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The Undergraduate Works collection showcases and preserves the scholarly work being done by students at Temple University.

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  • Using a Size-Spectrum Community Model to Simulate the Carbon Cost of Different Fishing Strategies: Why Size Matters

    Jennings, Robert; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The net effect of carbon sequestration in deep sea sediments in response to phytoplankton blooms has been very well studied. Recently, researchers have started to view large marine species as analogous to terrestrial old growth forests, holding onto carbon stores between seasons and years and eventually the deep sea when they die. By removing heterotrophs from the marine environment through whaling or fishing, the net carbon in the community of organisms can decrease, adding to greenhouse gas emissions. Through mizer, a size-spectrum model, food chain interactions in response to different size-selective fishing strategies were simulated. The results suggest that fishing over a wider range of fish sizes to maintain a target yield can preserve more carbon within the community. This project introduces a novel ecosystem service that can be exploited through thoughtful fisheries management.
  • Graph Convolution Neural Network for predicting Photo-excited State Properties of Indole C8H7N Absorption Spectra

    Matsika, Spiridoula; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Absorption spectroscopy is a very important tool in chemistry which predicts which part of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by a molecule, giving a unique signature for each molecule. All photo-responsive biological phenomena (i.e., photosynthesis, photocatalysis, UV absorption of DNA leading to skin cancer, and fluorescence in biological systems) are initiated by absorption of light, so many recent efforts have been shifted towards accurately modeling the spectra of molecules, where the collective vibrational effects have been identified to significantly affect the spectra shape in electronic spectroscopy. With the growing promise of deep learning in predicting properties in photo-excited molecules, this research explores the feasibility of applying the SchNet deep learning model to predict excited states properties of a molecule with added complexity outside the popular QM9 and MD17 datasets. We have found the graph convolutional structure of SchNet to account for the molecular dynamics requirements and reproduce the spectra with significantly less time and computational resources.
  • Prepping for PrEP: A Qualitative Study of HIV Service Providers’ Experiences in working with Women Who Inject Drugs (WWIDs)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Purpose/Hypothesis: Women who inject drugs (WWIDs) are at elevated risk for HIV due to myriad factors including injecting drugs and engagement in sex work. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV risk when taken-daily and is indicated for use in this population. Few studies have explored barriers and facilitators to PrEP use in WWIDs despite the medication’s harm-reducing potential. As such, this study explored the perspectives of HIV service providers on PrEP care in WWIDs at a community-based syringe exchange. Methods: A purposeful sample of 10 HIV-service providers of WWIDs at a Philadelphian syringe exchange were interviewed. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read to develop a coding schema, coded, and analyzed by thematic analysis using the qualitative software, DeDoose. The Temple University IRB approved this study protocol number 25028. Results: Most participants were female (n=6), half were white, 20% were black, 20% Hispanic/Latinx, and 10% were multi-racial. Interviewees had a high-level understanding of harm reduction efforts in serving WWIDs. Barriers to PrEP for WWIDs included homelessness, gender stigmas, low socioeconomic status, mistrust in healthcare, PrEP and HIV misinformation. WWIDs can be empowered by emboldened patient-provider relationship, which may improve access and adherence to PrEP. To achieve empowerment, recommendations included bundling PrEP care with other services and female-focused events that may reduce HIV, PrEP, and help-seeking stigmas. Conclusions: Providers reported many barriers to PrEP use in WWIDs. Access barriers may be surmounted by linking PrEP-services with other health- and social services within a community-facing organization. PrEP adherence may improve when patients are empowered to surmount stigmas through PrEP education.
  • Immigrant Children and School

    Levi, Heather, 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
  • Development of the Student Sexual Health and Wellbeing Questionnaire

