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The Undergraduate Works collection showcases and preserves the scholarly work being done by students at Temple University.

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  • Bach Transcribed for Oboe: History and Interpretation

    Zohn, Steven David, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Johann Sebastian Bach’s solo oboe music, though regarded today as a treasure, does not really exist as such. Instead, these pieces come down to us as harpsichord concertos (and in some cases church cantata movements) that have been later reconstructed for solo oboe. For example, Bach’s Concerto in C Minor for violin, oboe, and strings (BWV 1060R), was reconstructed from a work for two harpsichords and strings when nineteenth-century scholars realized the high probability of the solo parts originally having been conceived for oboe and violin (which are more soloistic instruments than the harpsichord). In this paper, I focus on performance approaches and styles to the first movement of BWV 1060R. After explaining how Bach’s solo oboe repertoire was derived from his keyboard concertos and church cantatas, I investigate the performance traditions of this movement from the mid-twentieth century to the present using a variety of recordings. This evaluation is based in part on my own experiences of playing oboe and listening to professional oboists. My goal is to clarify not only the history of J.S. Bach’s solo oboe repertoire, but also to reveal how the history of performing the opening Allegro of BWV 1060R on the oboe has unfolded, and how it is still developing today.
  • Deafness in Australia: Where to Go from Here

    Hall, Matthew L.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    In 1982, the company Cochlear Ltd. was founded and based in Australia, and in collaboration with the Australian government, "sought to bring the cochlear implant to market” (Blume, 2010; Cochlear Ltd.). Today, 80% of Australia Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children are implanted with a cochlear implant (Hyde, 2005). Cochlear claims that they “empower people to connect with others and live a full life.” But what is stopping a DHH person from living a full life? Many people in the Australian Deaf community would argue that being Deaf is not a loss, and that being connected to one’s Deaf identity and a sign language is empowering and meaningful, and certainly a part of a “full life” regardless of if cochlear implant is involved (Levitzke-Gray, 2016). The role of the cochlear implant is established in its founding but is nevertheless symbolic of a broader issue. The othering of DHH people is not unique to Australia, but certainly a key reason why DHH people struggle there. The reliance on cochlear implants can delay language acquisition, as the subsequent reliance on spoken language, as opposed to a sign language like Australian Sign Language (Auslan), affects a person’s ability to navigate the world (Levitzke-Gray, 2016; Madden, 2008; Winn, 2007). This missed opportunity for acquiring language more easily for DHH people – which would open the gates earlier for things such as socialization, connection to Deaf culture, access to health care, etc. – affects a Deaf Australian’s right to a healthy life. Organizations such as Deaf Australia and activists like Drisana Levitzke-Gray advocate for doctors and the people of Australia to recognize sign languages like Auslan as a full and useful language, and for acceptance of Deaf people and their culture, and to not rush to “fix” a DHH child with a cochlear implant, which often do not work as intended or make the child “hearing” (Madden, 2008). The Australian government, too, is being asked to step up and ensure rights to people with disabilities as they promised by signing the UN’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This paper will explore these two options to help the DHH people of Australia, and recommend which direction is best.
  • Beloved, Beyoncé, and the Burdens Of Our Past: A Critical Examination of Healing From Trauma in the African American Gothic

