlyn (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
    • The Impact of Alcohol on the Adolescent Brain

      Shah, Mansi; Islam, Touhidul; Kassem, Myrna (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Everyone knows that the legal drinking age in America is 21, but everyone also knows that anything is legal until you get caught. Across the world, teenagers and young adults consider alcohol an enjoyable weekend stress-reliever, but the long-term impacts of this temporary bliss remain largely undiscussed among younger populations. The neurological damage seen in adolescents that consume excessive amounts of alcohol can cause long-term impairment to a developing brain. Adolescent brain development is a dynamic process of neurological and cognitive changes. Such changes can lead to increased impulsivity contributing to poor decision-making, such as alcohol (over)consumption. Alcohol consumption, in turn, has various effects on the brain including a reduction in brain volume of white and grey matter, neurotransmitter signaling, and memory impairment, all of which can directly affect a teen’s success in both the short and long term.
    • Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Aftermath of Playing America's Favorite Sport

      Shah, Mansi; Roberts, Peyton; Rahman, Ridwana (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Millions of children share the dream of becoming a professional football player in the National Football League (NFL), but it is a dream that very few achieve. Some will earn the chance to play in high school, a smaller percentage will be able to play at the collegiate level, and only the best will be chosen to play in the NFL. The athletes who beat the odds and make it to the NFL do not make it by accident. To play in the NFL requires endless years of hard work, dedication, and sacrifice. Players give up time with friends and family, holidays, and endure grueling training schedules all to play in the league. The boisterous noise from the crowd, the rush of adrenaline on game day, and the financial stability that comes with being a professional athlete in the NFL is enticing. But, what if the very thing you have been striving for since you were a kid puts you and your future at risk? What if the toll that the beloved game puts on your body is irreversible, leaving you to suffer the detriments of the violent sport long after you exit the field for the final time? This was unfortunately a reality for many former football players who suffered from Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive and fatal brain disease associated with repeated traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including concussions and repeated blows to the head [1]. The types of injuries that lead to CTE are common in American Football [2]. This article will explain the neurological underpinnings of CTE, its psychological and behavioral effects, and how future bioengineering may help identify CTE antemortem.
    • Gene-Based Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases

      Shah, Mansi; Nakahara, Kate; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      While infectious viruses have had devastating effects throughout history, recently developed virus-based biotechnologies have the potential to revolutionize treatment of genetic diseases. Specifically, viruses have been vital in the advancement of gene therapy [1]. Gene-based therapy treats diseases by altering the body at the cellular level with the potential to deliver longer-lasting and more personalized impacts than traditional drug-based therapies, making it an appealing route for “achieving permanent correction” [2],[3]. Gene therapy corrects mutated genes that have undergone alterations in their DNA sequence through the delivery of genetic material into cells [4]. A gene mutation occurs when there is a change in a DNA sequence that causes the sequence to be different from what is expected. Gene mutations can be characterized as hereditary or acquired mutations. Hereditary mutations are inherited from parents, while acquired mutations are created at a particular time in a person’s life [5]. A tool known as a vector can act as a vessel for the genetic material to aid the delivery process [4]. Alongside plasmids and nanostructures, viruses can act as a type of viral vector to improve the efficiency of gene therapy [6]. Given the incurable nature of neurodegenerative diseases, which are characterized by the gradual loss of function and death of nerve cells, gene therapy is quickly emerging as a helpful method for improving their management [7]. This article will investigate the efficacy of applying gene-based therapies to the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and the methodology available today.
    • More than Just a Headache

      Shah, Mansi; Martin, Georgia; Schneider, Daniel (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Despite the high prevalence of fifty percent among the global population, the common headache is often underestimated, under-recognized, and under-treated [1]. Different sensations associated with headaches have been experienced by most individuals throughout their lifetime; many report having various degrees of pressure that may be described as throbbing, constant, sharp, or dull [2]. While headaches can be easily dismissed by healthcare providers, it is essential to differentiate how common symptoms may be a sign of underlying issues. In order to understand how the symptoms of a headache are commonly misdiagnosed and may indicate potential underlying physiological issues, it is important to analyze the types of headaches, symptoms, potential effects on the brain over time, and treatment.
    • Beauty and the Brain