    Angel Adaros, Ada Esperanza (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    While university can be an exciting opportunity for sexual exploration, many young adults come into this experience with inadequate or inconsistent sexual health education and knowledge, and consequently experience negative sexual health outcomes. Universities can play an important role in providing resources that support students’ sexual health and wellbeing, however, this requires meaningful assessment of the students’ needs. Current measures for young adult sexual health and wellbeing are underdeveloped; often too narrow, biomedical, and outdated in their language, existing measures are not meaningful nor are they inclusive. The main objectives of this study were to (a) develop a revised, comprehensive definition of young adult sexual health and wellbeing, and (b) develop a meaningful, relevant measure for sexual health and wellbeing that could provide insight into university students’ needs. The questionnaire development process included creating an original measure for student sexual health, and a pilot study to assess the validity and reliability of the measure. The participants of the pilot study included a sample of 75 students from a small, private international university in Tokyo, Japan. Inter-item reliability analysis was used to assess the reliability for appropriate subscales, while all data was assessed for trends in participants’ experiences. The results of the inter-item reliability showed adequate to good reliability across all relevant subscales. Results showed that most students had received sexual health education during their schooling prior to entering university, and that outside of schooling the internet was, and continues to be, a primary source for sexual health information. While most students reported confidence in expressing consent, notably fewer felt confident with withdrawing consent. Regarding methods of sexual protection, students overwhelming showed comfortability with using condoms, yet were commonly unsure about using any other methods of sexual protection. Finally, while the majority of students acknowledged their sexual experiences affecting their emotional wellbeing, they much less commonly felt comfortable seeking related emotional supported when needed. Results of this study support previous research that the internet is a significant source of sexual health information, and support the benefit of utilizing a comprehensive definition for sexual health and wellbeing. They also provide key insight into directions of improvements that universities can take to provide support for their students’ sexual health. Provided the limited sample size of this study and the limited cross-cultural relevance for this measure, future research should continue include larger samples and consider adapting the measure to be specifically relevant for various cultural backgrounds.
  • Two Guns for the Reds: Bessie Burchett, Antisemitism, and Far-Right Philadelphia

    Glasson, Travis (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    "Despite its nickname as the “City of Brotherly Love,” Philadelphia saw a disturbing rise of far-right activism during the 1930s. On the frontlines, women saw their place as defenders of children, religion, and the American gender hierarchy against the Red Menace. Philadelphia’s most well-known female, right-wing agitator at this time was Dr. Bessie Burchett. In 1935, armed with two guns under her skirt and a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania, the high school Latin teacher would declare the Philadelphia public school system compromised by Jewish-Communist infiltration, and institute her own local Red Scare. Though the school system was embarrassed by her, and Philadelphia newspapers mocked her incessantly, Bessie Burchett was not alone in her crusade. Burchett’s critics dismissed her politics as fringe, hysterical, and Un-American, but she represented a trend of women’s increasing participation in far right politics. More importantly, Burchett became a cautionary tale for the conservative movement in the United States, particularly after the Second World War. While her obvious Nazi sympathies left few opportunities for vindication following the war, many of her ideas survived in hibernation through mainstream conservatism. This paper follows the life and career of Bessie Burchett through newspaper coverage, the police files of Detective Sergeant Jacob H. Gomborow, and Burchett’s manifesto, Education For Destruction, which outlines her views on communism in the schools, religion, and pride in one’s race."
  • Gender and Jazz: The Experience of Young Women in Jazz Education

    Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Temple University. Diamond Research Scholars (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The number of young women who participate in instrumental high school jazz education programs peaks in middle school, then drops precipitously throughout the high school years. Most high school jazz bands are populated by only a small percentage of female instrumentalists by the later years of high school. These percentages drop still further when examining female instrumental participation in jazz performance at the college level. While this disparity is well documented, efforts to understand and address the issue have lacked the perspective of the young women instrumentalists taking part in these programs.This qualitative research study, based on in-depth interviews with 16 young female instrumentalists, taking part in high school jazz education programs in different regions of the US and Canada, examines ‘band culture’ from the perspective of young women participants. The result is a portrait of their experience and an analysis of key issues relevant to the challenge of creating jazz education environments that sustain and support everyone.
  • Minimizing Cell Death During the Extrusion Bioprinting of Gelatin-Alginate Bioinks

    Danowsky, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    This proposal seeks to minimize cell death while extrusion bioprinting with a gelatin-alginate bioink. Extrusion bioprinting was chosen over other types of bioprinting due to its accessibility and cost to researchers. Two different nozzles, cylindrical and conical, are examined to determine a mechanical aspect of extrusion bioprinting that can be modified to greatly minimize the cell death of bioprinted scaffolds. Gelatin-algiate bioinks can vary in concentration, and this concentration was also varied as a candidate solution to obtain the optimal concentration while maintaining a high cell survivability. The conical nozzle was chosen as the optimal printing nozzle with low shear stress, low cell damage, and highest cell viability. The 4% gelatin 5% alginate bioink was chosen as the optimal bioink concentration with optimal viscosity and high cell viability. Together, the use of this nozzle and this concentration bioink will greatly minimize the cell damage that occurs during extrusion bioprinting, boosting the quality of extrusion printing, and making it all-around more viable. Extrusion bioprinting, due to its improved cell death percentage, will be utilized more often by researchers – this will potentially accelerate the innovation of bioprinting as an overall technology towards the final goal of bioprinting a fully functioning organ.
  • Case Study on the use of Pedal in Bach’s Fugue no. 17 in Ab Major BVW 1

