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  • Brief Guide to Sustainable Practices in Hospitals

    Siddiqi, Syed (2023-09-21)
    With the impacts of climate change becoming more apparent than ever, it is time to look at the leading causes of the worsening state of the globe. Not only will resolving these sources of environmental decay create a safer planet, it will lead to better health for those that populate it. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) has found that environmental hazards, to include air pollution, chemical exposures and extreme weather changes, can lead to several illnesses to include chronic disease such as cancer and asthma and acute symptoms such as heat exhaustion. Resolving these issues will lead to better lifestyles and life longevity. Surprisingly enough, researchers at Yale University and Northeastern University have found that hospital buildings are ranked second in the amount of energy that is used amongst all commercial buildings. The harmful health effects caused by the ones that treat and care for illnesses is ironic to say the least. It is important for changes in the healthcare industry to improve the community by practicing safer and greener methods of care. A few of the major areas that can improve sustainable practices within hospital systems are discussed below.
  • Language Hurdles in Healthcare: Bridging the Gap

    Siddiqi, Syed (2023-10-12)
    This article addresses the significant challenge posed by limited English language proficiency among the growing immigrant population in the United States, hindering effective communication in medical care. The inability to accurately convey symptoms and treatment information can lead to delayed diagnoses, prolonged treatment, increased healthcare costs, and potential complications. While in-person translator services are a common solution, logistical issues and resource constraints often impede their efficiency. The article explores the potential of digital translator services, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of tools like Google Translate. While studies show positive feedback from healthcare teams, concerns arise regarding the accuracy of translations, highlighting specific challenges in medical contexts and between certain language pairs. The need for innovative solutions to enhance the accuracy, affordability, and expediency of digital translation tools is emphasized, especially in the context of community-focused healthcare. The article underscores the pivotal role translation services play in modern medicine and the imperative for ongoing efforts to optimize their efficacy for improved patient care outcomes.
  • Proxy Warfare in Kashmir

    Khanna, Yesh (2023-01)
    The use of proxy warfare by Pakistan against India finds its roots way back in 1947 as both countries wanted complete control over the state of Kashmir. Using the tactics and resources from supporting the CIA in Afghanistan, Pakistan's ISI launched 'Operation Tupac' in Kashmir, aimed at creating multiple terror proxies to destabilize the region. A major component of Tupac was radicalizing the Kashmiri population, which was already disgruntled by harsh crackdowns by the Indian security forces in the region. Two of Pakistan's most successful proxies are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LT) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM). Both of these organizations operate with direct logistical and operational support from ISI. Moreover, many of the attacks by these organizations have a policy aftermath which is very much in line with ISI's agenda, clearly indicating that Pakistan uses terrorism as an effective foreign policy tool. There have been multiple vocal criticisms of Pakistan's sponsoring of terrorist organization, however, there have been no measures taken to actively persuade it to cease its terror funding activities. Three main inferences can be drawn from the arguments in this paper- 1) Pakistan is now overdependent on its terror proxies as a tool to achieve its foreign policy objectives, 2) These proxies have so deeply embedded themselves into the social fabric of Pakistan's domestic politics that even if their armed wings are shut down, they'll still find ways to function, and 3) the balance of power in Pakistan needs to shift towards the democratically elected government from the ISI and the military elite for any meaningful progress to occur.
  • The International Criminal Court and Restorative Justice: Community Reparations for Victim-Survivors of Sexual Violence

    Fioretos, Karl Orfeo, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    This paper investigates how the philosophic justifications for punishing perpetrators of sexual violence within international law evolved as our conceptualizations of sexual violence in warfare shifted, with a focus on the tension between deterrence and restoration. In the past decade, the prevailing understanding of sexual violence has begun to shift to a focus on the ability of sexual violence to destroy the social fabric of a community, which implies an emphasis on the restoration of community in the justice process with specific attention to the reintegration of victim-survivors. I reframe the debate to the practice of reparations as an effective form of restorative justice by the International Criminal Court. By analyzing the relationship between dominant theories of wartime sexual violence and justifications of punishment emphasized by the ICC, this paper demonstrates how emerging concepts of sexual violence in armed conflict imply the need for an amplified focus on restoration in the ICC. I draw from restorative justice literature to illustrate the potential of bottom-up, gender-sensitive reparative programs to provide economic relief to the entire community while simultaneously undermining structures of gender inequality and rethreading the social fabric by returning autonomy to the community to define their needs and values.
  • French Facial Covering Ban: A Comparison of American and French Media Coverage from 2010 – 2012

