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The Undergraduate Works collection showcases and preserves the scholarly work being done by students at Temple University.

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  • Impact of Warm Water Anomalies on Phytoplankton Composition in the Santa Barbara Channel

    Houskeeper, Henry; Kudela, Raphe; Cordes, Eric; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Ocean color remote sensing enables the study of sea surface temperature (SST) and phytoplankton on a large scale, although coastal systems remain a challenge due to their optical complexity. Here I focus on the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), a complex coastal system that lies in the lee of Point Conception, which partially shelters the region from strong equatorward winds that flow along the central California coastline. I use a remote sensing abundance-based approach that partitions Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations by phytoplankton size class and functional type to estimate the underlying biomass composition. I validate the remote sensing classification method using matchups with in situ time series of phytoplankton abundance, and perform a regional spatial analysis of Chl-a and biomass composition in the SBC to improve understanding of how phytoplankton may respond to future ocean temperature shifts in coastal upwelling ecosystems. In 2005, delayed upwelling-favorable winds throughout the California Current System (CCS) triggered a warm water anomaly that coincided with increased levels of toxic dinoflagellate species. Then in 2013-2015 the oceanic phenomenon known as the Blob resulted in record water temperatures in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. I examine whether the Blob triggered a similar shift in phytoplankton composition in the SBC as during the 2005 warm water anomaly. As harmful algal blooms (HABs) become less predictable and occur more frequently in the CCS, improvements to remote sensing methods for studying phytoplankton must be made for largescale analyses. To gain a socioeconomic perspective of this issue in California, I interview fishermen local to the Santa Barbara region and examine the effects that toxic blooms and warm water events have on their businesses.
  • Peer Victimization Predicts Neural Response to Simulated Social Feedback from Peers

    Olino, Thomas; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Peer victimization has been found to relate to internalizing problems, including depression and anxiety (Reijntjes et al., 2010). Research has also shown that peer victimization relates to neural response to social feedback, such as increased activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior prefrontal cortex to social exclusion (Rudolph et al., 2016; Will et al., 2015). The current study aims to examine the impact of peer victimization on neural response to social feedback using the Chatroom Task. It is hypothesized that higher levels of peer victimization will be associated with increased neural response to social feedback. Fifty-two adults (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.00) recruited from the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion Project at Temple University participated in the current study. The Social Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) was administered to measure levels of peer victimization, and the Chatroom Task was completed in the scanner to examine neural response to social feedback. Multiple regressions will be run with level of peer victimization as the predictor variable and neural response as the outcome variable using Statistical Parametric Mapping 12. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer victimization on response to social feedback and the associated internalizing symptoms.
  • High-Achieving Low-Income High School Students and their Awareness and Perceptions of Acceptance to Top-Tier Universities

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    The purpose of this study is to determine specific barriers that prevent students in a high-achieving low-income (HALI) school from applying to selective colleges and universities. Currently, there is a drastically lower number of HALI students applying to the most selective higher education institutions (HEIs) in the United States in comparison to their equally academically successful high income peers. Prior research has shown that there are many known barriers that hinder HALI students from submitting their applications to selective HEIs, but there is no current research about the most persistent barrier that affects application submission. Therefore, this study is looking to find if the lack of HALI student applications to selective HEIs primarily stems from negative self-perceptions of ability, a lack of awareness of selective HEIs, or a misconception of the selectivity of HEIs. More specific knowledge of student experiences before and during the college application process can be used to better inform supports for HALI students leading up to and during the college application process.
  • Assessing the Cherry Pantry’s First Year of Operation and Planning for the Future

    Neuber, Amanda; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    This research examines how Temple University supports its food insecure students and what can be learned from other school’s support systems. This includes a broad survey of food security literature as well as a deeper review of how students experience the effects of food insecurity, and how the issue is further compounded depending on one’s gender or sexuality. An analysis of public data documenting food insecurity at Temple, in addition to interviews with Temple faculty and staff offer an insight into how well services like the Cherry Pantry are serving the student body. Identifying problems and successes is a crucial first step in improving student services, but this research then offers potential solutions for Temple by investigating what strategies have worked for other schools fighting food insecurity on their campuses. This research joins a growing body of literature that shows why food insecurity needs to be a major priority for all colleges and universities. A lack of access to affordable, nutritional food greatly affects the ability of students to live happy and successful lives and their ability to engage with their academic work.
  • Evaluation of Transcranial NIR Light Propagation for Photo-biomodulation of Neurons Using Mesh-Based Monte Carlo Modeling