    Zohn, Steven David, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    "Robert Schumann claims that “Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier should be a pianist’s bread and butter.” Whether the pianist is a young student, a teacher, or a performer, many musicians will agree with Schumann’s statement. Because so many play these pieces, there is much controversy on how to perform them, with not the least of the matters involving the use of the damper pedal or “finger pedal” on the modern piano. The damper pedal on a piano is controlled by the right foot, and finger pedaling is defined as keeping the fingers depressed in the keys for longer than written. Often, these two techniques are used in conjunction with each other to create a seamless legato and a thicker texture. Either way you decide to create legato and texture, there are two schools of thought: you should not use pedal because Bach did not include pedal indications (and it is additionally assumed these pieces were written for harpsichord, clavichord or organ), or you should use pedal and finger pedal to enhance what Bach has already written. So what do you do when you sit down to play a prelude or fugue from Bach’s Well Tempered Clavier? Do you plant your right foot firmly on the floor underneath the piano bench so as not to allow yourself to fiddle with the pedal? Do you let your instincts tell you where to add pedal? Do you look for others who have already explored this topic? The bottom line is that these decisions should ultimately be up to the performer, though it is important to note that they should always be musically informed. Recordings can give performers an idea of when to let the right foot sneak onto the pedal and when to keep the music “dry.” There are many places to use pedal in Bach’s Fugue no. 17 in Ab Major from book 1 of the WTC, thus it is highly informative to see which musicians (specifically from 1965 to 2000, as this is the date range of the recordings) decide when to use or when not use the damper pedal or finger pedaling to help the music along."
  • Impact of Warm Water Anomalies on Phytoplankton Composition in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Houskeeper, Henry; Kudela, Raphe; Cordes, Eric; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Ocean color remote sensing enables the study of sea surface temperature (SST) and phytoplankton on a large scale, although coastal systems remain a challenge due to their optical complexity. Here I focus on the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), a complex coastal system that lies in the lee of Point Conception, which partially shelters the region from strong equatorward winds that flow along the central California coastline. I use a remote sensing abundance-based approach that partitions Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations by phytoplankton size class and functional type to estimate the underlying biomass composition. I validate the remote sensing classification method using matchups with in situ time series of phytoplankton abundance, and perform a regional spatial analysis of Chl-a and biomass composition in the SBC to improve understanding of how phytoplankton may respond to future ocean temperature shifts in coastal upwelling ecosystems. In 2005, delayed upwelling-favorable winds throughout the California Current System (CCS) triggered a warm water anomaly that coincided with increased levels of toxic dinoflagellate species. Then in 2013-2015 the oceanic phenomenon known as the Blob resulted in record water temperatures in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. I examine whether the Blob triggered a similar shift in phytoplankton composition in the SBC as during the 2005 warm water anomaly. As harmful algal blooms (HABs) become less predictable and occur more frequently in the CCS, improvements to remote sensing methods for studying phytoplankton must be made for largescale analyses. To gain a socioeconomic perspective of this issue in California, I interview fishermen local to the Santa Barbara region and examine the effects that toxic blooms and warm water events have on their businesses.
  • Peer Victimization Predicts Neural Response to Simulated Social Feedback from Peers

    Olino, Thomas; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Peer victimization has been found to relate to internalizing problems, including depression and anxiety (Reijntjes et al., 2010). Research has also shown that peer victimization relates to neural response to social feedback, such as increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior prefrontal cortex to social exclusion (Rudolph et al., 2016; Will et al., 2015). The current study aims to examine the impact of peer victimization on neural response to social feedback using the Chatroom Task. It is hypothesized that higher levels of peer victimization will be associated with increased neural response to social feedback. Fifty-two adults (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.00) recruited from the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion Project at Temple University participated in the current study. The Social Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) was administered to measure levels of peer victimization, and the Chatroom Task was completed in the scanner to examine neural response to social feedback. Multiple regressions will be run with level of peer victimization as the predictor variable and neural response as the outcome variable using Statistical Parametric Mapping 12. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer victimization on response to social feedback and the associated internalizing symptoms.
  • High-Achieving Low-Income High School Students and their Awareness and Perceptions of Acceptance to Top-Tier Universities

