• 10 Years in Review: A Contextual Critique of Educational Reform Efforts in the Harrisburg School District

      Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Jordan, Will J.; Gross, Steven Jay; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Woyshner, Christine A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This qualitative case study examined a single phenomenon that of a decade of public school reform efforts via legislated takeover in an urban poor minority school district, 1999-2009. The Harrisburg School District (HSD) is situated within the Capitol City of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and educates one of the highest rates of poverty and minority populations in the country. The HSD has the lowest student achievement scores in the state, despite 10 years of restructuring efforts, a legislated state takeover given over to Mayoral control, increased funding, and leadership reorganization. A contextual critique of political and sociological factors was conducted, illuminating an overview of conditions, events and retrospective perceptions. Two types of data were collected, documents and participant interviews. Documents collected included: media sources, legislation, community postings, district and Department of Education documents, university studies, student achievement data, cases studies conducted during the 10 year era, and literature related to individuals that had involvement in the governance of the district. 25 individuals were interviewed to obtain their perceptions of events across the decade. Respondents represented those of high to low governance, employees and community members. Documents and impressions were analyzed through both a circulatory and constant comparative method. Timelines, chronologies and perceptions were merged, converged, deconstructed and reconstructed producing continuum themes of hope and despair and back again. Results revealed three eras: 1) A period of Great Expectations, 1998-2001, prior to and during the early takeover, where community involvement was active, test scores were beginning to rise and state support with increased funding was available; 2) A period of Rough Terrain, 2002-2008, the disillusion and desolation of the takeover, where constituents were uninvolved, funding improvements not realized, and participants expressed oppression, disenfranchisement, and allegations of powerful elites making profit; and 3) A period of Rising Hope, 2007-2009, the metamorphosing of the takeover, where community involvement in the politics of ousting the more than 2-decade incumbent mayor produced hope in the change that was coming, making conditions more tolerable. Despite efforts, student achievement remained the lowest in the state.
    • 3-D Face Modeling from a 2-D Image with Shape and Head Pose Estimation

      Kong, Seong Gong; Biswas, Saroj K.; Silage, Dennis; Ling, Haibin; Zhu, Ying (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      This paper presents 3-D face modeling with head pose and depth information estimated from a 2-D query face image. Many recent approaches to 3-D face modeling are based on a 3-D morphable model that separately encodes the shape and texture in a parameterized model. The model parameters are often obtained by applying statistical analysis to a set of scanned 3-D faces. Such approaches tend to depend on the number and quality of scanned 3-D faces, which are difficult to obtain and computationally intensive. To overcome the limitations of 3-D morphable models, several modeling techniques from 2-D images have been proposed. We propose a novel framework for depth estimation from a single 2-D image with an arbitrary pose. The proposed scheme uses a set of facial features in a query face image and a reference 3-D face model to estimate the head pose angles of the face. The depth information of the subject at each feature point is represented by the depth information of the reference 3-D face model multiplied by a vector of scale factors. We use the positions of a set of facial feature points on the query 2-D image to deform the reference face dense model into a person specific 3-D face by minimizing an objective function. The objective function is defined as the feature disparity between the facial features in the face image and the corresponding 3-D facial features on the rotated reference model projected onto 2-D space. The pose and depth parameters are iteratively refined until stopping criteria are reached. The proposed method requires only a face image of arbitrary pose for the reconstruction of the corresponding 3-D face dense model with texture. Experiment results with USF Human-ID and Pointing'04 databases show that the proposed approach is effective to estimate depth and head pose information with a single 2-D image.