    Darling-Wolf, Fabienne (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    In September 2010, France became the first European country to enact a ban on full facial coverings. French Parliament cited safety and French values of secularism as the reasoning behind the ban, but public debate around the true intentions of the ban and its implications for the country’s large Muslim population intensified. This paper seeks to analyze media coverage surrounding the ban and its ensuing effects on public perception of the event throughout the year it was passed and up to two years post-legislation. Turning a critical eye to the dissemination of information on an international scale, this research seeks to analyze the language, tone, and themes between major American and French news agencies as two countries with widely impactful media outlets, vast international influence, and a populous with access to the increasing accessibility of technology and social media of the time. Ultimately, France’s facial-covering ban includes written law that does not specify religious garments at all, differing from the articles identified within this research and showing potential correlation between the media’s reporting and the public’s perception of the law.
  • Challenges and Opportunities in Creating an Accessible Web Application for Learning Organic Chemistry

    Fleming, Steven A. (Steven Alan) (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    This research project has three distinct contributions. First, questionnaire data were gathered from 56 participants related to the development of an organic chemistry web application, called web-based Organic Reaction Animations (webORA). Second, usability test data were collected from 12 participants which focused on accessibility challenges that users face when using webORA. Third, an accessibility analysis was conducted using Wave, a web accessibility evaluation tool.
  • Two Sides to the Story: Linguistic Assimilation in America

    Toomey, Melissa (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    This research project aims to answer the following research question: “Should immigrants work to fully assimilate into American society by only speaking English instead of their native languages?” It argues that immigrants should not work to linguistically assimilate into American life because it restricts these individuals to a superficial sense of belonging within American society and distances them from their native identity. In order to demonstrate this claim with a unique genre, the author created a satirical American survival guide promoting English only, juxtaposed with a second ethnic minority empowerment magazine.
  • Creating Positive Change for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals in the Philippines

    Hall, Matthew L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    This research project explores the scope of sexual health issues in the Philippines.
  • Assessment and Verification of Machine Learning Applications for Detecting False Data Injection Attacks in Automatic Generation Control

    Keston, Geoff (Temple University. Libraries, 2023)
    Although the increasing integration of Internet of Things devices into the modern grid infrastructure has improved grid performance and efficiency in many ways, cyberattacks now pose a significant threat to system stability and reliability. For instance, false data injection attacks modify sensor measurements and control signals, disrupting power balancing and supplication tasks performed by generation control systems. Detecting these attacks can mitigate their impact. In this paper, three machine learning detection methods are comparatively analyzed to determine implementation efficacy and practicality: long short-term memory, generative adversarial networks, and cluster-driven ensemble learning. The novel cluster-driven ensemble learning algorithm (and its associated intrusion detection system) best satisfies the evaluation criteria due to its accuracy, resource requirements, and decentralized architecture. Additionally, this paper proposes a framework for an open-source, portable cyber-physical testbed using the SEED Internet Emulator. With the framework described, the SEED Emulator can be used to address the lack of existing cybersecurity testbed platforms for grid applications and can be applied to verify the efficacy of the proposed solution. A successful implementation of the cluster-driven ensemble learning intrusion detection system will improve grid security and stability, mitigating the costly social, economic, and environmental consequences of data injection attacks.
  • Scorpion-inspired Needle Design for Insertion in Soft Tissue Materials

    K., Luys; Kelly, Orion; Nguyen, Hillary; Penetar, Elisa; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Hutapea|0000-0001-6917-1252 (2022-11-18)
    The goal of this project is to develop a bioinspired biopsy needle that takes inspiration from the structure of a scorpion stinger to reduce tissue damage and limit the needle path deflection for more accurate results. Our scorpion-inspired needle showed an 8.38% reduction in force, 29.37% reduction in tissue damage, and a 19.64% reduction in deflection in comparison to the standard biopsy needle used today.
  • Long Term Effects of Childhood Trauma

    Shah, Mansi; Armstrong, Bridget; George, Caroline (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    The first step of throwing clay on a pottery wheel is centering. Centering is fundamental in creating a functional piece, as it ensures even thickness and height throughout the artwork. Without proper centering, the shape of the clay piece will collapse. Once the clay is centered, the artist uses their fingers to manipulate the clay. Each squeeze, pull, and pinch transforms the soft material from a lifeless ball into a basic form. By the end of the process the clay becomes a fully functional ceramic piece but a successful final piece is entirely contingent upon proper centering. Similar to how centering creates a foundation in pottery, childhood creates a foundation for adulthood. Just as an artist's fingers shape ceramics, subjective experiences shape individuals’ brains. For this reason, childhood trauma has a great impact on survivor’s lives. If trauma is left unresolved, it can manifest throughout one’s lifetime and result in neurological and physiological issues. Childhood trauma slowly infiltrates almost every aspect of a survivor's life, leading to several long-term effects on the brain and body.
  • The Highs and Lows of Bipolar Disorder

