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  • 26/11 Mumbai Attacks

    Khanna, Yesh (2022)
    Around 9:30 PM on November 26, 2008, Mumbai witnessed multiple well-coordinated and near-simultaneous terror attacks that continued for the next three to four days. These attacks were carried out by ten Lashkar-e-Taiba terrorists, divided into multiple teams to maximize the element of surprise and effectiveness. By the time Indian security forces brought the carnage to an end, around 166 people were dead and more than 300 injured, making it one of the deadliest attacks ever on Indian soil. Given the magnitude, sophistication, and effectiveness of the attack, this was one of India's biggest intelligence failures. This paper is a critical analysis of the 11/26/08 Mumbai terror attacks and an examination of how Indian and international intelligence apparatuses failed to predict the attack.
  • 1971: The Bloodied Legacy of the United States in South Asia

    Khanna, Yesh (2021-05)
    In 1971, South Asia saw one of the most horrific genocides in modern history. It took place in East Pakistan (now known as Bangladesh) under the oversight of General Yahya Khan. This genocidal campaign was named Operation Searchlight; its primary objective was to 'suppress' the members and sympathizers of the Awami League - the Bengali nationalist political party, led by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman - protesting for greater autonomy of East Pakistan. Later, they started demanding complete secession and the creation of 'Bangladesh'. The military crackdown began on March 25th in Dhaka and neighboring areas with the Pakistani army killing civilians, firing indiscriminately at unarmed university students, and raping women. Even though the U.S. consulate in Dhaka witnessed these horrors and reported each and every update to Washington, the Nixon administration not only chose to turn a blind eye to the atrocities being committed by the Pakistani army in East Pakistan but secretly approved of Yahya's crackdown.
  • Friction in China-Japan Relations: Causes and Challenges

    Khanna, Yesh (2021-09)
    Because of its location, Japan has an array of unique neighbors, though not all of them hold a warm attitude toward the country. China is one such example - the recent actions of the Chinese government pertaining to the Senkaku Islands, its growing military might, and the country's hegemonic aspirations are all reasons why the Japanese Ministry of Defense classifies China as the biggest current threat to Japan. Given the facts that Japan is one of the United States' most strategic allies and China is the biggest threat to the United States' superpower status, it becomes more important than ever to better understand the history and the future of relations between the two countries. This piece explores various causes of Japan-China tensions and the strategic challenges that China poses to Japan.
  • United States in Somalia: An Autopsy

    Khanna, Yesh (2022-02)
    During the Cold War, the Horn of Africa region served as a battleground for proxy warfare between the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and KGB, the foreign intelligence acengy of the Soviet Union. Ethiopia was heavily backed by the CIA, whereas the KGB backed Siad Barre's authoritarian regime in Somalia. In 1977, Somalia and Ethiopia went to war against each other for control over the Ogaden region. This war turned out to be a disaster for Somalia, and Barre became more repressive, leading to anti-government protests and Barre fleeing Somalia in 1991. The immediate aftermath of this was the resurgence of clan violence which resulted in the collapse of whatever was left of the Somali government; this further led the country into economic chaos. The warlords, who headed these clans, found the perfect weapon to inflict damage upon one another: food. As Dr. Richard W. Steward writes in his brocher The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994: "as Somalia lapsed into sectarian and ethnic warfare, regional warlords drew upon clan loyalty to establish independent power bases. This situation led to a struggle over food supplies with each clan raiding the storehouses and depots of the others. Coupled with a drought, these actions brought famine to hundreds of thousands of the nation's poor." As a result, around a million Somalis started to flee to the neighboring urban areas where various non-governmental organizations were providing humanitarian assistance; additionally, around another one million Somalis were forced into exile.
  • The Modern State of Counterterrorism