      Shah, Mansi; Vasconcelos, Larissa; Perianez, Alin (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      The intrinsic desire for beauty bleeds into every facet of life, whether in framing one’s identity or defining the status quo. As a concept, beauty remains notoriously difficult to define, yet is ever present in day to day life, especially in relation to pleasing our egos. Beauty’s prominence has been documented since antiquity- dating back to ancient Greece through the notion of Kallos, an ideal to aspire for both physical beauty and moral integrity [1]. Although, at the time there were no scientific discoveries to cement this philosophy into fact, the new millennium has found empirical evidence to support the notion that what embodies beauty is equated to virtue in the mind of the observer. The “Beauty-is-Good” stereotype is a phenomenon in which physically attractive people are assumed to be more socially adept and morally good than others. In Ancient Greece, a woman named Phyrne was on trial for impiety and was exonerated on the basis of her beauty, as it was an indication she was favored by the gods. Beauty for our intensive purposes can be classified into facial attractiveness, audiovisual beauty, and moral goodness [2]. Audiovisual beauty is implicit to the senses, an automatic assessment of incoming stimuli based on aesthetical rules. These evaluations can be either learned, or intrinsic. For instance, humans have an automatic ability to categorize facial features as attractive or unattractive when they are just a few weeks old [2]. Moral goodness utilizes one’s higher order cognition to comprehend socially acceptable behavior. To experience moral beauty, it is necessary for emotion to accompany the judgment. In every person, there is an extremely delicate interplay between our emotions, genetic composition, and judgements that give rise to the experience of beauty, which influences one’s perception of themselves, others, and their environment. Through better understanding of why we experience beauty can a person evaluate their unconscious assumptions and conscious thought processes to redefine beauty for the better.
    • A Neurological Analysis of Current Solutions to Healthcare Provider Burnout

      Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Shamaa, Johara (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Most of us have all experienced situations involving high stress over an extended period of time that left us feeling exhausted. As a result, we might have felt withdrawn from our work, had low levels of energy throughout the day, and even experienced decreased efficiency. Everything felt like a never-ending chore due to the pressure. Neurological research has shown that our stress response is an innate process that is key to survival. This is performed through effects on our cognitive and physical states by influencing the brain, musculoskeletal system, and cardiovascular system [1]. However, our stress response can also lead to worsening impacts on our mental health when there are great environmental, physiological or emotional demands over a significant period of time [2]. The result of this is referred to as ‘burnout syndrome’ in the International Classification of Diseases [3]. Burnout syndrome is “a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed” [3]. One of the fields that is the most notable for burnout syndrome is medicine. Burnout syndrome in the healthcare industry is a well-reported issue that has been apparent for several decades. The American Medical Association (AMA) reports that most physicians work 40-60 hours a week with nearly one-quarter of physicians working 61-80 hours per week [4]. This statistic does not include the hours they have all spent working 24-hour on-call shifts repeatedly throughout their medical school and residency training. Moreover, nurses regularly work 12-hour shifts [5]. The high stress and long hours can lead to detrimental results, including workforce shortages, worsening of care for patients, and impacts on the physical, emotional and mental health of the providers [6]. It is important to manage the well-being of the healthcare staff to avoid these results. Two of the methods that have been studied to mitigate these outcomes include intermittent naps and increasing illuminance during overnight shifts [7–9]. This article will closely examine these enactments to observe whether they truly overcome provider burnout.
    • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: The Future of Depression Treatment

      Shah, Mansi; Skudlarek, Regan; Immell, Morgan (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
    • Pavlov's Dogs, Technology's Humans

      Shah, Mansi; Chauhan, Mantek; Hollar, Rachael (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      Pavlov’s experiment is widely known as a revolutionary discovery in the psychological community. It resulted in the development of the idea known as classical conditioning. Pavlov’s experiment illustrates this concept by using dogs as its subject, showing an initially neutral stimulus that does not result in a response, and how it evolves to become a conditioned stimulus that elicits a conditioned response. This article will investigate this type of conditioned response in humans, specifically in how they react to a stimulus of phone notifications.
    • Using Acid Against Addiction: The Dawn of Psychedelic Assisted Therapy

      Shah, Mansi; Onwukanjo, Obi; Ataher, Aleena (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
      One of the world’s most powerful psychedelic drugs, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), was never meant to be discovered. Albert Hoffman, commonly known as “the Father of LSD”, unexpectedly came across the drug while working as a research chemist in the 1930s. His job was to repeatedly break down ergot, a fungus that grows parasitically on rye plants, into various types of lysergic acid. During the initial testing of his 25th substance, the soon-to-be famous LSD-25, he noted that the experimental animals became restless, but the substance garnered no special interest. Five years later, Hofmann decided to resynthesize LSD-25. As he completed the final steps of the process, Hofmann suddenly became lost in “an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures of extraordinary plasticity with intense, kaleidoscope-like plays of colors”, most likely due to trace amounts of the substance coming into contact with his fingertips and absorbing through the skin. Fascinated by the experience, Hofmann took more LSD. Unaware of the drug's potency, he orally consumed 0.25 milligrams - five times the recommended dose. As its effects set in, he slipped into a psychedelic nightmare. His vision wavered and distorted as if he was looking into a curved mirror. The room spun in circles around him, and his furniture took on increasingly threatening forms. Hofmann felt for a moment as if he was losing his grip on reality and knocking on the doorstep of insanity, but as the drug’s effects dwindled, he instead found himself enjoying the remarkable sensations - sounds being transformed into vivid optical perceptions, fantastic mental images culminating in kaleidoscopic explosions, and a new world revealing itself to be explored. Hofmann woke up the next day to feelings of well-being and renewed life force flowing through him. He saw the world as if it was newly created, and with that, the mystery of LSD-25 officially began.
    • Grey Matters, Issue 5, Spring 2023 (Front and Back Matter)