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    The purpose of this study is to determine specific barriers that prevent students in a high-achieving low-income (HALI) school from applying to selective colleges and universities. Currently, there is a drastically lower number of HALI students applying to the most selective higher education institutions (HEIs) in the United States in comparison to their equally academically successful high income peers. Prior research has shown that there are many known barriers that hinder HALI students from submitting their applications to selective HEIs, but there is no current research about the most persistent barrier that affects application submission. Therefore, this study is looking to find if the lack of HALI student applications to selective HEIs primarily stems from negative self-perceptions of ability, a lack of awareness of selective HEIs, or a misconception of the selectivity of HEIs. More specific knowledge of student experiences before and during the college application process can be used to better inform supports for HALI students leading up to and during the college application process.
  • Assessing the Cherry Pantry’s First Year of Operation and Planning for the Future

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    This research examines how Temple University supports its food insecure students and what can be learned from other school’s support systems. This includes a broad survey of food security literature as well as a deeper review of how students experience the effects of food insecurity, and how the issue is further compounded depending on one’s gender or sexuality. An analysis of public data documenting food insecurity at Temple, in addition to interviews with Temple faculty and staff offer an insight into how well services like the Cherry Pantry are serving the student body. Identifying problems and successes is a crucial first step in improving student services, but this research then offers potential solutions for Temple by investigating what strategies have worked for other schools fighting food insecurity on their campuses. This research joins a growing body of literature that shows why food insecurity needs to be a major priority for all colleges and universities. A lack of access to affordable, nutritional food greatly affects the ability of students to live happy and successful lives and their ability to engage with their academic work.
  • Paving the Road for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Imaging of Myelin

    Patil, Chetan A.; Lemay, Michel; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), result in the deterioration of the myelin sheath that covers the neural cells of the brain. A microscopy method that can be used to assess the effectiveness of therapeutics aimed at healing demyelinating diseases and to further study these diseases is needed. Specifically, a microscopy method with high specificity to myelin and low photobleaching of myelin is needed. Photobleaching is the fading of fluorescence after repeated cycles of excitation. Currently, fluorescence microscopy and similar methods that result in photobleaching and use dyes have been used to visualize the myelin. Dyes, however, stain tissue samples and may affect molecular functions. Besides these methods, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has also been used. In contrast to other used microscopy methods, CARS microscopy’s photobleaching can be minimized, and CARS microscopy does not use stains. As an initial step toward investigating the ability of the CARS microscope to visualize different levels of myelin, which consists primarily of lipids, and to demonstrate CARS value for use in studying demyelinating diseases and in the development of therapeutic efficacy of drugs developed to treat MS; CARS imaging of lipid droplets in engineered adipose tissue was performed, and quantification and measurement of the lipid droplets was done. In addition, a mini incubation chamber for long-term in vitro imaging of demyelination was built, and a protocol for a demyelination study has been developed.
  • Talk Rocks: A Field Guide to Creative Writing

    McCarthy, Pattie; Buynevich, Ilya; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • Evaluation of Transcranial NIR Light Propagation for Photo-biomodulation of Neurons Using Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Modeling

    Patil, Chetan A.; Lemay, Michel A.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Research has shown that photo-biomodulation of neurons with near-infrared (NIR) light can stimulate their regeneration, and thus various research groups have developed devices that emit NIR light transcranially (through the skull) to stimulate neural growth in the brain in an effort to treat neurological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer’s. However, it is not clear that clinical device designs illuminate cells in the brain with similar parameters as those shown effective for neuro-regeneration in pre-clinical work. This project employed computational modeling and simulations to assess the effect of device design parameters on transcranial light propagation, in order to optimize illumination of brain tissue and cells and thus ultimately improve clinical results of transcranial NIR-emitting devices for neuro-regeneration. Specifically, this project consisted of the development of two computational models for transcranial NIR-emitting devices and the evaluation of three device parameters: wavelength, photon number, and power density, on transcranial NIR light propagation.
  • The Business of Beauty