    Newman, Steve, 1970-; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Despite being created nearly thirty years apart, Beloved and Lemonade are remarkably similar historical projects: both texts critically engage with America’s legacy of systemic racism to explore how past injustices create present-day inequality, arguing that the racist institutions that slavery was founded on did not disappear with the Emancipation Proclamation but instead continue to dramatically affect the everyday lives of people of color decades and centuries later. Both Morrison and Beyoncé allegorize this argument in their respective texts: in Beloved, Sethe acts as a microcosm for Reconstruction-era Black Americans grappling with the omnipresent effects of slavery’s legacy less than two decades after the end of the Civil War; whereas in Lemonade, Beyoncé uses her personal experience coming to terms with her husband’s infidelity as a way to examine racism’s effect on the Black family throughout American history. In both cases, this allegory serves as each woman’s proposed guide for personal and national healing in a country haunted by its racist past and present, and in both texts, the essential question becomes how to create a more just future from the wreckage of an unjust past — how to move “forward,” as Beyoncé sings in Lemonade’s emotional peak. The critical difference, however, is in how each author’s historical project merges the past and present and the largely different conclusions they come to as a result. This paper will focus on these differences between Beloved and Lemonade’s engagement with the past as a vessel for understanding the present through a comparative analysis of these texts’ functions as projects for personal healing, literary storytelling, and historical reexamination. First, I will explore the texts’ unique differences in medium and structure, paying attention to how the merging of past and present becomes an essential part of the storytelling process for each author. Second, I will contextualize each text within the legacy of African American Gothic literature, focusing on how the texts’ interest in Gothic symbols and motifs — especially ghosts and haunting — further blend past and present in ways that dramatically impact each story. Third, I will examine how each author uses water and fire as competing symbols for different processes of healing, connecting each to the texts’ shared fascination with memory as a means of reintegrating the past into the present. Finally, I will demonstrate how the conclusions each author comes to about how to approach personal and national healing in the context of systemic racism lead to vastly different paths for establishing a more just future, and I will argue that Lemonade puts forth a much more definitive model for healing with the past than Beloved, which offers an inconclusive position that is more in line with the complexities that arise from this question.
  • Self-reported communication attitudes of children with childhood apraxia of speech

    Maas, Edwin; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Much of the research literature on childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) has focused on understanding, diagnosing, and treating the impairment, rather than examining its broader impact. The present study focuses on the Personal Factors component of the World Health Organization model. Two validated communication attitude questionnaires were administered to 12 children with CAS enrolled in an intensive speech-focused intervention. Children’s scores were compared to the questionnaires’ typically developing norms. Relationships to CAS severity, caregiver perceptions of communicative participation, frustration ratings during therapy, and change over a brief period were also investigated. Preliminary findings indicate that older but not younger children with CAS are more likely to have greater negative self-perceptions about their speech. No significant correlation was found between caregivers’ perceptions of communicative participation in various contexts and communication attitudes, highlighting the need to include more child self-report measures in research. Further implications for CAS assessment and intervention are discussed.
  • Coming Out Under a Dictatorship: The Rise of the Early Gay Liberation Movement in Brazil through O Lampião da Esquina, 1978-1981

    Ryan, Eileen, 1978-; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    This research project looks at the development of the Gay Liberation Movement in Brazil through O Lampião da Esquina, the country’s first gay publication to gain national circulation. A movement for gay rights emerged there during a military dictatorship that lasted from 1964 to 1985. During this period, the government had the power to torture its citizens and censor the media. Having this in mind, it is intriguing that a gay publication emerged in this context. At the time, economic instability and crumbling public approval rates motivated President Geisel to slowly transition back to democracy. It is in this context of transition that leftist and democratic social movements started to arise and that alternative newspapers like Lampião were able to emerge. Through an analysis of the articles present in Lampião, this paper aims to investigate the nature of the collaboration between Brazil’s social movements during the late 1970s. The following analysis suggests that Lampião was crucial in offering gay people a platform where they could see themselves represented and create a sense of community with a culture of their own. It also argues that Lampião embodies the complex relationship between the Gay Liberation Movement and leftist groups.
  • Bioretention Systems Optimized for Denitrification: Stormwater Management Practice Design Recommendations for Philadelphia

    Keston, Geoff (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    This paper proposes bioretention design features for land developers in the Philadelphia area. For areas that experience intermittent storms that produce high volumes of runoff and high concentrations of metals and inorganic pollutants, the paper recommends constructing bioretention systems with dimensions following the Philadelphia Water Department’s bioretention sizing table. The basin media should consist of loam or sandy loam modified with a carbon-rich amendment, while the drainage layer media should consist of an amended gravel/woodchip mixture. Three exploratory, inexpensive amendments — waste tire crumb rubber, coconut coir fiber, and biochar — were evaluated to enhance the performance of the bioretention system; these carbon-based adsorbents have been proven to remove metals and inorganic nutrients from contaminated water. By pyrolyzing coconut coir fiber at around 300 deg C, biochar amendments to the soil and internal water storage layers could enhance a bioretention system’s capacity to adsorb metals while also improving microbial and plant mediated nutrient removal and water retention potential. The bioretention system is expected to meet the PWD’s requirements for metal and inorganic nutrient pollution removal even in excessive circumstances, thereby allowing the developer’s project to proceed as intended while protecting combined wastewater systems and the surrounding urban environment from excessive contaminated runoff.
  • Managed sheep grazing can improve soil quality and carbon sequestration at solar photovoltaic sites

