Now showing items 1-20 of 5149

    • DETERMINANTS OF NON-PERFORMING LOANS: EVIDENCE FROM CHINA

      Rytchkov, Oleg; Rytchkov, Oleg; Bakshi, Gurdip; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Wang, Wei (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      With the development of China's economy, as the core of the modern economy, China's commercial banks are also constantly strengthening their own strength in the social and economic development. It plays an important supporting role for the economic development. However, since the subprime mortgage crisis in 2008, the non-performing loans of China's commercial banks have undergone significant changes. Judging from the overall situation of commercial banks, it has changed from the previous "double reduction" of non-performing loan balances and non-performing loan ratios to a "double increase" situation. According to the classification of commercial banks, the composition of nonperforming loans of China's commercial banks has also undergone tremendous changes. In 2009, it was the only large commercial bank, but by 2019. It has developed into a "four-legged confrontation" situation. The non-performing loan ratio is often the leading indicator of the financial crisis, and the continuously increasing non-performing loan ratio has laid a hidden danger for the healthy development of China's social economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the influencing factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks for preventing and solving the problem of non-performing loans. First of all, this paper analyzes the research results of domestic and foreign scholars on non-performing loans. Through many documents, it can be found that domestic scholars mainly study the influencing factors of non-performing loans of commercial banks as a whole or the influencing factors of non-performing loans of a certain type of commercial banks, such as large commercial banks. There are few studies on the difference of the influence factors of non-performing loans of various commercial banks. Therefore, from a macro perspective, this paper explores the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks and tries to answer the core question of "Why are the nonperforming loan ratios of different types of commercial banks different?", which is a supplement to the study on non-performing loan. Furthermore, this paper sorts out the relevant theories of the formation of nonperforming loans, the theories involved mainly include credit theory, financial vulnerability theory, government intervention theory and bank credit behavior theory. Among them, credit theory, financial vulnerability theory and government intervention theory can theoretically explain the impact of macroeconomic factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks, while bank credit behavior theory can theoretically support the path of micro-factors on non-performing loans of commercial banks. Then, based on the analysis of the current situation, this paper adopts the data of commercial banks as a whole, large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, urban commercial banks, rural commercial banks and foreign banks from 2010 to 2022. This paper selects GDP, broad money supply, one-year benchmark lending rate of the central bank, actual funds in place for real estate development and investment, and total export value as macroeconomic and industry indicators to study the factors affecting the non-performing loan ratio of various commercial banks from a macro perspective and tries to predict the future non-performing loan rate with their current variables. The results of the empirical analysis are as follows: (1) From the perspective of the types of macro factors, there are similarities between large-scale commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks, and similarities between small-scale city commercial banks and rural commercial banks; (2) The changes of non-performing loan ratio of large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, foreign banks and urban commercial banks can basically be explained by macro factors, but the non-performing loan ratio of rural commercial banks cannot be completely explained by macroeconomic factors; (3) The factors affecting the nonperforming loan ratio of each type of commercial bank are different, and these differences can be explained by the bank's positioning, business strategy and service objects. Finally, based on the empirical results, this paper puts forward suggestions on macro policies, and puts forward targeted suggestions for large commercial banks, joint-stock commercial banks, city commercial banks and rural commercial banks.
    • Understanding Persistent Interventions in Civil Wars

      Stanton, Jessica A; Pollack, Mark A; Soifer, Hillel D; Cunningham, David E (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Why do some international actors who intervene militarily in civil wars continue their military engagement after the war has ended, while other actors end their intervention and withdraw all military forces at the conclusion of the war? What explains the continuation of outside military intervention from wartime to peacetime, and why might this dimension of military intervention vary across conflicts? In analyzing this puzzle, this study introduces a new theoretical concept: persistent intervention. Defined as the continuation of an external state’s military intervention in a civil war after the war ends, the concept of persistent intervention sheds light on the connections between wartime and peacetime, or the post-conflict period. Drawing on a new dataset on post-war interventions across the globe in countries experiencing civil wars that ended between 1957-2020, as well as detailed comparative case studies of four interventions from the Middle East and Africa, this dissertation finds the availability and access to political and economic gains of the intervention as the main driver of the decision to keep troops in peacetime. The domestic elites' desire to protect these predatory gains from the intervention leaves some interveners entangled in the civil war country, where leaving too soon might devalue and destabilize the investments. The primary factor undermining persistent interventions is found to be intervener domestic instability that disrupts this extractive mechanism. Findings also have implications for external involvement in peace agreements and peacekeeping operations.
    • Investigating Social Presence Dynamics in Online Education