      Shah, Mansi; Rojek, Olivia; Sigler, Danni; Myers, Hailey; O'Hanlon, Kaitlyn (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2023-05-09)
    • Sociopolitical Influence and the Impact of Deterrence: An Examination of the ICC's Effectiveness in Preventing Global Human Rights Abuses

      Pollack, Mark A., 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Imagine a world where perpetrators of repeated human rights abuses can escape justice and even sabotage the efforts of those who seek to hold them accountable. This is the reality that the International Criminal Court (ICC) faces in its mission to deter and prosecute international crimes. In this paper, I will argue that the ICC is largely ineffective in deterring human rights abuses by leaders abroad, based on descriptive qualitative studies of several cases involving Russia, Afghanistan, Libya, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, and Kenya, where political influence, among other related factors, undermined the court’s authority and legitimacy. My research question is as follows: How effective is the ICC in deterring international human rights abuses by leaders? I hypothesize that the ICC is mostly ineffective in deterring human rights abuses abroad, especially by political leaders, albeit with a few notable exceptions. Utilizing information from primary sources, such as the press comments of relevant politicians and firsthand news articles detailing the events, and secondary sources, such as court documents and journal articles, This paper argues that the ICC is not only circumvented, but frequently undermined by political influence. Renown executives, such as the George Bush administration in the U.S. or William Ruto in Kenya, were able to directly interfere with investigation efforts by witness tampering or manipulating legal loopholes. In these cases, innate vulnerabilities were exposed, showing the ICC can be rendered powerless against human rights abuses. A historical and theoretical study on these cases and the implication of their respective ICC interactions will be the leading basis of my paper.
    • Swann's Way: Marcel Proust's Sanctuary of Remembrance

      Joshi, Priya (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      The following examination of the metaphors and memories that shape Swann’s Way utilizes context surrounding Proust’s aesthetic affinity for English writer John Ruskin, whose philosophical ideas he translated into French and diffused into his own oeuvre. The origins of Proust’s metaphors are understood further in their wider social function in the novel, which will be discussed alongside Marxist critic Walter Benjamin’s essay “The Image of Proust” that fully shapes this discussion as one of both the inner and outer spheres of experience that the novel is preoccupied with. Ultimately, Proust’s veneration for the value of a writer’s words – the artist’s capturing of an object, a person, an experience – surpassing the object itself is what defines his status within the modernist milieu. Proust posits an empiricist theory made fully literary as he reenacts the writer’s journey towards a fully realized artistic perception amidst the crowdedness of modernity, marking the social and interior selves as intertwined.
    • Unpacking Social Impairment in those with Opioid Use Disorder: Linking Impulsivity, Childhood Trauma, and the Prefrontal Cortex

      Sinko, Laura (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Background: Challenges with social functioning, which is a hallmark of opioid use disorder (OUD), are a drawback in treatment adherence and maintenance. Yet, little research has explored the underlying mechanisms of this impairment. Impulsivity, a known risk factor for OUD, and corresponding neural alterations may be at the center of this issue. Childhood adversity, which has been linked to both impulsivity and poorer treatment outcomes, could also affect this relationship. This study aims to understand the relationship between impulsivity and social functioning in those recovering from OUD. Differences in the prefrontal cortex will be analyzed, as well as potential moderating effects of childhood trauma. Methods: Participants with (N=16) and without (N=19) social impairment completed a survey (e.g., social functioning, Barrat’s Impulsivity Scale, Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and cognitive tasks while undergoing neuroimaging. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a modern, portable, and low-cost neuroimaging technology, was used to measure prefrontal cortex activity during a behavioral inhibition task (Go/No-Go task). Results: The socially impaired group (n=16) was significantly more impulsive (t(33)= -3.4, p< 0.01) and displayed more depressive symptoms (t(33) = -2.8, p <0.01) than those without social impairment (n=19). Social functioning was negatively correlated with impulsivity (r=-0.7, p<0.001), such that increased impulsivity corresponded to decreased social functioning. Childhood trauma emerged as a moderator of this relationship, but only when controlling for the effects of depression, B=-0.11, p=0.023. Although both groups had comparable Go/No-Go task performance, the socially impaired group displayed greater activation in the dorsolateral (F(1,100.8)=7.89, p<0.01), ventrolateral (F(1,88.8)= 7.33, p<0.01), and ventromedial (F(1,95.6)= 7.56, p<0.01) prefrontal cortex during impulse control. Conclusion: Beyond being more impulsive, individuals with social impairment exhibited differential activation in the prefrontal cortex when controlling responses. Furthermore, the impact of impulsivity on social functioning varies depending on ACEs demonstrating that it must considered in treatment approaches. These findings have implications for addressing social needs and impulsivity of those in recovery, highlighting the importance of a more personalized, integrative, and trauma-informed approach to intervention.
    • International Students’ Academic Challenges at American Colleges