      Sobel, Marc J.; Zhao, Zhigen; Han, Xu; Carides, Alexandra; Anni, Eleni (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This thesis considers two related problems that has application in the field of experimental design for clinical trials: • fixed sample size determination for parallel arm, double-blind survival data analysis to test the hypothesis of no difference in survival functions, and • blinded sample size re-estimation for the same. For the first problem of fixed sample size determination, a method is developed generally for testing of hypothesis, then applied particularly to survival analysis; for the second problem of blinded sample size re-estimation, a method is developed specifically for survival analysis. In both problems, the exponential survival model is assumed. The approach we propose for sample size determination is Bayesian decision theoretical, using explicitly a loss function and a prior distribution. The loss function used is the intrinsic discrepancy loss function introduced by Bernardo and Rueda (2002), and further expounded upon in Bernardo (2011). We use a conjugate prior, and investigate the sensitivity of the calculated sample sizes to specification of the hyper-parameters. For the second problem of blinded sample size re-estimation, we use prior predictive distributions to facilitate calculation of the interim test statistic in a blinded manner while controlling the Type I error. The determination of the test statistic in a blinded manner continues to be nettling problem for researchers. The first problem is typical of traditional experimental designs, while the second problem extends into the realm of adaptive designs. To the best of our knowledge, the approaches we suggest for both problems have never been done hitherto, and extend the current research on both topics. The advantages of our approach, as far as we see it, are unity and coherence of statistical procedures, systematic and methodical incorporation of prior knowledge, and ease of calculation and interpretation.

      Bai, Li; Biswas, Saroj K.; Ferrese, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Cyber-physical systems refer to a new generation of synergy systems with integrated computational and physical processes which interact with one other. The development and simulation of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are obstructed by the complexity of the subsystems of which they are comprised, fundamental differences in the operation of cyber and physical elements, significant correlative dependencies among the elements, and operation in dynamic and open environments. The Multiple Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agent system (BDI multi-agent system) is a promising choice for overcoming these challenges, since it offers a natural way to decompose complex systems or large scale problems into decentralized, autonomous, interacting, more or less intelligent entities. In particular, BDI agents have the ability to interact with, and expand the capabilities of, the physical world through computation, communication, and control. A BDI agent has its philosophical grounds on intentionality and practical reasoning, and it is natural to combine a philosophical model of human practical reasoning with the physical operation and any cyber infrastructure. In this thesis, we introduce the BDI Model, discuss implementations of BDI agents from an ideal theoretical perspective as well as from a more practical perspective, and show how they can be used to bridge the cyber infrastructure and the physical operation using the framework. We then strengthen the framework's performance using the state-of-the-art parallel computing architecture and eventually propose a BDI agent based software framework to enable the efficient modeling and simulation of heterogeneous CPS systems in an integrated manner.

      Rocco, Providenza Loera (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Death is inevitable, and research indicates that 80% of Americans wish to die at home. Does anyone know those wishes? Advance directives outline those wishes and personal decisions. Do advance directives make a significant difference in the experience of death for the patient, loved ones, and clinicians? Through interviews with loved ones of those who have died, as well as legal representative and a physician, this thesis examines the benefits and obstacles of having an advance directive, as well as the issues that have a high impact on whether and why an advance directive is written. Policy recommendations, business tactics, and community-based solutions are proposed to address these issues. It is clear that access to healthcare and the clinical professionals who can discuss end of life issues has a major impact on whether an advance directive is considered by the patient, along with health literacy skills and knowledge.

      Kiani, Mohammad F.; Wang, Bin; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Achary, Mohan P.; Pillapakkam, Shriram; Krynska, Barbara (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      There is a clear need for testing targeted drug carrier systems in a more realistic microenvironment where both biochemical interactions and shear forces are present. This is critical both for understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and during the drug discovery process. Current in vitro models of the leukocyte adhesion cascade cannot be used for real-time studies of the entire leukocyte adhesion cascade including rolling, adhesion and migration in a single assay. In this study, we have developed and validated a novel bioinspired microfluidic device (bMFD) and used it to test the hypothesis that blocking of specific steps in the adhesion/migration cascade significantly affects other steps of the cascade. The bMFD consists of an endothelialized microvascular network in communication with a tissue compartment via a 3 µm porous barrier. Human neutrophils in bMFD preferentially adhered to activated human endothelial cells near bifurcations with rolling and adhesion patterns in close agreement with in vivo observations. Treating endothelial cells with monoclonal antibodies to E-selectin or ICAM-1 or treating neutrophils with wortmannin reduced rolling, adhesion, and migration of neutrophils to 60%, 20% and 18% of their respective control values. Antibody blocking of specific steps in the adhesion/migration cascade (e.g. mAb to E-selectin) significantly downregulated other steps of the cascade (e.g. migration). This novel in vitro assay provides a realistic human cell based model for basic science studies, identification of new treatment targets, selection of pathways to target validation, and rapid screening of candidate agents.