    Patil, Chetan A.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Research has shown that photo-biomodulation of neurons with near-infrared (NIR) light can stimulate their regeneration, and thus various research groups have developed devices that emit NIR light transcranially (through the skull) to stimulate neural growth in the brain in an effort to treat neurological diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer’s. However, it is not clear that clinical device designs illuminate cells in the brain with similar parameters as those shown effective for neuro-regeneration in pre-clinical work. This project employed computational modeling and simulations to assess the effect of device design parameters on transcranial light propagation, in order to optimize illumination of brain tissue and cells and thus ultimately improve clinical results of transcranial NIR-emitting devices for neuro-regeneration. Specifically, this project consisted of the development of two computational models for transcranial NIR-emitting devices and the evaluation of three device parameters: wavelength, photon number, and power density, on transcranial NIR light propagation.
  • Paving the Road for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Imaging of Myelin

    Patil, Chetan A.; Lemay, Michel; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), result in the deterioration of the myelin sheath that covers the neural cells of the brain. A microscopy method that can be used to assess the effectiveness of therapeutics aimed at healing demyelinating diseases and to further study these diseases is needed. Specifically, a microscopy method with high specificity to myelin and low photobleaching of myelin is needed. Photobleaching is the fading of fluorescence after repeated cycles of excitation. Currently, fluorescence microscopy and similar methods that result in photobleaching and use dyes have been used to visualize the myelin. Dyes, however, stain tissue samples and may affect molecular functions. Besides these methods, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has also been used. In contrast to other used microscopy methods, CARS microscopy’s photobleaching can be minimized, and CARS microscopy does not use stains. As an initial step toward investigating the ability of the CARS microscope to visualize different levels of myelin, which consists primarily of lipids, and to demonstrate CARS value for use in studying demyelinating diseases and in the development of therapeutic efficacy of drugs developed to treat MS; CARS imaging of lipid droplets in engineered adipose tissue was performed, and quantification and measurement of the lipid droplets was done. In addition, a mini incubation chamber for long-term in vitro imaging of demyelination was built, and a protocol for a demyelination study has been developed.
  • Talk Rocks: A Field Guide to Creative Writing

    McCarthy, Pattie; Buynevich, Ilya; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • The Business of Beauty

    Toomey, Melissa (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    The Business of Beauty is a community site discussing female-geared companies and their portrayals of beauty. The site argues that, in order to empower women, female-geared companies should promote a healthy perspective of beauty by relaying that beauty is not the biggest achievement for women and advocating that everyone is beautiful. The site explores how companies and brands do this in their campaigns, examining photoshoots, websites, campaigns, and commercials of Aerie, Always, and Dove. Our purpose in examining these marketing strategies is so that we can deconstruct beauty standards, disconnect looks from worth, emphasize the other powerful parts of what makes women their best selves, and create a healthier perspective of beauty. Because this site is geared towards its viewers’ mental health and body image, The Business of Beauty offers a submission box for questions, suggestions, and art/writing on the topic.
  • The Current Political Climate and Its Effects on International Students in American Higher Education

    Pearson, Brad (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    This paper examines the political climate in order to determine if there is a correlation between the rhetoric and policies put into place by the American government and retention and admission of internationational students. Information about the government such as President Donald Trump’s policies are examined and included as evidence. This evidence is then checked against statistics of the retention and admission of international students to determine if there is an effect of the rhetoric utilized and policies put into place. This paper will first provide historical context of international students and compare it to the modern day landscape and then provide background of the current political climate in 2018. Lastly, this paper includes the effect international students have on American higher education. It is largely suggested that the United States will remain a leader in global education and that there will not be any large decreases in international student enrollment anytime soon; however, it is still important for a universities and policy makers to make students of all races, creed, ethnicity, religion, and sexuality feel welcome despite what the American government may portray.
  • The Diary of Sandra Washington: A Lens into the World of the Philadelphia Black Panthers