      Lombard, Matthew; Iliadis, Andrew; Kogen, Lauren (Temple University. Libraries, 2023-12)
      This research study delves into the multifaceted realm of social presence in online education, encompassing the existence and manifestation of social presence indicators in students' engagement with discussion boards within asynchronous online courses. Social presence manifests when individuals perceive themselves to be simultaneously present with others through a communication medium, thereby cultivating a shared sense of togetherness. The dissertation addresses the impact of course disciplines, exploring the significant influence of both STEM and non-STEM courses on the manifestation of social presence indicators. Furthermore, the study delves into the influence of course duration on the social presence level, unveiling critical insights into the challenges posed by prolonged courses on sustaining student engagement and interaction.This study, randomly selecting sample from Coursera, employed a methodology, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to assess social presence within online courses. The approach consisted of five key stages, involving Python-based web crawling, manual keyword identification, data processing, statistical analysis using R, and qualitative exploration. The insights obtained offer valuable suggestions for enhancing social presence in future online educational settings. While acknowledging certain limitations regarding sample size and keyword identification, the study provides valuable contributions to the evolving landscape of online education research, offering practical implications for course design and facilitation in promoting an enriched and engaging online learning environment.
    • Science Research Literacy Through Immersive Professional Development in Biomedical Research

      Brandt, Carol; Ding, Meixia; Byrnes, James; Mekinda, Megan (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      High school science teachers require increased skills in science research literacy, so that their students develop research competencies in the classroom (Evans, Warning, & Christodoulou, 2017; Udompong, Traiwichitkhun, & Wongwanich, 2014). For teachers to promote a scientific atmosphere, literature points to training that fosters authentic spaces in the school setting. Working in collaboration with scientists offers teachers ways to scaffold laboratory experiences that address the needs of their students and models scientific communication and behaviors (www.nextgenscience.org/faqs). This research includes creating and sustaining long term collaborations between scientists and teachers while also identifying professional development that enables both laboratory research and science education. Applying science research literacy skills will empower teacher to meet the challenges set by national standards, through which science laboratory experiments in secondary education classrooms necessitate teachers to embrace new methods of lesson delivery and identify organic points, in the required curriculum, for the incorporation of authentic scientific inquiry (Ufnar & Shepherd, 2018). Observing and interacting, with the participants throughout the various levels of immersive I anticipate creating enhanced programming, science teacher PD’s, and workshops that will enable science teachers, both face-to-face and via virtual-hybrid programs, to impart the sense of being in a lab to their students while bringing authentic research activities to life during classroom inquiry. This promotes culturally relevant experiences within the context of the scientific one. Ideal subjects for this study will be in-service science teachers in possession of a minimum Bachelor’s degree. Subject matter and experience in research science is not a disqualifier. However, interest in life science, biological science, health science, environmental science, or biochemistry will be required. Through ethnographic research, the cultural forms, values, and practices that are essential to the cultural reproduction of scientific research literacy will be documented. I will engage in this research as an ethnographer and having the role of active observer, analyzing cultural behaviors (Brandt & Carlone, 2012; Camarata, et al., 2017) and the development of science research literacy of science teachers following engagement with professional research scientists during immersive professional development programs. Ethnographic research will allow me to uncover the practices as I experience the process along with the participants and while my research will be conducted through an ethnographic lens, writing will be included as to acknowledge the work as a case study bounded by the shared experience and context of the participants. Moreover, following the proposed research, teachers could enact a swift change in science classroom culture, by embracing a more scientific one (Erickson, 1984).
    • Novel In-Vitro Approaches to Investigate Membrane Partitioning and pH-Dependent Passive Permeation of Small Molecule Drugs

      Korzekwa, Kenneth; Nagar, Swati; Childers, Wayne; Fassihi, Reza; Bode, Chris (Temple University. Libraries, 2023-12)
      Passive permeability of drug molecules through biological membranes is a fundamentally important process that involves the partitioning of molecules into the lipid bilayer membrane and passive permeation across the membrane. The majority of the drug molecules are either weak bases or acids. For these drugs, along with lipophilicity and other physicochemical properties, the acid/base nature and ionization constant (pKa) are very important for predicting their passive permeation across biological barriers. Depending on the pKa of ionizable groups, drug molecules may coexist in various biological fluids both their charged and uncharged forms to varying extents. According to the widely known pH-partition hypothesis, only the uncharged form of ionizable molecules contributes to the passive permeability. Therefore, permeability and absorption rate should be proportional to the molar fraction of the uncharged form in the bulk medium. However, there is ample evidence of deviations from this linear relationship manifesting in nonlinear passive permeability vs fraction unionized plots. It is possible that the assumption of a constant pKa for ionizable drugs contributes to many of these cases of apparent deviations which cannot be explained by other factors such as paracellular or active transport. Studies have provided evidence for pKa shifts of ionizable drugs when partitioned into different bilayer lipid membrane systems.It is thought that electrostatic interaction between the membrane partitioned charged solutes and phospholipid charged headgroups contributes to the pKa shift (apparent pKa) which can change the uncharged fraction in the membrane interface causing a proportional change in the passive permeation rate from the expected rate predicted with an aqueous pKa. This would appear as a violation of the pH-partition hypothesis when other contributing factors can be ruled out. Therefore, a surrogate membrane phospholipid system (DAPC/n-hexane) was employed to investigate potential pKa shifts following interaction between phospholipid charged headgroups and ionizable drugs. Several probe drugs of acidic, basic and neutral nature were investigated with this biphasic surrogate system with controls at different aqueous pH levels to determine their apparent pKa values. The partitioning of compounds into membranes can be thought of as an integral part of membrane permeability. Extensive partitioning of drug molecules into the intracellular membranes which constitute the majority of all the cell membranes potentially results in the observed lag phase in monolayer permeability assays. Hepatocyte drug binding correlates strongly with microsomal drug binding suggests that binding to cells is presumably a result of non-specific drug partitioning into membranes. For this reason, cellular drug distribution equilibrium in the cells might not be achieved instantaneously, as is often assumed in permeability models and perfusion-limited PBPK models. Therefore, characterization of this early distribution phase by observing the time course of the free drug concentration in drug-spiked cell suspensions (MDCK & rat hepatocyte) was pursued with a novel in vitro microdialysis approach followed by in silico investigations with mathematical modeling. Depending on the drug, the apparent pKa values in the surrogate membrane system at different pH levels indicate significant shift from the inherent pKa values of the ionizable probe drugs. The in vitro microdialysis technique allowed the determination of the time course of free drug concentration in MDCK and rat hepatocyte cell suspensions spiked with probe drugs with high temporal resolution. Two mechanistic models developed with intracellular membrane compartment along with lysosomal or mitochondrial ion-trapping compartment resulted in excellent model fitting for the observed time-course data in MDCK cell and rat hepatocyte suspensions for tolbutamide and metoprolol, respectively.
    • THE IMPACT OF VENTURE CAPITAL INSTITUTIONS ON THE INNOVATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION BOARD ENTERPRISEs