    Towner, Elizabeth; Karas, Tom; Janski, Jake; Macknick, Jordan; Ravi, Sujith; Towner|0000-0003-1618-2411; Ravi|0000-0002-0425-9373 (2022-01-13)
    Solar energy development is land intensive and recent studies have demonstrated the negative impacts of large-scale solar deployment on vegetation and soil. Co-locating vegetation with managed grazing on utility scale solar PV sites could provide a sustainable solution to meeting the growing food and energy demands, along with providing several co-benefits. However, the impacts of introducing grazing on soil properties at vegetated solar PV sites are not well understood. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the impacts of episodic sheep grazing on soil properties (micro and macro nutrients, carbon storage, soil grain size distribution) at six commercial solar PV sites (MN, USA) and compared that to undisturbed control sites. Results indicate that implementing managed sheep grazing significantly increased total carbon storage (10-80%) and available nutrients, and the magnitude of change correlated with the grazing frequency (1-5 years) at the study sites. Furthermore, it was found that sites that experienced consecutive annual grazing treatments benefitted more than intermittently grazed sites. The findings will help in designing resource conserving integrated solar energy and food/fodder systems, along with increasing soil quality and carbon sequestration.
  • Expounding on Anorexia: Cognitive and Structural Outcomes

    Brown, Remya; Kunta, Charita; Abraham, Ashish; Kuchibhatla, Vishwanka; Carroll, Ethan; Tassoni, Molly (2021-05)
  • The Feasibility of Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders with Neuroimaging

    Ghias, Kubarah; Vitelli, Gianna; Peters, Melissa; Abbasi, Aleena; Sposit, Chelsea; Matton, Matthew (2021-05)
    In the past few years, the number of individuals seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders has increased significantly [1]. Mental illness statistics continue to rise year after year. In his 2010 book, Robert Whitaker reported that the number of mentally ill had tripled in the past two decades [2]. In 2019, 56.4% of individuals ages 18-25 received mental health treatment, compared to the 45.9% receiving treatment in 2008 [3]. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death in persons aged 18-34. As of December 2020, Hedegaard and colleagues reported that suicide rates have increased by 35% since 1999. Furthermore, the report stated that 90% of the people who died by suicide were confirmed to have shown symptoms of mental illness [4]. These statistics are concerning and bring about a number of questions, one being the effectiveness of prescription drugs. Just how effective are these treatments? Furthermore, what limits improvement within the fields of psychiatry and psychology? One surprising limitation may be the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-5 classifies mental disorders using set symptom-based criteria and is the standard for clinical diagnoses. However, this manual does not come without fault and controversy. A growing number of researchers have cited concern about false positives that occur as a result of the Diagnostic Manual’s recently lowered diagnostic thresholds [5]. Neuroimaging, also known as brain scans, may be useful for improving diagnostic accuracy. Neuroimaging approaches involve assessing structural anatomy and functional activity. If health professionals can diagnose individuals based on brain abnormalities associated with psychiatric disorders, then there may be a lower chance of misdiagnosis and error. This article will explore neuroimaging literature to assess the feasibility of this approach. It will be organized by first considering current issues within the field of psychiatry and a review of neuroimaging methods before a discussion of potential strengths and limitations of the approach.
  • Bridging the Gap Between the Science & People Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury

    Sotelo, Angelica; Baffoe-Bonnie, Jude; Shah, Aarohi; Michel, Erin; Jozwik, Matthew; Cában Rivera, Carolina (2021-05)
    Most Americans have probably seen media coverage of a National Football League (NFL) game. Because American football is a full contact sport, it is probably not surprising that frequent collisions between players result in concussions, or “mild” traumatic brain injury (TBI) [1]. While concussions have been associated with American football and its players since 1994, athletes are not the only people affected by them [2]. 69 million individuals sustain TBI each year worldwide [3]. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), while a concussion itself is not life-threatening, it is the after effects of the concussion that contribute to complications which may hinder a person’s quality of life for some time [1]. Recent research on the oculomotor system and neuro-optometric rehabilitation may offer affected individuals more opportunities for concussion recovery. Concussions affect our brain in a multitude of ways, including our physical, chemical, mental, and visual processes; however, neuro-optometric rehabilitation is a glimmer of hope for those recovering from traumatic brain injury.
  • Walking Again