      Rhee, Eunsook Ha (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      The United States of America is one of the most popular destinations for international students seeking higher education. The colleges attract a diverse group of students from different cultural backgrounds. The American learning culture is subject to many literal works and includes widely spread subtopics that can be considered. Other learning cultures that international students have brought from their countries cause academic challenges that might affect international students’ performances in class. Overwhelmed by the transition from accustomed international education systems to the American College system, a lot of students are confronted with challenges in their academic careers. Examining academic challenges is crucial in order to assist international students in overcoming these obstacles and enhancing their academic performance. This literature review focuses on the academic challenges that international students face at American colleges by examining what research has already been done and what needs to be improved when it comes to dealing with students of different origins. The key points of the literary sources are mostly connected to the language barrier as well as the diversity of academic cultures, which depict a challenge and can influence the student’s academic education negatively.
    • Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization: Gender Stereotypes and Assumptions in the Language of the Supreme Court.

      Pollitt, Jennifer (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Through a textual analysis of Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization, this project seeks to better understand and compare the language used by the Supreme Court in the majority and dissenting opinions through a lens of gender and sexuality. To better understand the biases that influence the Supreme Court, this study was conducted through a textual analysis of both the majority and dissenting opinions in Dobbs. The analysis identifies differences in the language used in the majority and dissenting opinions.
    • Complex Resonance: Complementary Contrast in the Works of Mitchell/Giurgola and Venturi Scott Brown and Associates

      Meninato, Paul (Temple University. Libraries, 2024)
      Precursors to the Modern movement in the vein of styles such as Neo-Classicism arguably set conventions, or at least assimilated standards, for which architecture was designed in much of the western world prior to the industrial revolution. Despite these developments, the implications of industrialization and the scientific-technological advancements made in the 19th and early 20th centuries ultimately culminated in an unprecedented wave of homogeneity in architecture. The epitome of canonical Modernism—the International style—characterized by stripped, light-weight, planar forms which promoted the interior free-plan, was envisioned and promoted most famously in the likes of designers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe. This style rose to prominence precisely because such practitioners looked to these developments as capable of liberating architecture from the hindrances of tradition. The universality of this kind of architecture was evident in the sense that aspects of the movement had spread beyond Europe and America in one way or another before the outbreak of World War II.
    • Disordered Displays of Emotions: An Exploration of Pseudobulbar Affect

      Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-12-20)
      For many of us, our emotional responses to situations seem to almost follow a universal script. Different scenarios generally tend to elicit different emotional outputs based on the affective tone of the scenario itself to the severity of its emotional quality. When we recount a mildly funny situation to a coworker by the water-cooler, we expect them to politely chuckle for a brief moment. Meanwhile, while watching comedy specials of our favorite comedians, we would predictably allow ourselves to let out gut-busting laughs complete with a touch of knee-slapping and a single happy tear. Spilling coffee on a favorite shirt would not draw out anything more than a frown, but news of the sudden death of a loved one may send us into a sustained, hysterical, body-racking cry. These are the emotional norms we follow both implicitly and deliberately. ‘X’ emotional stimulus outputs ‘y’ emotional response, in which ‘y’ is both mood-congruent and lasts for an appropriate duration of time. However, in some people with a rare neurological condition called Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA), something in this system gets disrupted. The bout of laughter that you and I would let out in response to a well-crafted stand-up joke may be elicited by a PBA patient even if they were not provoked. While I might feel a twinge of displeasure if I receive harsh feedback from an editor on this article, someone with PBA would probably exhibit a prolonged cry to something of a similar negative valence. This article explores the symptoms, underlying pathophysiology, and proposed treatment of Pseudobulbar Affect, a neurological condition marked by episodes of sudden, uncontrollable, mood-incongruent and inappropriate crying and / or laughing.