    Gratson, Scott; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    In this post 9/11 era, how have countries developed their counterterrorism policies following major terrorist attacks? How have these counterterrorism policies affected the security and privacy of the citizenry? Through analyzing these counter-terrorism policies in the context of Policy Convergence Theory and Foucault’s concept of Panopticism, I seek to answer and understand these questions and more in the context of the present day. Policy Convergence Theory serves as a theory for helping understand why counterterrorism policies are similar and different across countries. Panopticism refers to the idea of humans acting accordingly to the feeling of being watched, an idea that has become much more apparent as more information about surveillance of citizens has been revealed. In this paper, I will be examining the United States, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia as case studies to answer my questions about explanations for counter-terrorism policies following major terrorist attacks and the lasting effects of these policies on privacy and security. The completion of this project marks a significant contribution to the study of counterterrorism and human rights around the world.
  • Examining the Barriers and Opportunities to Black Students along the Pre-Med Track

    Olsen, Lauren; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    For this project, I have engaged in research on one of the biggest impediments to diversifying medicine and eliminating health disparities: the pipeline problem. Black students in the medical professional pipeline face barriers and a lack of opportunities that prohibit their advancement to medical school. In my project, I focus my analysis on Black students’ efforts to successfully matriculate into medical school and how undergraduate institutions play a pivotal role in the process of becoming a physician. To engage in this project, I draw upon several disciplines, because the “pre-med” experience is unique and multifaceted, spanning the disciplines of public health, medicine, sociology, and education. After I did a thorough and synthetic literature review, I conducted qualitative research through interviews with pre-med students to identify resources and constraints that impact attrition, and the extent to which it is racialized. I focus on the inconsistencies between what is said needs to be done to increase the number of Black students matriculating into medical school and whether there is something being done. I find that there are four main areas of barriers: inequalities in college advising, inequalities in access to resources, and pre-med social support inequalities. Based on my findings, I conclude the paper with a few research-informed policy recommendations to address the gaps in pipelines to becoming a physician for Black students in medicine.
  • The Digital Presence of German Community Archives

    Melzer, Patricia, 1970-; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Humanities researchers find and utilize online data while researching. Often times, familiarity with programming, or the ability to use Digital Humanities (DH) tools increases the types of analyses that one can make with this digital data. For Digital Humanities research to be undertaken, sources and data must be extant and published in a digital manner. German archives that deal with counter-cultural milieus are typically independent of large institutions and are thus often poorly funded. These organizations typically do not have the funds to digitize their materials. This means that many of the sources housed in these archives are not included in historical and cultural analyses. This problem can be made visible using digital tools and interviews. The results of this project are multifaceted, including Python web-scraping scripts, a case study and quantitative assessment of independent archive websites, interviews with archivists, and an experimental case. The final part of my project will make recommendations to improve the online presence of German independent archives. The goal is to highlight the importance of digital tools developed specifically for accessing historical and social data stored in a decentralized network of archives and the contributions of the digital humanities to the larger humanities. I will present a paper that introduces descriptions and analyses of quantitative reviews of online archives, interviews with archivists, scraping scripts, and associated datasets.
  • The Neurological consequences of Early Life Stress

    Shah, Mansi; Johnson, Kareem; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Early life stress can be defined as extreme stress or trauma experienced by a child during developmental stages. This type of chronic stress can cause far reaching consequences well into adulthood. The following literature review will focus on the neurological consequences from ELS exposure. Studies show that ELS exposure can be linked to decreased hippocampus volume and blunted mesolimbic pathway, potentially increasing the risk of depression. ELS is also associated with increased amygdala volume and increased attention bias to negative cues, which might increase susceptibility to anxiety. Furthermore, insults during early childhood stages can affect the functioning and development of cognitive circuits, resulting in impaired learning and memory as evidenced by human and rodent studies. Epigenetic studies indicate that DNA methylation and BDNF expression can be altered by ELS. Fortunately, some epigenetic modulations can be targeted for therapeutic purposes.
  • Tales of a Just Transition: Nia & Lifelong Learning