    Toomey, Melissa (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    The Business of Beauty is a community site discussing female-geared companies and their portrayals of beauty. The site argues that, in order to empower women, female-geared companies should promote a healthy perspective of beauty by relaying that beauty is not the biggest achievement for women and advocating that everyone is beautiful. The site explores how companies and brands do this in their campaigns, examining photoshoots, websites, campaigns, and commercials of Aerie, Always, and Dove. Our purpose in examining these marketing strategies is so that we can deconstruct beauty standards, disconnect looks from worth, emphasize the other powerful parts of what makes women their best selves, and create a healthier perspective of beauty. Because this site is geared towards its viewers’ mental health and body image, The Business of Beauty offers a submission box for questions, suggestions, and art/writing on the topic.
  • The Intersectionality of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

    Scherer, Danielle (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This article examines the conditions under which the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (the Committee) evaluates an individual case brought against a state using an intersectional lens. It also analyzes the extent to which the Committee’s understanding of a state’s culture affects its evaluation of a case from an intersectional lens. As the global understanding of women’s rights begins to encompass a broader range of cultural perspectives and intersecting identities, understanding the jurisprudence of the Committee, which is responsible for interpreting the main international women’s rights treaty known as CEDAW, necessitates consideration for the extent to which the Committee incorporates this broader intersectional analysis into its legal reasoning. Utilizing concepts from literature on intersectionality and culture, the article analyzes the Committee’s legal reasoning in seven cases, comparing them by topic, by state, and by the Committee’s understanding of a state’s culture. It suggests the Committee is more likely to interpret the Convention using an intersectional framework when it identifies a state’s culture as a contributing factor to systemic discrimination against an individual’s intersecting identities, which it is more likely to do in cases involving non-Western states. This article will contribute to existing scholarship on the jurisprudence of CEDAW by integrating literature on intersectionality and culture to examine the Committee’s legal reasoning in individual decisions. It will also articulate the conditions under which individual women obtain justice for gender-based discrimination under CEDAW, shifting the focus of existing human rights literature from abstract theory to women’s lived experiences.
  • Kol Isha Atop the Mechitza: Finding a Women's Voice in Jewish Transgender Activism

    Alpert, Rebecca (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Just over a decade ago, the seminal anthology “Balancing on the Mechitza” marked the start of an era of tremendous growth in Jewish transgender life and activism. This paper explores how this movement has experienced its own form of “kol isha,” the restriction placed on Jewish women’s voices within traditional Jewish law. By applying parallels that the author finds in the work and experiences of Jewish lesbian-feminists, and in particular reading the Jewish lesbian anthology “Nice Jewish Girls” against “Balancing on the Mechitza,” the author attempts to forward insights about the ways in which Jewish trans activism has brought limited liberation for Jewish trans women. It explores what Jewish trans spaces might be able to learn from this history to further liberation not only for trans women, but for Jewish women more broadly. Utilizing the feminist concept that an author’s own position is not only inevitably represented within the work, but also of critical importance, it bridges this theoretical analysis with the authors experiences in Jewish trans spaces and advocates material changes to how these spaces are organized—including the democratization of power and authority, a renewed focus on the gendered division of labor, and a prioritization and exploration of women’s practices, both traditional and innovative. Drawing upon the work of Black feminists, it emphasizes the challenging nature of coalition work, and advocates a shared empathy and compassionate accountability between marginalized groups which inevitably replicate systems of oppression which they do not create. Rephrasing a question by Jewish lesbian-feminist Irena Klepfisz asked about Jewish lesbian oppression in the lesbian movement, it both proposes and explores: do I feel that by asking other trans people to deal with misogyny or transphobia I am draining the movement of precious energy that would be better used elsewhere? In doing so, it attempts to claim space for a woman’s voice.
  • Material Layering for Impact Mitigation in Football Helmets

    Danowsky, Joseph; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This proposal includes an analysis of three methods of material layering for impact mitigation in football helmets: a system that tunes pressure waves to a damping frequency of a viscoelastic layer, a four-layered system equipped with a soft external shell that can bend and compress with rotational and linear impacts, and a system that makes use of an open-cell foam impregnated with a non-Newtonian fluid. The methods were chosen because of their shared focus on dissipating the pressure and impulse of a collision, and this serves as the primary basis of comparison. Additionally, this proposal will thoroughly analyze the material selection and function of each layer within the helmet as a whole for each solution. After being compared on the basis of several criteria, the design of the Vicis ZERO1 is proposed as the most effective means of material layering for impact mitigation in a football helmet. While a focus on selecting a helmet with a focus on impact mitigation will not eliminate the risk of concussion, it will certainly help to reduce it.

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