      Casanave, Christine Pearson, 1944-; Beglar, David; Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Lowe, Robert J., 1986- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This critical multi-case study involves a group of migrant eikaiwa (English conversation) school teachers in Japan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the teachers’ positions and treatment in the commercial English language teaching (ELT) sector and their adaptation to their work environment and the host country, through applying the concepts of capital, habitus, and field. The issues of who should be employed as teachers, to whom learners should be exposed to as model language users, and whose English should be taught that are problematized in this study have implications beyond the commercial ELT industry. This study also sheds light on the eikaiwa industry’s practices, in particular regarding teacher recruitment and marketing. The study is timely because the impact of this industry has grown significantly as the formal educational sector has increased the outsourcing of ELT courses to the commercial sector in recent years. Teachers from private language academies have been dispatched to high schools and universities, which has blurred the line between the commercial sector and formal educational institutions. The core cases investigated in the study were six multilingual native and nonnative English-speaking migrant teachers from diverse national, ethnic, and socio-cultural backgrounds. For triangulation purposes, data were collected not only in individual interviews and emails exchanged with the six core participants, but also from interviews and emails with 10 managers and private language academy owners, 13 teachers who were noncore participants, and from eikaiwa job postings. Managers and school owners, mainly male native English speakers, were included for their perspectives and insights into the sector, in particular, staffing decisions and marketing, to which most teachers were not privy. Data analysis draws on Bourdieusian “thinking tools” (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992, p. 160), with the focus on gains, losses, and conversions of different types of capital and manifestations and transformations of teachers’ habitus in new fields. Capital here refers to convertible resources that people have access to, such as educational degrees and social connections. Habitus is one’s “feel for the game” (Bourdieu, 1998, p. 25) that influences an individual’s perceptions and behavior (Bourdieu, 2000, pp. 86-87). The participants’ habitus was a driving force that strongly affected their adaptation to the eikaiwa industry and Japan. However, habitus did not operate independently on its own. It functioned in interplay with capital and the field that rejected some but embraced other teachers. Participants’ English as a first language, Western cultural background, and White race, which were positively evaluated in their ELT contexts in Japan, influenced the way the participants were treated in the industry and resulted in different outcomes for them. The native English-speaking teachers of Asian descent were racially discriminated, but they relatively easily found ELT work because of their nationalities and native English-speaking status. The nonnative English-speaking participants who were also people of color were discriminated against not only based on their race and nationality. They were also discriminated against because of their nonnative English-speaking status. In contrast, White nonnative English-speaking participants were frequently rejected because of their first language and nationality. Due to the insecure nature of contract work and few opportunities for career development in the commercial sector, most participants were unable to build stable careers in ELT. Whereas some had limited success in finding an administrative position within the commercial sector, most participants felt trapped in it, unable to gain substantial convertible capital during their teaching years. The participants’ choices regarding their employment and further migration were partly determined by the stakeholders in the field, and outcomes widely varied for the participants. By the end of the study, two nonnative English-speaking participants left ELT and Japan. Two native English speakers found non-teaching work in Japan. One native and one nonnative English-speaking participant, both female, continued teaching even though their ELT jobs were not their ultimate professional goals.
    • A Brief Intervention for Head Coaches: Using Motivational Interviewing for Athletes Who Use Alcohol

      Sachs, Michael L.; Brenner, James W.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      There have been a host of studies performed documenting that college students engage in alcohol consumption to a degree that is dangerous to their health and well-being (Brenner, Metz, & Brenner, 2009; Harris et al., 2010; Leichleiter et al., 1998; Martens, O'Connor-Dams, & Paiement-Duffy, 2006). Many other studies indicate that college athletes indulge in a higher level of alcohol consumption than their non-athletic peers (NCAA, 2006; Williams, Jr. et al., 2008). There is a continuing culture of excessive consumption of alcohol by college athletes. When reading the headlines about a collegiate athlete who dies because of misusing alcohol, one might ask how the issue continues to be such a problem, and what can be done about it. As a result of data from a study (Nolt et al., 2013) highlighting head coaches' confidence and self-efficacy regarding the issue of alcohol consumption by athletes, an interventional study was developed to address what appears to be a lack of confidence and self-efficacy on the part of collegiate head coaches to address and intervene with athletes who misuse alcohol. Presented in this dissertation are data, which quantified a lack of confidence and self-efficacy of collegiate head coaches to address the issue of athletes who consume alcohol to the detriment of their health and well-being, as well as data from the resulting training which is the subject of this current study. Results affirm that an interventional training which includes alcohol use education combined with motivational interviewing technique successfully increases head coach confidence and ability to conduct a brief intervention with an athlete who drinks.
    • A Broker of International Reconciliation: UNICEF Through the Korean and Vietnam Wars