    Winston, Celeste; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Decades ago, the American people woke up to the reality of the climate crisis and decided to build a future worth living. Soon enough, we reached net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by restructuring our economy to work for people: we established access to clean, safe housing and quality healthcare as human rights; we guaranteed good-paying, low-carbon jobs to all who wanted them; we secured lifelong access to education for all people who wanted it, and so much more. Today, life after the Just Transition looks different, but similar too. This holds true in Zion, a community in a familiar American city, and Zion’s New University, or “the New” as Zion’s residents call it. Let’s take a closer look at Zion and the New in 2054 and follow a day in the life of one particular student, Nia Greene.
  • Korean Development: Institutional and Ideological Origins of the Divergent Economic Outcomes in the DPRK and ROK

    Diamantaras, Dimitrios; Das, Sheyasee; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    North and South Korea are both distinctive in their heterodox approaches to economic development, governed by institutions unique to Korean history and influenced by broader international, ideological forces. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea adopted a variation of the Soviet model of controlled and centralized industrial development while espousing but failing to achieve self sufficiency through the national Juche ideology. A command approach, focused on heavy manufacturing, was retained over the more pragmatic market reforms seen in China, leading the DPRK to follow a similar arc to the USSR, seeing explosive early growth followed by stagnation and decline. The development approach of the Republic of Korea included further development of Korean liberalism and the adoption of 19th century European industrial policies, embracing an adapted approach that mirrored the processes of Japanese development. The tiered promotion of agricultural independence followed by a focus on export surplus enabled rapid development and was a foundational pillar of achieving long term growth. From these particular cases we can determine that development of agricultural self-sufficiency followed by the implementation of export oriented industrialization policy is the most effective means to achieve long term growth rather than the horizontal development of heavy manufacturing at the expense of consumer goods. Liberal democracy emerged in the South as an outcome of the economic prosperity that the country was experiencing, but the North failed to liberalize, even at its most prosperous, with the authoritarian regime only becoming more entrenched as the economy declined. In spite of this history, it is not a foregone conclusion that market reforms might be successfully implemented in the future, should the Kim regime relinquish some legal and economic control in favor of liberalization.
  • The Relationship between Strum Rhythm and Speech Pauses in a Trial Study of Music Enriched Verb Network Strengthening Treatment

    DeDe, Gayle; Eyre, Lillian; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Aphasia is a language disorder that may be caused by stroke or traumatic brain injury. Individuals with aphasia (IWAs) may experience difficulties with word finding, reading, auditory comprehension, writing, and/or other speech and language related challenges. Many IWAs receive speech-language therapy to address these issues. One speech-language intervention for this population is Verb Network Strengthening Treatment (VNeST), which focuses on action verbs and related subject-direct object (agent-patient) pairs. Music therapy (MT) has also been used to treat aphasia, exploiting elements common to speech and music such as pitch, rhythm, and prosody to address non-musical clinical goals related to verbal expression. MeVNeST (Music Enriched Verb Network Strengthening Treatment) is an experimental music therapy treatment currently being investigated by doctoral candidate Jing-Wen Zhang. MeVNeST follows the same steps as traditional VNEST but replaces spoken prompts and responses with improvised singing in the context of live, improvised guitar accompaniment. The purpose of both VNEST and MeVNEST is to improve clients’ ability to retrieve common action verbs along with related nouns. The present study focuses on the relationship between accented beats in the guitar accompaniment of MeVNeST sessions and the duration of pauses before and within client responses to clinician prompts. The goal is to determine whether certain strum patterns are associated with more efficient word retrieval. Two strum conditions were identified: a normative beat (unsyncopated) and a syncopated beat. Fourteen audio samples from Zhang’s study were considered: seven from each strum condition, drawn from two study participants. Music and speech data from two of these samples were then coded in Praat and analyzed in Excel. Results showed no statistically significant difference between strum conditions for pauses before responses. There was a statistically significant pause duration within responses, with shorter responses being associated with the syncopated strum condition. Future studies should continue to examine how rhythmic musical accompaniment might be used to support and enhance purposeful, fluent speech and to minimize verbal hesitations.
  • Sexual Selection in Pair-Bonding Versus Non Pair-Bonding Rodents