    Mislin, David; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This project is in the form of an “unessay” project about the Philadelphia chapter of the Black Panther Party during its most active years. Composed of five diary entries, the reader dives into life from the perspective of a fictional character named Sandra Washington. She is a 14–15-year-old girl from North Philadelphia during the years 1969-1971. Sandra, an aspiring writer, is fascinated with the Party because of their uncompromising commitment to social justice and fighting for equality. There were initial concerns about finding sufficient articles specifically about the Philadelphia chapter to write the diary entries, due to COINTELPRO and lack of documentation of BPP activities from its members. Fortunately, the secondary sources used for these diary entries described Panther activities were well supported with sources and respected the legacy of the organization. This project hopes to shed light on an important part of Philadelphia’s history and celebrate important community programs developed by its Panthers.
  • The Intersectionality of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

    Scherer, Danielle (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This article examines the conditions under which the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (the Committee) evaluates an individual case brought against a state using an intersectional lens. It also analyzes the extent to which the Committee’s understanding of a state’s culture affects its evaluation of a case from an intersectional lens. As the global understanding of women’s rights begins to encompass a broader range of cultural perspectives and intersecting identities, understanding the jurisprudence of the Committee, which is responsible for interpreting the main international women’s rights treaty known as CEDAW, necessitates consideration for the extent to which the Committee incorporates this broader intersectional analysis into its legal reasoning. Utilizing concepts from literature on intersectionality and culture, the article analyzes the Committee’s legal reasoning in seven cases, comparing them by topic, by state, and by the Committee’s understanding of a state’s culture. It suggests the Committee is more likely to interpret the Convention using an intersectional framework when it identifies a state’s culture as a contributing factor to systemic discrimination against an individual’s intersecting identities, which it is more likely to do in cases involving non-Western states. This article will contribute to existing scholarship on the jurisprudence of CEDAW by integrating literature on intersectionality and culture to examine the Committee’s legal reasoning in individual decisions. It will also articulate the conditions under which individual women obtain justice for gender-based discrimination under CEDAW, shifting the focus of existing human rights literature from abstract theory to women’s lived experiences.
  • Reducing Gait Compensation and Osteoarthritis in Unilateral Amputees Through Prosthesis Design

    Danowsky, Joseph; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    The objective of this project proposal is to reduce the secondary physical condition of osteoarthritis in the intact leg in unilateral amputees. Osteoarthritis prevalence is greatly increased in amputees using lower limb prostheses due to compensation while walking. By reducing the compensation in gait and thereby the forces that act on the intact leg, the risk of osteoarthritis is also reduced. Presented solutions to this problem involve the specific design and material properties of the device. A microprocessor-controlled knee joint, controlled energy storage and return foot, and optimization of stiffness in the foot prosthetic are all viable solutions that successfully reduce compensation. By comparison of studies conducted of each solution, the controlled energy storage and return prosthetic foot is determined to be the best option. This design greatly reduces forces on the intact leg and creates higher gait symmetry. Despite the more advanced technology and potentially higher cost, implementation of this solution will promote multiple health benefits in the lives of amputees, in addition to reducing compensation and osteoarthritis.
  • Material Layering for Impact Mitigation in Football Helmets

    Danowsky, Joseph; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    This proposal includes an analysis of three methods of material layering for impact mitigation in football helmets: a system that tunes pressure waves to a damping frequency of a viscoelastic layer, a four-layered system equipped with a soft external shell that can bend and compress with rotational and linear impacts, and a system that makes use of an open-cell foam impregnated with a non-Newtonian fluid. The methods were chosen because of their shared focus on dissipating the pressure and impulse of a collision, and this serves as the primary basis of comparison. Additionally, this proposal will thoroughly analyze the material selection and function of each layer within the helmet as a whole for each solution. After being compared on the basis of several criteria, the design of the Vicis ZERO1 is proposed as the most effective means of material layering for impact mitigation in a football helmet. While a focus on selecting a helmet with a focus on impact mitigation will not eliminate the risk of concussion, it will certainly help to reduce it.
  • A Very Catty Deep Dive: Facilitating Diversity in Video Games