      Hitchcock, William I.; Krueger, Rita (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This paper represents original research in the UNICEF archives and illuminates the case study of this particular intergovernmental organization (IGO) during the period of the Korean War through the Vietnam War (1948-1975). It investigates the complex issues raised by the intersection of power politics and humanitarian impartiality. It argues that historians must take intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) seriously in their attempt to accurately interpret the historical record. The story of UNICEF during the Korean War charts a familiar narrative where superpower rivalries served to derail the good intentions of this purportedly impartial intergovernmental organization. However, the case study of UNICEF in Vietnam is a surprising example of the rising influence and impact of IGOs and INGOs on the international scene. By balancing its associations across the East-West divide and riding a wave of increasingly international sentiment worldwide, UNICEF navigated a treacherous political arena and realized new heights of its goal of impartiality even before the cessation of war in Vietnam. In a dramatic show of their expanding influence, UNICEF played a pivotal role in improving relations between the United Nations and North Vietnam.
    • A Brother's Loss: The Impact of Miscarriage on African American Men

      Asante, Molefi Kete, 1942-; Mazama, Ama, 1961- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Grand Tour Question Ø What are the impacts of miscarriage on African American men? Pettie Tour Question Ø What are African American malesʼ most effective means of dealing with and healing after experiencing a miscarriage? Purpose of the Study Ø To investigate the effects and perceptions of miscarriages in the African American community from the male perspective. Ø In 2008, my wife and I lost our first child that we were expecting. This experience revealed the degree to which social stigma and gender specific traditions inhibit disclosure, healthy discourse and closure concerning reproductive loss. I plan to utilize historical, social, spiritual and scientific tools to construct a relevant and helpful resource for Black men coping with such a profound loss. Data Collection Ø I utilized the extensive resources available in the Social Science Data Library and Paley Library of Temple University. Implications for Future Study Ø The research presented provides a platform to test the “Dual construction” method introduced. Testimonials can be compiled through interviews of African American men who have experienced reproductive loss. These recounts could be recorded for a possible documentary on the subject that could exponentially expand the discourse among African American men and the pain and pressures that they may share. An organization specifically geared towards the needs of African American men as revealed through the findings of this thesis. Conclusions Ø The therapeutic truth of candid communication is a much-needed component in the effort to advance the dialogue about miscarriage among African American men. The Dual Construction Method of learning more about the self in order to help rebuild it after traumatic events is a strategy conceived with the needs of African American men in mind. The intellectual, cultural and testimonial fortification that the Dual Construction Method can provide is a foundation that can expand the discourse about miscarriage exponentially. The lost seeds of human procreation must be watered with waves of relevant empowering information as old as the Nile River in order to properly grow and/or be grieved.
    • A cancer-targeting liposomal delivery system for photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of cancers in peritoneal cavity