    Briand, Lisa A.; Temple University. Honors Program (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
    Energy investment in the production of offspring is gender dependent in rodent populations. Females expend more energy than do males, thus males must engage in competition to be considered by females, giving females the opportunity to select the fittest male. Male rodents mate strategically in order to have the highest likelihood of reproductive success with the lowest possible energy investment. Non-pair bonding males assure reproductive success by preferentially mating with previously unmated females. Unfamiliar females typically wander from their home areas, after mating females tend to return to their home territory, thus males are not required to perform paternal care. They exhibit an “all-or-nothing” mating strategy with previously mated females by increasing their mating duration and preejaculatory intromissions. In contrast, females of pair bonded species prefer socially dominant males that do not exhibit aggressive grooming behaviors and exhibit affiliative behavior. In these species, males have the highest reproductive success when they form a strong pair bond. Pair bond strength is maintained by high affiliative behavior including vocalizations, avoiding aggressive behavior, and abstaining from extra-pair copulations. Thus, we propose that females of non-pair bonding species prefer males that display a dominant phenotype, while females of pair bonding species prefer males that are likely to offer paternal care, pair bond, and refrain from aggressive behavior. Pair bonding research in rodents can have significant translational value to human relationships. Modified paradigms are needed to ensure pair-bonding rodent research can be modeled in humans.
  • Grey Matters, Issue 2, Fall 2021

    Shah, Mansi; Gibson, Eve (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
  • Alice in Wonderland Syndrome: Down the Rabbit Hole

    Ataher, Aleena (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    A young girl, age seven, wakes up one more morning to find her limbs have grown dramatically overnight. Her arm, once a mere ten inches, now extends fifteen feet from her body, while her hands have shrunk to a size similar to that of a blueberry. Her leg, once a comfortable few feet from her body, has narrowed to just centimeters in width. Amid her confusion, she recalls a situation similar to her own in a story she once read about a girl who follows a rabbit down a hole: Lewis Caroll’s popular children’s novel, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. British psychiatrist Dr. John Todd noticed this same resemblance during the 1950s when six of his adolescent patients came to him complaining of migraines and epileptic episodes, simultaneously reporting symptoms parallel to Alice’s experiences.
  • Brain in Harmony: The Role of Music in Rehabilitation of People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Gibson, Eve (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    Imagine you are running a marathon. You are on your last mile, struggling to keep a steady pace as your body starts to feel the exhaustion from a prolonged exertion of energy. You try your best to keep up with the person in front of you, but it is not enough. Instead, you choose to focus on the music playing on someone's speaker nearby. The strong beat influences you to synchronize with the music, matching each stride to the beat, creating a steady running pace. Focusing solely on the synchronization of your running to the music, a wave of energy fills your body and melts away the exhaustion you were feeling earlier. Before you know it, the last mile flies by and you cross the finish line, coming back to your body. This instinctive synchronization shows the impact of music on neurological and physical functioning. By uncovering the neurological mechanisms behind this synchronization process, clinicians can further explore possible treatment methods that utilize music to benefit individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Music-based interventions engage the whole brain which has the potential to facilitate neuroplastic changes and rehabilitation of people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) through rhythmic neural entrainment.
  • Machine Learning Applications to the Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Post, Cristen (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    Imagine you are enjoying a game of Pictionary with your family. As the picturist, you pick up a card from the deck. The card reads “umbrella” as you flip it over. You quickly start sketching an umbrella as the sand timer begins its one minute countdown. As you draw, a family member analyzes the drawing to guess the word. This game of Pictionary is analogous to machine learning, which is a type of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence (AI) is broadly defined as the use of computer algorithms in a way that imitates critical analysis and thinking analogous to humans. Machine learning is a subset of AI that allows computer algorithms to make accurate predictions based on a set of data. As children, we are shown pictures of objects, including umbrellas, and are taught that the image of an umbrella correlates to the word umbrella. This is the process of learning. Having seen umbrellas multiple times, our brains learn to associate the image with the word and can now recognize umbrellas. Similar to how our brains learn, machine learning allows for a set of computer algorithms (also known as a model) to learn by being shown a set of data and taught the patterns among it. The model can then make predictions based on a new set of data by applying the patterns it learned. As artificial intelligence (AI) improves efficiency and accuracy, it is emerging as a powerful tool to aid in providing solutions in multiple complex fields. Medicine is an example of a field that AI is used for, particularly the areas of diagnosis and treatment. Since neurodegenerative diseases at present have no cures, early diagnosis and avoiding misdiagnosis are crucial to ensuring patients have a good quality of life [3]. This article will investigate the application of machine learning techniques to the diagnosis and treatment planning of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Focal Dystonia: The Root Causes Underpinning the Yips