    Shah, Mansi; Chaturvedi, Riya; Kohol, Jaya (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    Kanye West, Jimi Hendrix, Carrie Fisher, Frank Sinatra, and Vincent Van Gogh-what comes to mind when you hear these names? Many would say creative, gifted, accomplished, and brilliant due to the incredible art and talent they have shared with the world. However, what many do not realize is that all of these individuals have suffered from bipolar disorder (BD) [1]. BD is a psychiatric illness characterized by extreme mood swings, which include emotional highs known as mania and hypomania, and lows, otherwise known as depression [2]. Mania is described as a period when one experiences increased energy and activity, high irritability, and racing thoughts [3]. Hypomania exhibits similar symptoms as mania, however the main difference is the duration and intensity [3]. Some individuals suggest that people with BD are unstable, and prone to violence, but when treated appropriately by medical and psychology professionals, many of the symptoms of BD are manageable such that patients can have relatively normal lives [4]. Globally, the prevalence of BD is around 1%, with an equal distribution of the disorder between men and women [5]. In those with BD, around one out of three individuals attempt to commit suicide, and about 15-20% of those attempts are successful [5]. Based on these statistics, it is important to shed light on the symptoms and causes of BD, neurological changes in those diagnosed, as well as current treatments available, in order to reduce misinformation and destigmatize the disorder.
  • Mini Brains & More: Stem Cells In Neuroscience

    Shah, Mansi; Spangler, Bailey; Gitlevich, Becca (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    Everyone has once wondered: what if I were able to go back in time? Fueled either by the Back to the Future franchise or an embarrassing mistake, almost everyone has played around with the idea of returning to an earlier state. Imagine being able to go back to your childhood, before decisions that have brought you to where you are now. Now bring that idea to a much smaller scale. Imagine applying that idea to the cells in our body. Early in development, progenitor (stem) cells have the capability to differentiate into different types (neurons, cardiomyocytes, etc). During development, cells become more specialized over time and as an organism matures, they become more limited in the types of cells they can differentiate into [1]. Scientists are now able to perform cellular “time travel” through induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), taking mature cells back to a stage of pluripotency, when they are able to specialize into almost any cell type (with a few exceptions).
  • The Newfound Neurology of Type 1 Diabetes

    Shah, Mansi; Hulikal, Disha; Morgan, Gideon (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    For most of human history, type 1 diabetes mellitus was a terminal diagnosis. First documented in 1500 BCE in Egypt, diabetes was observed causing symptoms such as rapid weight loss, frequent urination, and shortly thereafter, death [1, 2]. In Ancient Rome, the way physicians diagnosed diabetes was by tasting the urine of people suffering from these symptoms, looking for a telltale “sweet” taste and smell (the word mellitus means “honey” in Latin) [1]. In the 1900’s, the only medical treatment for diabetes was an extremely low-calorie diet, which prolonged the patient’s lifespan but ultimately led to death by starvation [3]. In the last 50 years, significant advances in medicine have increased our understanding of diabetes and allowed the development of technology to facilitate management of the diagnosis. Diabetes is currently recognized as a chronic illness, a condition requiring ongoing treatment or monitoring, rather than the death sentence it once was [1,4]. Insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating the amount of glucose in the blood, was the first chemically synthesized human protein in 1963 [5]. In 1979, the first needle-free insulin delivery system was introduced [6]. The continuous glucose monitor was later released in 2006, allowing people with diabetes a real-time update of their blood glucose levels [7]. Because of these technological advancements, people with diabetes are able to more closely control their blood glucose levels, reducing the physical symptoms of hyperglycemia on their bodies [7].People with diabetes are now living longer than ever before as their physical symptoms improve, allowing researchers the opportunity to study the neurological effects of type 1 diabetes for the first time in history [7, 8].
  • Mother Earth and Her Anxious Children

    Shah, Mansi; Brown, Kal; Becker, Claire (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    You’ve been studying for finals all day and finally decided that it is time to take a break, maybe go on TikTok for a bit, forget about the impending doom of stress that is about to take over. As you scroll expecting to find entertainment, you see a video of one of the scientists who was part of the worldwide climate change protests after the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s news report. Instead of taking your mind off of exams, you find yourself even more stressed, wondering whether your passions are even worth pursuing if there is going to be no world in which you can experience the fruits of your hard work. Is it all pointless?
  • The Psychological Distinction of Athlete's Brains