      Bakshi, Gurdip G; Rytchkov, Oleg O; Bakshi, Xiaohui Gao X; Krishnan, Jayanthi J (Temple University. Libraries, 2023-11)
      As an essential accelerator of supply-side structural reform and technological innovation, venture capital (VC for short) plays an increasingly prominent role in the capital market. When venture capital alleviates the complex and expensive financing problems of small and medium-sized enterprises, it can improve the innovation ability of enterprises by improving the internal governance of small and medium-sized enterprises, increasing stock liquidity, and enhancing financing capabilities. However, the existing studies have different views on the "certification supervision function" and "name-by-name hypothesis function" of venture capital. Therefore, whether venture capital can impact corporate innovation and how to create value for listed companies is of great importance and worth further research. Based on the information asymmetry theory, certification supervision theory, name-by-name hypothesis theory and value-added service theory, this paper studies the relationship between venture capital heterogeneity and innovation of listed companies on the Science and Technology Innovation Board and constructs the relationship between venture capital heterogeneity and corporate value path. Based on the theoretical analysis framework, it analyzes the channels through which venture capital heterogeneity affects corporate innovation to provide valuable references for the behavioral decisions of government departments, venture capital institutions and listed companies.This paper selects the research objects of listed companies on the Science and Technology Innovation Board based on theoretical analysis. It uses its 2019-2021 data for empirical testing to draw the following conclusions: venture capital can play a certain degree of certification supervision and value-added service functions. The involvement of venture capital can promote corporate innovation. In terms of the heterogeneity of venture capital, the number of venture capital, the shareholding ratio of venture capital and the background of venture capital can improve the innovation ability of enterprises, and the performance is different in different industries. The research conclusions of this paper supplement the research literature on the impact of venture capital on the innovation of listed companies on the Science and Technology Innovation Board to a certain extent: it has specific guiding significance for the scientific selection of professional venture capital institutions for listed companies on the Science and Technology Innovation Board. To better play the value-added effect of venture capital on the innovation ability of listed companies. The research conclusions of this paper have particular and guiding significance for venture capital institutions in the market to choose high-quality listed companies so that they can better provide value-added services for listed companies. It is also conducive to the government's introduction of policies related to the operation of venture capital, strengthening the guidance and supervision of venture capital, and achieving a reasonable allocation of social resources.
    • Influence of Abiotic Environmental Factors on Physiological Responses and Mixotrophy in Freshwater and Marine Chrysophytes