      Wong, Ho-Lun; Blass, Benjamin E.; Fassihi, Reza; Shoyele, Sunday (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      The peritoneal tumor is not named after the originating of cancer cells but instead contains all tumors appearing in the region of the peritoneal cavity. There are over 250,000 new cases of malignant diseases originating from organs in the peritoneal cavity annually in the USA, and most of these cases spread by intraperitoneal seeding. Cytoreductive surgery for removal and debulking of metastases in the peritoneal cavity is the primary treatment option. Complete surgical removal of the cancerous tissues, however, is difficult to achieve because positive margins are often left behind, and it is difficult to detect the small metastases in the peritoneal cavity. Methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), a protoporphyrin X (PplX) prodrug, has been clinically used for photodynamic therapy of local malignancies such as Basal Cell Carcinoma and Actinic Keratosis. Its application for cancers in the peritoneal cavity, however, has been limited by its non-specific biodistribution and adverse effects. Since nanoparticles can play an essential role as drug deliver platforms as a result of their loading capacity, sustained drug release profile, and potential targeting ability, I proposed a liposomal delivery system, Folic-modified liposome (FL). The goal of this study is to take advantage of this observation by developing a FL system of MAL for photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of cancers in the peritoneal cavity in a more specific and efficient manner. Based on the results presented, FL has the potential to improve cytoreductive surgery in the following manner: a) A hydrophilic core can encapsulate high amounts of MAL and protect it from metabolic degradation; b) FL systems loaded with MAL can enlarge the gap between PpIX accumulation in tumor cells and normal tissues. c) FL system loaded with MAL can provide photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy as complementary functions.
    • A Case for the Cakras: Finding their Place in Contemporary Discourse

      Nagatomo, Shigenori; Bregman, Lucy; Bingenheimer, Marcus; Jhala, Jayasinhji (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The intention of this project is to make a case for the cakras by finding their place in contemporary discourse. The assumption that allows for this project is that the structure and context of the cakras as psycho-physical phenomenon are not sufficiently established in scholarship. The method employed is to illuminate the cakras, which are primarily addressed as historical/textual entities, as phenomenological and psychological entities. This will be done through the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and the additions to his depiction of the lived body as per YUASA Yasuo, who introduces the “unconscious quasi-body” (i.e., the subtle body) as a level of the body of which one may become aware. The cakras will also be presented as that which function similarly to psychological entities, introducing the depth psychology and commentary of C.G. Jung. By doing so, the human component of the cakras will be drawn out of historical/textual matters and into the lived experience of the human body where they may become the subject of phenomenological and psychological analysis. Through arguing for the addition of these standpoints, future dialog with other disciplines, especially contemporary cakra practitioners, may be facilitated.

      Albandar, Jasim M.; Suzuki, Jon, 1947-; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Objectives: To describe clinical features, demographic characteristics, and treatment outcome in four prepubertal children with severe periodontitis. This is a case report of prepubertal children that have been referred to the Temple University Kornberg School of Dentistry (TUKSD) for the treatment of severe periodontitis. Methods & Materials: Chart review was performed of available paper and electronic records of patients aged ≤ 10 years that have been treated at the Graduate Periodontology Clinic, TUKSD during the past 5 years. Cases were evaluated for periodontal diseases by means of assessing dental plaque, dental calculus, gingivitis, probing depths and clinical attachment level, and radiographic evidence of bone levels. Cases diagnosed with periodontitis were identified and the patients¡¯ demographics, clinical findings, type of treatment provided, treatment outcome, and medical history were noted. Results: Four children with severe periodontitis were identified. All the subjects had deep probing depths around their primary teeth showing significant bone loss on radiographs and were diagnosed with severe periodontitis. These children were treated with scaling and root planing combined with systemic antibiotics and extraction of hopeless primary teeth. The permanent teeth erupted early and there was no radiographic alveolar bone loss. Three subjects had microbiological testing and showed predominance of certain periodontal pathogens such as Prevotella intermedia and Fusobecterium nucleatum. Following treatment all children were inaccessible for follow-up. Conclusion: Periodontitis in prepubertal children causes early loss of primary teeth and early eruption of permanent teeth. Relevant systemic diseases were not detected in any of the children. Compliance with periodontal maintenance is poor among prepubertal children attending the TUKSD clinics for the treatment of periodontitis.
    • A Case Study of a Male School Principal's Leadership Practices: An Exploration of Emotion & The Ethic of Care

      Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Farley, Frank; Gross, Steven Jay; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This qualitative single-site case study examined the philosophy, decisions, and behaviors of a particular male school principal who subscribed to a form of care-based leadership practice. A Pennsylvania high school principal with a distinct leadership philosophy centered on the ethic of care was chosen to participate in this study. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotion as it relates to leadership philosophy and the enactment of leadership decisions and actions. Additionally, the short and long-term organizational effects of leader behavior were examined. Semi-structured interviews with the principal, administrators, teachers, staff, parents, community members, and graduated students were utilized to examine how the principal's leadership philosophy was perceived and carried forth in school operations. Additionally, on-site observations and document reviews were utilized to aid the data collection process. The observation and analysis of the male school principal's leadership behavior was filtered through the lens of Goleman's, Boyatzis', and McKee's (2002) primal leadership theory and also through Gross' (1998, 2004, 2006) turbulence theory. Additionally, Wilson's (1998) theoretical conception of consilience was utilized as the physiological, psychological, ethical, social, emotional, and spiritual aspects of leadership were considered. These theoretical perspectives allowed for the review of principal leadership behavior in the context of unstable organizational conditions and accounted for the various elements involved with the leadership process. In turn, the male school principal's ability to implement his leadership philosophy was explored. This examination aimed to increase understanding of the intentions, actions, perceptions, and outcomes that arise from male school principal conduct that proposes to be aligned with a care-based leadership philosophy. The findings indicated the male school principal was able to successfully implement a care-based form of leadership practice. The results suggest that a particular leadership acuity, involving various rational, emotional, social, and moral competencies, was necessary for the school principal to experience success. Principal aptitude in these domains allowed the school leader to successfully lead his school organization during both stable and highly turbulent conditions. The findings suggest that the ethic of care, specifically in relation to Sernak's (1998) conception of caring power, should serve as the foundation for school organization leadership practice. Also, the findings offer various care-based school leadership aptitudes and behaviors that may be beneficial for school leadership theorists and practitioners to explore and consider.

      Myers, Samuel S.; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Haviland, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      ABSTRACT Educators in schools for the past two decades have been faced with the problem of disruptive behavior in classrooms. The rate and extent to which schools in Jamaica and elsewhere have been experiencing disruptive behavior among students, has generated the attention of many within the classrooms and in another places. The present study examined school personnel perceptions of the causes of disruptive behavior among a set of grades 9 and 11 students in a corporate area high school and the impact that disruptive behavior had on their own and their classmates’ achievement. It also examined how educators respond to students who are consistently disruptive in the classroom. The primary data collecting instruments used to conduct this case study comprised: semi-structured interviews, observation, and the reviewing of archival data on students’ academic performance. The results of the study revealed that school personnel hypothesized several causes of disruptive behavior in classrooms. These were inclusive of parental influence and home environment, community environment, peer influence, socioeconomic status, difficult personal circumstances, illiteracy, learning disability (ADHD), attention seeking, and problems with teaching. Also mentioned, were attitudes of teachers, and structural classroom dynamics. All the participants believed that disruptive behavior had a strong impact on students’ performance, a belief borne out by achievement data. The observations revealed that although teachers used a variety of approaches to respond to disruptive behavior, those approaches were almost exclusively responsive. The data suggest that specialized training, regarding classroom disruptive behavior, should be implemented to better equip school personnel with the techniques to deal effectively with classroom disruptive behavior.
    • A Case Study of Two Suburban Local Education Foundations

      Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Gross, Steven Jay; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Soundy, Cathleen S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Local Education Foundations (LEFs), non-profit organizations that are closely associated with and in support of their local schools, have become a key resource in meeting the needs of today's students in public education. The purpose of this case study is to examine two LEFs in suburban Philadelphia, identify keys to their success or failure, and discuss their impact on and struggles in helping students in their communities. The theoretical frameworks of Overlapping Spheres of Influence and the Ethic of Community are applied to gain further insight into LEFs and will support the literature and research findings. The research questions that were answered are what is the perceived impact of Local Education Foundations on students and what are key indicators of a successful Local Education Foundation. Literature regarding the origins, goals, structures, and methods of fundraising, how their funds are distributed, outcomes, benefits, and limitations is examined. Pertinent documents about selected LEFs were gathered, observations of LEF board meetings were made, and interviews were conducted with many stakeholders, including LEF members, school district personnel, families, and donors. Based on the collected data, both LEFs embodied the three traits of a successful LEF as identified in the literature. Both have also made an impact on their community through scholarships and programs.
    • A Cauchy Problem with Singularity Along the Initial Hypersurface

      Mendoza, Gerardo A.; Berhanu, Shiferaw; Gutiérrez, Cristian E., 1950- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      We solve a one-sided Cauchy problem with zero right hand side modulo smooth errors for the wave operator associated to a smooth symmetric 2-tensor which is Lorentz on the interior and degenerate at the boundary. The degeneracy of the metric at the boundary gives rise to singularities in the wave operator. The initial data prescribed at the boundary must be modified from the classical Cauchy problem to suit the problem at hand. The problem is posed on the interior and the local solution is constructed using microlocal analysis and the techniques of Fourier Integral Operators.