    Rahman, Areebah; Paroya, Sonya; Abraham, Ashish; Ayala, Victoria; Clay, Barbara; Young, Jennica (2021-05)
    Spinal cord injuries are known to be debilitating and in many cases, limit the ability to walk. This article will investigate how a research group in Germany has enabled functional recovery in mice after spinal cord injury. Motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs), along with catastrophic falls and sports injuries. Traumatic SCIs result from forced impact, such as from a car accident or sports injury, whereas non-traumatic SCIs involve an infection or slow degeneration of bones [1].
  • The Joker’s Therapy Sessions

    Al-Tikriti, Meena; Wolf, Madison; Sajeev, Nikita; Baak, Stephen; Myers, Hailey; Salla, Nikki (2021-05)
  • ALS: Diagnosis by Deduction

    Morgan, Gideon; Vajipayajula, Dhruv; Shah, Aarohi; McGrath, Rose; Swanchara, Melissa; Leonard, Brian (2021-05)
  • Trauma and PTSD: Understanding the Brain in the Midst of Recovery

    Blessley, Emily; Do, Alyssa; Forry, Taylor; Moonthianngam, Pathompon; Heidelbaugh, Samantha; May, Dana (2021-05)
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be considered in anyone exposed to a traumatic event [1]. Approximately 60% of men and 50% of women will experience trauma at some point in their life. Nonetheless, trauma exposure does not guarantee the onset of PTSD symptoms; typically, only 4% of men and 10% of women end up developing PTSD after experiencing trauma [2]. The psychological mechanisms in which PTSD is prevented within an individual is not well understood. Thus, recognition of the onset of symptoms and comprehension of the neurobiology of this disorder are critical for diagnosis, treatment and recovery [1].
  • The Social and Emotional Toll of Narcolepsy

    Mehta, Rutvik; Jiwanji, Mariyah; Singhal, Rashi; Gillam, Emily; Lockwood, Kathryn; Quarmley, Megan (2021-05)
    Normally, turning on the light in your house is as easy as flipping a switch. Now, imagine if the light didn’t work properly. Imagine that flipping a switch on or off meant guessing if the light would turn on or off, or just flicker. Not knowing what your light is going to do at any moment would severely limit your ability to function in your house and would be exhausting, frustrating, and very disrupting. For people with narcolepsy, this is an everyday reality. The light represents the brain of a person with narcolepsy, as they can feel tired or awake at any time, not knowing when sleep will attack. Although the physiological effects of narcolepsy are well-known and studied more, the social and emotional toll is not talked about as much but can have equally devastating and life-altering effects.
  • Brain-Machine Interface

    Lua, Esmeralda; McGuigan, Daniel; Rahaman, Arafat; Wanders, Siena; Neguch, Natalya; Bullock, Trent (2021-05)
    Requiring collaboration in the fields of neurobiology, electrophysiology, engineering, computer science, and biomedicine, Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) are an emerging multidisciplinary technology with countless potential benefits. The ability to record and interpret neuronal activity at a higher resolution and specificity is one of the exciting promises of BMIs. The applications of this technology provide hope for a vast number of individuals who suffer from a wide range of neurological diseases and disorders. It can also be applied to artificial prostheses, to provide limb sensation for amputees. Although BMIs hold immense potential, questions within the realm of neuroethics have raised concern. In particular, the possible exploitation that could arise through medical practices with the advancement of technology [1]. Where humans may potentially be given capabilities that surpass the norm, changing the perception of what it means to be human [1]. It is important to take into account that there are BMIs currently in place that have provided relief for various conditions. To name a few, the use of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson’s, spinal cord stimulation for those with intractable pain, and the use of motor prosthesis for patients with epilepsy [1]. However, these methods oftentimes only provide temporary or mild relief and are not inerrant. The trajectory of the BMIs outlined herein aims toward finding an ideal invasive mechanism to solve these drawbacks of mild and temporary relief. There are a vast number of neurological disorders that continue to trouble humanity both emotionally and economically [1], that could substantially change through the use of BMIs.
  • The Undeniable Link Between the Brain and Gut