      Sanders, Robert; Freestone, Amy; Cordes, Erik; Princiotta, Sarah (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Global climate change represents one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Phenomena such as rising surface water temperature, increased UV radiation, and ocean acidification have brought negative impacts to ecosystems and their inhabitants. Sensitive to various abiotic factors, microbial eukaryotic communities in aquatic systems are particularly being affected by these environmental changes. Specifically, warming temperature not only can directly affect plankton through limiting growth and inhibiting physiological processes, but can also indirectly impact these organisms by altering light and nutrient availability via loss of sea ice and changes in thermal stratification in various environments. Mixotrophic chrysophytes are an important lineage of protists that often dominate phytoplanktonic blooms in both freshwater and marine systems. Studies have shown mixotrophic organisms’ nutrient-acquiring strategies are influenced by abiotic environmental factors. Temperature in particular, is known to alter growth rate and bacterivory. In response to rising temperature, mixotrophs can either become more phototrophic or more heterotrophic, depending on species, resulting in changes of their role in aquatic food webs and potentially leading to shifts in overall community composition and structure. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence of different environmental factors on primary production and heterotrophic ingestion in marine and freshwater chrysophytes, providing an understanding on how climate change may alter physiological response and survival, with indicative changes in community structures and food webs. The influence of irradiance, nutrient concentrations, and temperature on mixotrophic responses of the Arctic marine chrysophyte Dinobryon faculiferum was investigated, where our results demonstrated an increase in heterotrophic ingestion in response to rising temperature. We also found bacterivory contributes a major proportion of D. faculiferum’s carbon budget in comparison to primary production, which is different from previous studies on Dinobryon species that appeared to be more reliant on phototrophy. Conversely, the freshwater chrysophyte Chrysolepidomonas dendrolepidota, exhibited the opposite temperature effect. The freshwater species was more reliant on primary production and ingested less as temperature increased. Such varying responses showcased diverse nutrient strategies on the mixotrophic spectrum, suggesting generalization of mixotrophic mode in predictive models should be approached with caution. Additional work was done to gain insight on the biogeography of C. dendrolepidota, of which little is known about its distribution. The presence of C. dendrolepidota was not detected through metadata analysis, nor was it detected across several waterbodies sampled in this study. Our results suggested possible rare distribution and endemism of C. dendrolepidota.
    • In Search of Ubuntu Rap: The Construction of the Umfundisi Rap Technique as a Model for the Expression of Ma'at in Rap Lyrics

      Smith, Aaron X.; Flannery, Ifetayo; Dove, Nah; Fenderson, Jonathan (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      The art and act of Rapping is a form of scientific research that takes place, in part, through introspection and sociocultural reflection. The Umfundisi Rap Technique and the theory of Ubuntu Rap are undergirded by the notion that to Rap is to research and reflect. That is, the act and art of Rapping involves, if not requires, the interrogation of one’s own physical and/or social circumstances and reveals one’s worldview through the conscious and subconscious signaling of their psychosocial location. To locate a text is to recognize the predispositions and philosophical objectives of an author and interpret such language, attitude, and direction based on their proximity to/distance from an Afrocentric psychology. However, what if there were a way to quantifiably measure location? What might such signposts and signals actually look like and how exactly might such “signposts” (or “words”) relate to underlying attitudes and directions? Moreover, could the expression of Ma’at itself, or maybe some kind of psychosocial well-being, be measured? If it were possible to measure a person’s psychosocial attitude and direction, might that also mean that there could be a way to gauge what kinds of cultural notions an author’s location is nearest to? The early MCs that held initial reverence and significance within their communities were those who could move the crowd with displays of rhetorical dexterity and celebrations of community. Rap’s current condition where a substantial proportion, if not an overwhelming majority, of the contemporary Rap lyrics and aesthetics that receive the largest amounts of social and financial elevation endorse hegemonic social philosophies of xenophobia, patriarchal violence, and other forms of psychological & physical subjugation has, for the most part, largely been agreed upon by most who have sought to examine Rap through an Afrocentric lens. Analyzing the conversation of thoughts particularly between the works of Tricia Rose, Joan Morgan, M.K. Asante, Jr., Jeff Chang, S. Craig Watkins, and Byron Hurt reveals two exceptionally noteworthy “crossover” events that brought forth the end of the era of Rap in which its overall orientation was primarily dictated by (and through) Afrikan agency amidst capitalist influences and duplicitous assurances of money, power, and assimilation from patriarchal Eurocentristic corporate structures at the cost of the Afrikan cultural communal spirit. The theory of Ubuntu Rap serves to emphasize the need for a very specific form of Afrocentric creative expression that addresses a very specific crisis. There is an intellectual and spiritual yearning, both conscious and subconscious, throughout the Afrikan diaspora for a framework of communication that is wholeheartedly and emphatically grounded in community, harmony, and sustainability. Ultimately, that is this project’s purpose and functional aspect: what routes can Rappers draw to navigate their way across the map of language & human speech toward a kind of maa kheru, or “trueness of voice”, designation? Such yearnings were the underlying driving force behind this project's intentions to imagine Ubuntu Rap as a particular canon/sub-genre of Rap grounded in Afrikan cultural ethical notions of community, harmony, and sustainability and to construct an Afrocentric research project that envisions the Umfundisi Rap Technique as a valid and practical method for the production of Ubuntu Rap.
    • Improving the Effectiveness of Emergency Management and Emergency Response Through Synchrony Created by Boundary Spanning Functions

      Hill, TL; DiBenedetto, Tony; Blessley, Misty; Pang, Min-Seok (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Although emergency management is established for the purpose of addressing disasters and other major emergencies, I have found that it can be purposefully engineered to also be an assist leader to other agencies and entities during nonemergency periods because the key element of synchrony that enables emergency managers to be effective during an emergency can also be employed during nonemergency periods to assist other departments in a manner that not only delivers a direct benefit to the department but also enhances the emergency preparedness, mitigation, and resiliency efforts of the jurisdiction. Emergency managers can create this performance-enhancing synchrony using boundary spanning functions that bridge the divide that separates stakeholders. Emergency management practitioners are steadfast in their pursuit of methods and practices by which they can be more effective. The recent increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters is only one example of the ever-growing demands placed upon these professionals. Compounding this development is the fact that the occurrences of natural disasters have outpaced research and theory development regarding how emergency management professionals should prepare for and respond to these events. This research study envisions, proposes, and outlines a framework in which emergency managers function in a broader capacity that could elevate their overall performance and importance to a higher plane than the one on which perhaps most currently operate.
    • Monte Carlo Simulations to Inform Clinical Applications of Optical Devices