    Guido, Abby (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    In this project, my intent is to show as much of the foundtation for this game as possible both in effort to share my research, and share my story with other interested parties. As such, while the contents to follow are complete from my self imposed standard in August of 2018, the true nature of this project is for it to grow, change, and evolve as I work and research more. As it stands now, I have been quietly working on A Very Catty Game for the better part of six years, beginning on a whim in my freshman year of high school. It has come a long way since then, and I expect that it will go a long way from now. This piece will serve as an important resource and a mark on the calendar to see just how far I will go in the future.
  • Kol Isha Atop the Mechitza: Finding a Women's Voice in Jewish Transgender Activism

    Alpert, Rebecca (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
    Just over a decade ago, the seminal anthology “Balancing on the Mechitza” marked the start of an era of tremendous growth in Jewish transgender life and activism. This paper explores how this movement has experienced its own form of “kol isha,” the restriction placed on Jewish women’s voices within traditional Jewish law. By applying parallels that the author finds in the work and experiences of Jewish lesbian-feminists, and in particular reading the Jewish lesbian anthology “Nice Jewish Girls” against “Balancing on the Mechitza,” the author attempts to forward insights about the ways in which Jewish trans activism has brought limited liberation for Jewish trans women. It explores what Jewish trans spaces might be able to learn from this history to further liberation not only for trans women, but for Jewish women more broadly. Utilizing the feminist concept that an author’s own position is not only inevitably represented within the work, but also of critical importance, it bridges this theoretical analysis with the authors experiences in Jewish trans spaces and advocates material changes to how these spaces are organized—including the democratization of power and authority, a renewed focus on the gendered division of labor, and a prioritization and exploration of women’s practices, both traditional and innovative. Drawing upon the work of Black feminists, it emphasizes the challenging nature of coalition work, and advocates a shared empathy and compassionate accountability between marginalized groups which inevitably replicate systems of oppression which they do not create. Rephrasing a question by Jewish lesbian-feminist Irena Klepfisz asked about Jewish lesbian oppression in the lesbian movement, it both proposes and explores: do I feel that by asking other trans people to deal with misogyny or transphobia I am draining the movement of precious energy that would be better used elsewhere? In doing so, it attempts to claim space for a woman’s voice.
  • CVE: A Comparative Assessment

    Pollack, Mark (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • Monumental Change

    Weatherston, Kristine (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    Monumental Change tells the story of Monument Cemetery, a prominent cemetery in the heart of North Philadelphia that was destroyed in the 1950s, where traces of its past can still be found throughout the city. With the cemetery as a backdrop, the film explores North Philadelphia’s history of expansion, gentrification, and how the removal of the dead in the 1950s echoes the removal of the living today.
  • From Civil Rights to Women's Liberation: Women's Rights in SDS and SNCC, 1960-1980

    Glasson, Travis; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
  • Choosing Permeable Pavement Design to Maximize Stormwater Management Capabilities

    Danowsky, Joseph; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
    The goal of this project proposal is to compare current permeable pavement designs, and suggest the best design to limit pollution due to stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces. Permeable pavements are pavements with increased pore space for water to pass through. There are three considered pavement types: porous asphalt, porous concrete, and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. The specific focus is to analyze the impact of material choice on the success of the pavement. The first priority is optimizing permeability by comparing hydrological properties of each pavement design including porosity, flow rate, and hydraulic conductivity. Other parameters investigated affect feasibility of the design such as compressive strength, cost, storage capacity, and reparability. The assessment is based on the results of research studies and recommendations in construction manuals. The best pavement design utilizes porous concrete. Porous concrete has higher permeability, the main requirement for success in limiting runoff. Porous concrete also boasts reasonable cost, structural integrity, and reparability. A successful porous concrete pavement would lead to improved water quality in streams, decreased erosion of stream banks, and a decreased need for additional costly wastewater management structures. Most importantly, success would lead to long term cost benefits and public and environmental health improvements.

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