    Gibson, Eve (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    Cases of the yips have popped up from time to time in all different sports from MLB pitchers suddenly not being able to find the strike zone to professional golfers missing very short putts. A theory proposed by researchers to explain the yips is a motor dysfunction known as focal dystonia [2]. Dystonia describes a wide variety of movement disorders which are defined by intermittent or constant muscle contractions that create irregular and repeated movements [3]. It is worth noting that the yips affect not only gymnasts and golfers, but also a wide variety of skilled professionals, as the yips target fine motor skills and muscle memory [4]. The name of the phenomenon and the affected body regions vary depending on the area of expertise of the individual affected by this dystonia. Amongst golfers it is known as the yips, for professional gymnasts it is the twisties, and professional musicians call it musician’s dystonia [5]. What happens when the mind gets in the way of the body? Severe performance anxiety may be a catalyst for the yips. Psychological stress manifesting in muscular defects makes finding a treatment plan difficult and case specific. If the yips is not purely psychological, but is a motor control disorder, then how does a healthcare professional go about treating the symptoms?
  • Running on Empty: How COVID Has Affected Our Social Skills

    Kohol, Jaya (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    Being away from others can impact our state of mind. The lack of social interaction may invite feelings of isolation and loneliness. But, what does it look like on a biopsychosocial level when one experiences prolonged isolation? Scientists have taken a deep dive into discovering what this does to our minds. With lockdown restrictions being enforced across the world, incidences of psychosocial problems, which affect the individual and their social group, have increased.Isolation due to COVID-19 has had several negative effects on the population, but has especially put a strain on our social skills. This article will explore how COVID has impacted the way we communicate and will communicate with others.
  • Discoveries in the Genetics of Psychiatric Disorders

    Sigler, Danni (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    What makes schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders different from one another? Conceptually, both are thought to arise from early changes in brain development, and thus belong to the broader category of neurodevelopmental conditions [1]. Today, a particular neurodevelopmental or psychiatric diagnosis is defined by its specific symptomatology – the sum and constellation of an individual’s troubling behaviors and experiences.It was only in the past few decades that scientists have been able to study the biological origin of such neurodevelopmental disorders by examining their genetic contributions. This has been a rapidly advancing area of research and medicine. In certain cases, genetic diagnoses can now help understand and treat individuals with developmental conditions based on their specific genetic profile, in a more personalized and sophisticated fashion than symptom-based diagnoses alone could allow. Since an accurate and informative diagnosis is the cornerstone of good clinical decision making, it is important to acknowledge how advances in genetics are now enriching the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.
  • Step Aside Suboxone, There's a New Treatment in Town

    Gitlevich, Rebecca (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2021-12)
    Though the COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged the fabric of American society in the span of less than two years, the far more insidious opioid epidemic has been slowly picking the nation apart for much longer. Declared a public health emergency by the Department of Health and Human Services in 2017, the epidemic has claimed the lives of more than 800,000 people in the United States of America. Ibogaine can not only protect the body from opioids’ dangerous physical effects, but also help break the deadly cycle of addiction. Rather than sideline its use, the neuroscience community should focus on improving ibogaine’s safety and incorporating it into current rehabilitation therapy to create holistic, augmented recovery plans.

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