      Patil, Chetan A.; Pleshko, Nancy; Querido, William; Obeid, Iyad (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Optical Point-of-Care (POC) devices provide a low-cost platform for real-time, non-invasive diagnosis of disease and quantitative estimation of physiological biomarkers, allowing use in a wide variety of institutional settings ranging from acute surgical care to long-term clinical monitoring. POC optical value has resulted in their widespread adoption with great interest in at-home monitoring and explosive growth within wearable consumer electronics. However, recent studies have highlighted the fact that well-established devices such as pulse oximeters can exhibit subtle but dangerous inaccuracies in measurements from some darker skin pigmentation patients whose basis is not completely understood. Emerging optical technologies, such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of bone quality are promising, yet similarly suffer from an incomplete understanding of the relationship between probe design and performance.The focus of this dissertation is to develop next-generation approaches to improve the performance of optical diagnostic devices informed by computational simulations of light-tissue interactions using Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Although MC simulations have been previously used to design and simulate devices such as Pulse Oximeters or Transcutaneous Bilirubinometers (TcB), the simulations were incapable of capturing population-level heterogeneity and thus evaluating underlying factors contributing to measurement bias. Here, an in-silico MC platform was developed to investigate how population-level heterogeneity impacts Pulse Oximeters and TcB devices. The results demonstrate that fundamental biases in optical measurements exist and are exacerbated by inequitable regulatory guidelines. These findings were used to further demonstrate the impact of changes in regulatory guidelines that can affect measurement accuracy and clinical decision-making. Additionally, simulation results were used to inform the development of spectroscopic oximetry and demonstrate the techniques clinical feasibility and potential to improve accuracy in a human-subjects pilot study. In the case of the NIRS bone quality assessment, a lack of fundamental knowledge of tissue optical properties to allow simulations to inform relative contributions from different tissue features to the overall signal or explore optimization of device design. Studies were performed to collect previously unreported optical properties from musculoskeletal tissues, and this data was used to perform MC simulations which informed bone contribution to NIRS signals and in turn resulted in the design and preliminary characterization of next-generation fiber optic probes for real-time non-ionizing assessment of bone quality. Collectively, this dissertation demonstrates the impact of advances in MC simulations of light-tissue interaction across pressing clinically focused engineering challenges.
    • Identification of Mandibular Median and Lateral Lingual Foramina

      Hsiao, Yueh; Chialastri, Susan; Yang, Jie (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-06)
      Objectives: The oral cavity floor encompasses critical anatomical structures such as veins, arteries, nerves and glands. Life threatening hemorrhage and hematoma formation in the floor of the mouth may occur when injury to such vessels occur during dental surgery in the mandibular anterior region. Lingual foramina are located at the lingual surface of the mandible, which are often observed in the central and lateral incisors regions. Identification of mandibular median (MLF) and lateral (LLF) lingual foramina are important to avoid bleeding complications during dental implant site development and placement. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is indicated to provide 3 dimensional images to evaluate anatomical structures. To assist our dental patients and dental practitioners, knowledge of clinical anatomy and frequency of finding vital structures is important and has clinical significances to achieve best treatment outcome and minimize health and procedure risk. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of mandibular median and lateral lingual foramina in dental school population using cone beam computed tomography. Other variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, dentition status, number of canals, distance from lower border of mandible will also be evaluated.Methods: This study conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using 558 CBCT scans from patients over 18 years, selected from a total of 1009 scans taken between January 2020 and July 2022 at the Temple University School of Dentistry, Philadelphia. The research aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of mandibular median and lateral lingual foramina, focusing on their number and distances from the base of the mandible and alveolar crest. Exclusions were applied to scans not meeting the study criteria. The primary outcomes, including the presence and specifics of the lingual foramen, were measured through CBCT imaging and categorized by location and presence percentages. Independent variables analyzed were gender, ethnicity, age, and dentition status. Results: This study included 558 patients subdivided by gender into 312 females and 244 males; by ethnicity into 266 Caucasians, 165 African Americans, 53 Asians and 72 Hispanics and by dentition status with 467 partial, 71 complete and 18 edentulous dentitions. Overall, 84.23% scans presented with median lingual foramen and 11.83% scans exhibited lateral lingual foramina. Average number of median lingual foramina per scan was found to be 1.11 located at central incisor region. Anatomical position of median foramen on average was 16.61 mm from alveolar crest to the foramen and 11.19 mm from foramen to the base of the mandible. Bivariate analysis indicated no significant associations between the presence and frequency of foramina and patient ages, genders, or ethnicities. However, status of the dentition whether edentulous, complete or partial significantly influenced the distance from the alveolar crest to the foramen with p=0.000017, emphasizing the importance of dentition in surgical planning and risk assessment. Conclusions: Our study confirms current consensus in prevalence of median and lateral lingual foramina in the mandibular anterior lingual region. Generalized prevalence across genders, ethnicities and age groups highlights the necessity for thorough pre-operative CBCT imaging and careful evaluation prior to planning implant surgeries. This study emphasizes the role of CBCT in identifying these anatomical structures, thereby aiding dental practitioners avoiding potentially life threatening risks associated with surgical procedures in anterior mandibular region. Awareness and understanding of prevalence and location of lingual foramina can significantly contribute to the patient safety and enhance success of dental procedures.
    • Is AI a General Purpose Technology?