      Cordes, Erik E.; Sanders, Robert W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      The Juan de Fuca Ridge, located 400 km off the coast of Washington State, is home to unstable and unpredictable hydrothermal vent sites where chemosynthetic communities flourish. In 2007 the manned submersible ALVIN retrieved a Ridgeia piscesae tubeworm community in its entirety from the side of the Tower sulfide edifice from the Endeavor segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (47 55.416720 N, 129 6.487020 W, at a depth of 2269 m) using the Bushmaster Jr. collection device. The collection was analyzed for community structure and the data collected were compared to that from several other hydrothermal vent communities. It was determined that substrate composition is a factor that heavily influences community structure. The data were then compared to the community succession model developed by Sarrazin et. al. in 1997 and 1999 (Sarrazin et. al. 1997, Sarrazin and Juniper 1999). The Tower community was found to expand the model as a new community succession classification; that of community iii low flow. The Tower community was then analyzed for diversity, structure and tubeworm morphology in conjunction with two other communities from differing substrata. The Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms were found to be of the "long skinny" morphotype, one that was previously thought to only reside on basaltic substrate. The Tower community has similar species richness and higher species evenness than those from basaltic substrate, but similar richness and lower evenness that those from sulfide. This community type combines the characteristics of those from both substrata, resulting in a community with diversity and structure that is an intermediary between sulfide and basaltic substrates.
    • A Close-Space Sublimation Driven Pathway for the Manipulation of Substrate-Supported Micro- and Nanostructures

      Neretina, Svetlana; Cohen, Richard; Hughes, Robert; Sheffield, Joel B.; Zhang, Huichun (Judy) (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The ability to fabricate structures and engineer materials on the nanoscale leads to the development of new devices and the study of exciting phenomena. Nanostructures attached to the surface of a substrate, in a manner that renders them immobile, have numerous potential applications in a diverse number of areas. Substrate-supported nanostructures can be fabricated using numerous modalities; however the easiest and most inexpensive technique to create a large area of randomly distributed particles is by the technique of thermal dewetting. In this process a metastable thin film is deposited at room temperature and heated, causing the film to lower its surface energy by agglomerating into droplet-like nanostructures. The main drawbacks of nanostructure fabrication via this technique are the substantial size distributions realized and the lack of control over nanostructure placement. In this doctoral dissertation, a new pathway for imposing order onto the thermal dewetting process and for manipulating the size, placement, shape and composition of preformed templates is described. It sees the confinement of substrate-supported thin films or nanostructure templates by the free surface of a metal film or a second substrate surface. Confining the templates in this manner and heating them to elevated temperatures leads to changes in the characteristics of the nanostructures formed. Three different modalities are demonstrated which alters the preformed structures by: (i) subtracting atoms from the templates, (ii) adding atoms to the template or (iii) simultaneously adding and subtracting atoms. The ability to carry out such processes depends on the choice of the confining surface and the nanostructured templates used. A subtractive process occurs when an electroformed nickel mesh is placed in conformal contact with a continuous gold film while it dewets, resulting in the formation of a periodic array of gold microstructures on an oxide substrate surface. When heated the gold beneath the grid selectively attaches to it due to the surface energy gradient which drives gold from the low surface energy oxide surface to the higher surface energy nickel mesh. With this process being confined to areas adjacent to and in contact with the grid surface the film ruptures at well-defined locations to form isolated islands of gold and subsequently, a periodic array of microstructures. The process can be carried out on substrates of different crystallographic orientations leading to nanostructures which are formed epitaxially and have orientations based on underlying substrate orientations. The process can be extended by placing a metallic foil of Pt or Ni over preformed templates, in which case a reduction in the size of the initial structures is observed. Placing a foil on structures with random placement and a wide size distribution results, not only in a size reduction, but also a narrowed size distribution. Additive processes are carried out by using materials which possess high vapor pressures much below the sublimation temperature of the template materials. In this case a germanium substrate was used as a source of germanium adatoms while gold or silver nanostructures were used as heterogeneous nucleation sites. At elevated temperatures the adatoms collect in sufficient quantities to transform each site into a liquid alloy which, upon cooling, phase separates into elemental components sharing a common interface and, hence, resulting in the formation of heterodimers and hollowed metal nanocrescents upon etching away the Ge. A process which combined aspects of the additive and subtractive process was carried out by using a metallic foil with a high vapor pressure and higher surface energy than the substrate surface (in this case Pd foil). This process resulted in the initial preformed gold templates being annihilated and replaced by nanostructures of palladium, thereby altering their chemical composition. The assembly process relies on the concurrent sublimation of palladium and gold which results in the complete transfer of the templated gold from the substrate to the foil, but not before the templates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for palladium adatoms arriving to the substrate surface. Thus, the process is not only subtractive, but also additive due to the addition of palladium and removal of gold.
    • A Collection of Ten Schubert Songs Transcribed for the Piano