    Shah, Mansi; Poneris, Alexa; Shoenberger, Taylor (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    "Iguodala to Curry, back to Iguodala, up for the layup! Oh! Blocked by James! LeBron James with the rejection!" [1]. It’s moments as great as this one that make us wonder what could possibly be occurring inside the brain at that instant. During a time as stressful as game seven of the NBA Finals, where the situation is win or go home, it is necessary for the brain to perform at its utmost ability. The anxiety, pressure, fans, cameras, coaches yelling, and the sounds around each athlete at that moment is at an all-time high. This forces the brain to work overtime to ensure a successful performance. It is in this specific moment that the brain elicits a natural response to quickly decide a play that could alter the trajectory of the entire game. The motor cortex greatly impacts how athletes perform by commanding motor skills, such as coordinated movements, while establishing focus and maintaining healthy mental stability.
  • Mind-Reading Abilities: Reading fiction to improve our Theory of Mind

    Shah, Mansi; Brucato, Maria; Ataher, Aleena (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    We are introduced to the world of fiction at a young age through children’s books and graphic novels. These books create new scenarios and imaginary characters, building a new world around us full of different emotions. Then, as soon as we “grow up,” we are told to put them away. They are considered childish and non-educational, unlike non-fiction and classical literature. However, according to an article published in Harvard Business Review, reading fiction provides different and very important cognitive benefits beyond the knowledge typically gained from reading nonfiction [1]. Fiction allows people to empathize with others and improve Theory of Mind which scaffolds interpersonal skills that play a significant role in our daily lives. The neurological and cognitive effects of reading fiction need to be thoroughly discussed so that society does not miss out on these important benefits to Theory of Mind.
  • Self Splintering: Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Shah, Mansi; Martin, George; Bao, Zhuoran (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    In the modern age of the Internet, it has become popular amongst users on social media websites, such as TikTok and Tumblr, to self-diagnose with different disorders. The most popular example of this is TikTok, where many who claim to be medical professionals or have a certain disorder say statements such as “Scientists say if you can’t see the illusion in this video, you have depression,” or “If you show XYZ trait, you have autism.” A disorder that is commonly brought up when talking about self-diagnosis is Dissociative Personality Disorder (DID), previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD). The name change occurred in 1994, due to learning new information about the disorder [1]. MPD implies that many personalities are in one person, while DID implies that one personality has been split into many parts.
  • Entering Fantasy Land: Why We Dream

    Shah, Mansi; Bounyarith, Tiara; Gitlevich, Becca (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    You bolt up from your bed, breathing heavily. Noticing that you are on your bed, in the safety of your house, you relish in the idea that you are not drowning. You then think to yourself, why did I have that dream? What was the point? Why do we have dreams? You probably think about that dream for about five more minutes until the details start to slip away. Or maybe you forget about it altogether. Though much is unknown as to why we dream, what we do know is that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is the stage where dreaming happens, is integral to our functioning and development.
  • Burning From The Inside Out: Life With Fibryomyalgia

    Shah, Mansi; Comly, Alex; Stockdale, Laura (Temple University. Grey Matters, 2022-05-10)
    Comfort is a concept many people take for granted, until it suddenly vanishes. In everyday life, it is not the norm to recognize and appreciate the feeling of being comfortable. Nothing is more uncomfortable than being in pain. Every day, up to 67 million Americans experience the effects of chronic pain, showing that this suffering is an unending symptom that needs more understanding and concern [1]. Chronic pain is debilitating, defeating, and presents differently in each and every person affected by it. The wide variety of chronic pain makes diagnosis and treatment quite difficult. In many cases, this mind numbing pain comes from a neurological disease characterized by musculoskeletal pain known as fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a largely misunderstood and complex disorder that results in hyperalgesia, an increased sensitivity to pain meaning our brain and spinal cord process painful and nonpainful signals thus amplifying painful sensations. Other symptoms include fatigue, sleep disturbances, memory issues, and mood disorders [2]. The solution seems clear: to provide maximum comfort to someone suffering from chronic pain so that they may return to doing what they love. To accomplish this a personalized treatment plan must be established. For people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, comfort is seemingly unattainable without a perfect treatment plan. Unfortunately, the history of fibromyalgia pain management has not been so simple. For decades, many healthcare professionals have neglected to properly manage pain due to subjective beliefs, and some have gone even further by gaslighting patients by denying the existence of fibromyalgia [2]. Claims of chronic pain are reduced to symptoms of other problems, thus extending the pain and damage. The scientific community does not fully understand the mechanical complexities of chronic pain, but this does not mean that just because something is not understood, it can be denied existence. If fibromyalgia presentation vastly fluctuates among the people affected by it, then how are effective treatment plans devised to reduce pain and increase one’s quality-of-life?

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