      Mudambi, Shreeram; Moreira, Solon; Pang, Min-Seok; Weiss, Mitchell (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      A general purpose technology (GPT) is an exceptional link in a complex chain of innovations connected through space and time. Common examples include the steam engine, electrification, and the automobile (Bresnahan & Trajtenberg, 1995; Bresnahan & Trajtenberg, 1995; & Bekar, et. al., 2018). A GPT is set apart from other innovations because of the massive breadth, depth, and duration of their impact on our world (Trajtenberg, 2019; Bekar, et. al., 2018; Strohmaier & Rainer, 2016; Ott, et. al., 2009 & Bresnahan & Trajtenberg, 1995). They are worthy of special consideration. The changes GPTs bring can take decades and even centuries to manifest and, thus, research remains post hoc (Bresnahan & Trajtenberg, 1995; Lipsey, Bekar, & Carlaw, 2005; Jovanovic & Rousseau, 2005). Yet executives, entrepreneurs, researchers, policymakers, and investors would benefit from foresight anticipating a GPT. This research explores this empirically through the tracking of the ‘pervasiveness dimensions’ of a candidate GPT before its full potential economic and societal impact is felt. To this end, our candidate GPT is Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the key enabling technology of Deep Learning (DL). We trace the evolution of AI and DL over the past fifty years with a particular focus on the critical period AI/DL’s diffusion from 2000 to 2020 (Goldfarb, et. al, 2021). We are aided by a rich base of prior GPT research, research in complementary disciplines, and industry analyses and data. We hope to provide the practical benefit of adding to the decision-maker’s toolkit, while also providing a deeper understanding of AI not just as an innovation but as an extraordinary technological, economic, social, and political phenomenon.
    • The Military Chaplain: Inscribing a Protestant Ethos on American Public Religion

      Levitt, Laura S; Alpert, Rebecca; Rey, Terry; Berman, Lila (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      This dissertation considers the changes the chaplaincy underwent during the period between the Vietnam and Gulf wars. It begins with an exposition of the Protestant history in American understandings of religion, and how this legacy had informed earlier iterations of religious inclusion in the U.S. military and the work of its chaplains. With this history in mind, the dissertation focuses in on a Department of the Army publication, the Military Chaplains’ Review, a professional journal that published essays by active chaplains and civilian academics and professionals from 1972-1992. The dissertation uses the Military Chaplains’ Review to explore the ways these changes were institutionalized in the language and culture of the military chaplaincy. These changes coalesced around the Katcoff v Marsh case (1985) in which the chaplaincy was brought to court with allegations that it violated the constitutional protection of the separation of church and state. This dissertation shows how this case helped solidify the changes the chaplaincy was already undergoing, which included an emphasis on the importance of the religiosity of those in the armed forces as a form of personal spirituality. The case was also part of a larger legal shift in U.S. courts toward an emphasis on the free exercise of religion over the separation of religion from public life. This dissertation makes clear that the Katcoff case crystallizes these changes within the chaplaincy and contributes to this shift in first amendment jurisprudence.
    • PARTITIONING OF WATER-SOLUBLE ORGANIC MOLECULES AT AEROSOL SURFACE OBSERVED WITH SECOND HARMONIC SCATTERING

      Dai, Hai-Lung; Spano, Francis; Strongin, Daniel; Wang, Chen (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Aerosol particles are important in air quality, climate, and human health. They can affect the earth’s energy budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), thus influencing cloud properties and lifetime. Atmospheric aerosols are formed through a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. This dissertation presents a comprehensive investigation into the behavior of water-soluble organic molecules on atmospheric aerosol surfaces using Second Harmonic Scattering (SHS). The study focuses on understanding the partitioning of these molecules at the aerosol surface, a crucial aspect in atmospheric chemistry impacting cloud formation, radiation balance, and air quality. The research is divided into three main parts. Initially, the study explores the disposition of organic molecules on aerosol surfaces, utilizing a modified Langmuir model to describe their behavior. This part emphasizes the predominant residence of these molecules on the aerosol surface, highlighting the surface's significant role in atmospheric reactions. The second part examines the interactions between salts and organic molecules on the aerosol surface. A series of experiments with varying salts reveal how different ions influence the partitioning behavior of organic molecules, underscoring the importance of ionic species in governing aerosol surface dynamics. The final part of the study reveals a significant difference between the aerosol and planar air-water interfaces. The equilibrium rate constant for aerosols is found to be tenfold faster, indicating a larger Gibbs free energy, contrasting with the planar air-water interface scenario. And aerosol surfaces exhibit lower molecular density due to the finite availability of organic molecules. These findings highlight aerosol surfaces' unique kinetic and thermodynamic behaviors compared to their planar counterparts. This work significantly advances our understanding of aerosols, their surfaces, and the various factors influencing their behavior in the atmosphere. The findings have crucial implications for our comprehension of climate change, air quality, and aerosols' environmental and health impacts. The introduction of a novel in-situ technique for detecting organic molecules at aerosol surfaces marks a breakthrough in aerosol research, offering insights into the distribution and interactions of these molecules within atmospheric particles.
    • The Facture of Non-Linear Perspective in Quattrocento Florence