      Abramovic, Charles; Anderson, Christine L.; Wedeen, Harvey D.; Brodhead, Richard, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      A Collection of Ten Schubert Songs Transcribed for the Piano Yoni Levyatov Doctor of Musical Arts Temple University, 2012 Doctoral Advisor Committee Chair: Dr. Charles Abramovic The objective of this project is the creation of a collection of ten songs by Franz Schubert, freely transcribed for solo piano: 1) "Gute Nacht" D.911 2) "An die Laute" D.905 3) "Memnon" D.541 4) "Wilkommen und Abschied" D.767 5) "Greisengesang" D.778 6) "Todesmusik" D.758 7) "Der Goldschmiedsgesell" D.560 8) "Das Fischermädchen" D.957 9) "Das Lied im Grünen" D.917 10) "Der Strom" D.565 These are written bearing in mind the general history of piano transcriptions as originated (in the modern sense) by Franz Liszt, the greatest of all transcribers for the piano, as well as other figures, such as Feruccio Busoni and Leopold Godowsky. The primary reason behind Liszt's idea of transcribing several Schubert song cycles, as well as singular lieder, was to popularize those works, and thus make them available to the common 19th century amateur, who was quite at home at the piano and usually wished to be able to reproduce favorite pieces with his own two hands. or in a four-hand collaboration. Liszt was also interested in raising awareness of these works, which were less popular and treated less seriously than they are today. At present such transcriptions may be done not only for the reasons described above, but also as a modern stylization, utilizing the many pianistic and compositional devices that have emerged since the 19th century. Some of the songs transcribed in my collection deviate considerably from the original accompaniment textures. Schubert, particularly in the strophic songs, tends to use consistent figures that hardly change with each repetition. The transcription medium allows an expansion of that, as well as use of many colorful and expressive pianistic idioms to reflect the text and the different stages of plot development. A rather extreme example of transcription taken to the point of re-composition that I discuss and use as a reference is the Schubert's Winterreise-Eine komponierte Interpretation (1993) by Hans Zender - a piece in which the composer explores the textual and musical possibilities in orchestrating his interpretation of the score for a tenor and a small orchestra. A similar treatment of Schubert, but for solo piano, as opposed to an orchestra, is one of the novelties in this project. The song that has been transcribed with a particular reference to Zender's work is Gute Nacht, which opens both Zender's and Liszt's transcriptions, following Schubert's original. Another significant point of reference in this project is taken from Liszt's transcription of "Das Fischermädchen" " from the "Schwanengesang" D.957. It is one of only two lieder in my collection also existing in another transcription which has been a part of the common piano repertoire. Liszt's treatment stands somewhat in between what would be a more common and literal transcription of the day in the 1840s and Zender's psychological re-composition and my transcription pays an homage to that. The implications of this project may bring a wider recognition to the validity of the transcription genre, and an expansion of the modern piano transcriptions repertoire, which is somewhat limited due to its unpopularity among current composers.