    Rhoads, Brigham; Jurewicz, Abigail; Nghe, Amy; Oliveras, Kiana; Nelson, Vanessa; Gingerich, Alexa (2021-05)
    Nausea, heartburn, indigestion, constipation, and stomach pain are all kinds of gastrointestinal problems we have faced before. They are easy to dismiss as merely an upset stomach, but this mentality could build up and ultimately be detrimental to mental and physical health. Improperly caring for the digestive system can lead to extensive intestinal health issues. The microbiome is a collection of all of the microorganisms that thrive in the human digestive system. It is a cohesive network of beneficial, neutral, and negative bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses that help digest foods that are otherwise indigestible by our digestive tract among many other functions. Neglecting intestinal health by not nourishing the microbiome with proper nutrients, abusing medications, or excessive alcohol consumption can lead to a host of different health problems. For example, sleep disturbances, like insomnia, are a common symptom of a struggling gut. They can lead to chronic fatigue because the majority of serotonin, the neurotransmitter that is pivotal in mood and sleep, is manufactured in the gut [1]. A more acute health crisis that can develop from improper care of one’s gut is the formation of peptic ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. Peptic ulcers are caused by a breakdown of the mucus membrane in the digestive tract and result in chest and abdominal pain, weight loss, trouble breathing, and in extreme cases expulsion of blood [2]. Who would have thought that what we eat could affect the development of healthy gut flora, which then can contribute to declining mental and physical health? This article investigates topics regarding the gut’s impact on body and mind, what lifestyle choices cause dysbiosis, and how Parkinson’s Disease can develop beginning in the gut to demonstrate how central the gut is to overall wellness.
  • A Whole New World - Exploring Emotion in Music

    Brodsky, Rachel; Buddhiraju, Kirvani; Szmacinski, Ola; Calaku, Katie; Hobson, Sam; Brucato, Maria (2021-05)
    When Disney movies open with a murmur of classi cal music, crescendoing into powerful waves, they immediately transport us to animated lands of princes and princesses, talking animals and evil stepmothers. Or if you haven’t watched a Disney movie in a while, what about the recent allure of the sea shanty? When listening to the now-famil iar rhythm of the folk songs that traditionally accompanied labo rious tasks while at sea, we imagine ourselves on a 19th century ship, helping to raise the sail or hoist up the anchor. How do we create entire worlds for ourselves, whether familiar or from cen turies before, based on the music we hear? Human perception of music is influenced by pitch, key, tempo and other factors, which evoke emotion by activating the limbic and paralimbic systems [1, 2]. That said, the whole story behind music is still being sounded out, and some current theories are explored below.
  • Fungus Among Us

    Hilty, Christopher; Kitabwalla, Fatema; Pandey, Abhi; Bhatti, Saira; Sigler, Danni; Farkas, Daniel (2021-05)
    Everyone knows that drugs are bad for you. That’s why they’re illegal, right? This outdated idea is facing increased scrutiny, as we’ve already begun to see the prohibition and regulation of some of these substances being reexamined. For example, marijuana is federally recognized as a Schedule 1 drug, a classification that implies it has a high abuse potential and no recognized medicinal value. However, this classification has been challenged by many recent studies that have shown its potential as a treatment option for various conditions ranging from mild nausea to debilitating epilepsy [1]. Another drug in this Schedule 1 category is psilocybin, which was once considered a revolutionary tool in psychotherapy. This drug isn’t some modern creation synthesized in a lab, it’s a naturally occurring substance found in certain species of mushrooms . The ritual consumption of these mushrooms dates back thousands of years in Mexico, where it had been used for both medicinal and spiritual purposes [2]. In the late 1950’s, isolation of the psy choactive psilocybin molecule allowed scientists to evaluate its potential as a treatment option for various mood disorders and alcoholism [3]. However, as the war on drugs ramped up, funding for these studies dried out. After a hiatus that spanned multiple decades, research on this promising molecule is finally resuming. Recent studies indicate that psilocybin can be a powerful treat ment option for various ailments such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), addiction, and depression. Its ability to produce a “mystical-type experience” is thought to be correlated with its effectiveness, though the cause of this experience is still under investigation [4]. Despite the uncertainty surrounding this phenomenon, the positive therapeutic results of the drug offer hope for a new tool to fight the rising mental health issues and addic tion epidemics that lurk below the surface of our society.
  • Grey Matters, Issue 1, Spring 2021

    Sajeev, Nikita; Nelson, Vanessa (2021-05)

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