      Hall, Marcia B; West, Ashley; Cooper, Tracy; Fiorani, Francesca (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      My dissertation “The Facture of Non-Linear Perspective in Quattrocento Florence” challenges the scholarly focus on linear perspective during this period by considering the theoretical knowledge of optics by artists as well as the artisanal experimentation with materials in creating pictorial space. This research hinges on Leonardo da Vinci’s (1452-1519) definitions of multiple types of perspective, including color, acuity, and aerial perspective. In looking back across the fifteenth century, there was consistent interest on the part of Florentine painters, sculptors, and goldsmiths in portraying optically convincing landscape spaces that did not necessarily adhere to a strict geometric construction. My approach to this subject utilizes technical studies from restoration and conservation campaigns over the past several decades to uncover the material composition and procedures used by these artists to achieve these goals. Compared against instructional treatises on artmaking, the innovative deviations from common preparatory methods and the incorporation of the oil medium from economic exchanges with Flanders at the end of the century demonstrate a curiosity and experimental turn by these Florentine artists. By taking pursuing this avenue of inquiry, my dissertation bridges the period writings on optics with the networks of shared knowledge in the unique interdisciplinary workshop environment of Quattrocento Florence.
    • One of Us: Examining the Affective Negotiations of Feministy Authenticity in Digital Publics

      Darling-Wolf, Fabienne; Creech, Brian; Fernback, Jan; Papacharissi, Zizi (Temple University. Libraries, 2023-05)
      Social media have long been sites for political discussion and ideological conversations. Connecting geographically-dispersed individuals around ideologically-salient conversations, Instagram users who hold feminist ideals talk in a discursive environment formed by their discussions, a space I call “feminist Instagram.” As a community connected by affective gestures, intensities, and textures (Papacharissi, 2015), this work seeks to understand the affective nature of the “prevailing practices,” and “avenues for engagement, agency, and power,” (Papacharissi, 2015, p. 126) that circulates in feminist digital spaces, both for what they reveal about the nature of negotiating the boundaries of authentic feminist identities, and about the ways digital feminists experience these negotiations. Approaching feminist Instagram as an affective public, this dissertation examines “how affective processes are enabled in the online environment by examining the form and texture of communication” (Papacharissi, 2015, p. 27) through an ethnography of feminist digital spaces. This dissertation’s findings carry implications for the online ideological organizing futures, and forward a mindful orientation to social media use, especially in ideologically-salient learning environments like feminist Instagram.
    • SYNTHESIS OF A HIGH QUANTUM YIELD ISOMORPHIC ADENOSINE ANALOG AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF A DUALLY FLUORESCENT FAD ANALOG

      Stanley, Robert J.; Spano, Frank; Kim, Daniel; Nicholson, Allen (Temple University. Libraries, 2023-12)
      Fluorescent nucleobase analogs (FBAs) are useful tools for the study of nucleic acid dynamics and the interaction of biomolecules. To be an effective FBA, the analog should mimic the size and interactions of natural nucleobases. Redshifted absorption and emission with high quantum yield of FBAs are also desirable because these properties differentiate FBAs from natural nucleobases using optical spectroscopy. Many FBAs have been reported, but among them 2-aminopurine (2AP) is the most popular because of its high quantum yield. Recently an alternative fluorescent bas analog 8-vinyl adenine (8VA) has been discovered which has a greater quantum yield than 2AP. Here I have synthesized two novel FBAs, 2-amino-8-vinyl purine riboside (r2A8VP) and 2-amino-6-chloro-8-vinyl purine (2A6Cl8VP), which are hybrid analogs of 2AP and 8VA. r2A8VP and 2A6Cl8VP have been structurally characterized using NMR and LC-MS. UV/vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies demonstrate improved optical properties, such as redshifted absorption and emission compared to 2AP and 8VA. Also, r2A8VP possesses a higher quantum yield that either FBA. Besides, 2-aminopurine riboside triphosphate, 2ApTP, is synthesized which is used as a precursor for enzymatic synthesis of a new dually fluorescent FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) analog, F2ApD.
    • Shades of Growth: The Process of Becoming a Culturally Responsive Educator

      Cordes, Sarah; Jordan, Will; McGinley, Christopher; Patterson, Timothy (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      Culturally responsive teaching benefits students in racially and culturally marginalized groups that the public education system has historically failed. However, knowledge regarding developing into a culturally responsive educator is yet to emerge. This phenomenological study explores participants' experiences in the development of this area. The major findings of this study include the entry into culturally responsive teaching occur along racial lines and the relationship that the access to professional development has on the effective implementation of culturally responsive teaching. A conclusion includes the implications of this study on practice and policy.
    • Second and Higher Order Elliptic Boundary Value Problems in Irregular Domains in the Plane

      Mitrea, Irina; Gutiérrez, Cristian; Ignatova, Mihaela; Moskow, Shari (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      The topic of this dissertation lies at the interface between the areas of Harmonic Analysis, Partial Differential Equations, and Geometric Measure Theory, with an emphasis on the study of singular integral operators associated with second and higher order elliptic boundary value problems in non-smooth domains. The overall aim of this work is to further the development of a systematic treatment of second and higher order elliptic boundary value problems using singular integral operators. This is relevant to the theoretical and numerical treatment of boundary value problems arising in the modeling of physical phenomena such as elasticity, incompressible viscous fluid flow, electromagnetism, anisotropic plate bending, etc., in domains which may exhibit singularities at all boundary locations and all scales. Since physical domains may exhibit asperities and irregularities of a very intricate nature, we wish to develop tools and carry out such an analysis in a very general class of non-smooth domains, which is in the nature of best possible from the geometric measure theoretic point of view. The dissertation will be focused on three main, interconnected, themes: A. A systematic study of the poly-Cauchy operator in uniformly rectifiable domains in $\mathbb{C}$; B. Solvability results for the Neumann problem for the bi-Laplacian in infinite sectors in ${\mathbb{R}}^2$; C. Connections between spectral properties of layer potentials associated with second-order elliptic systems and the underlying tensor of coefficients. Theme A is based on papers [16, 17, 18] and this work is concerned with the investigation of polyanalytic functions and boundary value problems associated with (integer) powers of the Cauchy-Riemann operator in uniformly rectifiable domains in the complex plane. The goal here is to devise a higher-order analogue of the existing theory for the classical Cauchy operator in which the salient role of the Cauchy-Riemann operator $\overline{\partial}$ is now played by $\overline{\partial}^m$ for some arbitrary fixed integer $m\in{\mathbb{N}}$. This analysis includes integral representation formulas, higher-order Fatou theorems, Calderón-Zygmund theory for the poly-Cauchy operators, radiation conditions, and higher-order Hardy spaces. Theme B is based on papers [3, 19] and this regards the Neumann problem for the bi-Laplacian with $L^p$ data in infinite sectors in the plane using Mellin transform techniques, for $p\in(1,\infty)$. We reduce the problem of finding the solvability range of the integrability exponent $p$ for the $L^{p}$ biharmonic Neumann problem to solving an equation involving quadratic polynomials and trigonometric functions employing the Mellin transform technique. Additionally, we provide the range of the integrability exponent for the existence of a solution to the $L^{p}$ biharmonic Neumann problem in two-dimensional infinite sectors. The difficulty we are overcoming has to do with the fact that the Mellin symbol involves hypergeometric functions. Finally regarding theme C, based on the ongoing work in [2], the emphasis is the investigation of coefficient tensors associated with second-order elliptic operators in two dimensional infinite sectors and properties of the corresponding singular integral operators, employing Mellin transform. Concretely, we explore the relationship between distinguished coefficient tensors and $L^{p}$ spectral and Hardy kernel properties of the associated singular integral operators.
    • OVERVIEW OF TRAUMA-INFORMED PRINCIPLES FOR FOSTERING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNITY WITH A FOCUS ON INNOVATION OF ACUTE ADULT INPATIENT PSYCHIATRIC UNITS

      Hays, Mary Beth (Temple University. Libraries, 2024-05)
      BACKGROUND: For years, the trauma of acute inpatient psychiatric treatment has been studied. Trauma-informed models have been created to reduce the trauma of receiving care. These models primarily focus on patient-provider relationships and not the interpersonal dynamics between patients on acute psychiatric units. METHODS: A literature review via Temple University Library and Google Scholar databases as well as interviews with mental health professionals were conducted on the current trauma prevention initiatives in mental healthcare and on strategies to strengthen interpersonal relationships between patients in acute psych units and to quell patients’ perceived risk of harm from one another. RESULTS: A set of five principles is proposed for fostering community and safety in acute adult inpatient psychiatric units as it pertains to the interpersonal relationships between patients. These principles include: 1) Fostering a sense of community within the patient population 2) Rethinking the physical space to reduce patient stress and therefore reduce patient aggression 3) Providing a mentorship program led by peer mentors from the community 4) Providing better mental health education and awareness within society 5) Bridging the gap between the community and inpatient psychiatry. CONCLUSION: The five principles of this thesis can aid in positively transforming patients’ experiences in acute psychiatric units. This transformation requires a significant amount of activism and collaboration in order to stop repeating the cycles of trauma seen within the psychiatric field.