• A Suffocating Nature: Environment, Culture, and German Chemical Warfare on the Western Front

      Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Hitchcock, William I.; Johnson, Jeffrey Allan; Isenberg, Andrew C. (Andrew Christian) (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The story of chemical warfare is that of a relationship between nature, the military, industry, and culture. By the turn of the twentieth century, German industry, especially its chemical companies, came to dominate Europe. Their success brought both considerable economic development and considerable environmental damage from chemical pollution, especially to rivers such as the Rhine and the Emscher. These economic changes made in exchange for landscape degradation conflicted with long-held cultural beliefs in Germany that promoted the beauty of nature and the importance of conserving its aesthetics. The First World War's effect of the environment, including the effects of chemical weaponry, highlighted this paradox on a nationwide scale. In an effort to win the Great War, German military leaders turned to their chemical industry for answers. Using the flat terrain of Western Europe, winds strong enough to push massive toxic clouds, and their extensive knowledge of chemistry, the Germans chose chemical warfare agents based on meteorological conditions and their ability to overcome the obstacles of trench warfare. Millions of acres were doused in chemical clouds and shells, killing every form of life at the front and all but permanently altering the landscape and soils. This created an atmosphere of total environmental war, where chemicals were intentionally used to contaminate land and kill all life for the sake of military gains. The home front also suffered, as in Germany where the levels of chemical contaminants in their rivers were directly linked to the course of the chemical war. Germans wrote numerous diaries, journals, and memoirs that documented the ecological damage caused by these poisonous agents. These visceral descriptions of gas warfare and chemical disasters relating to clean up operations helped to solidify a national picture of what the gas war experience was like, and how many Germans came to see warfare and humanity as a destroyer of nature. Simultaneously, Europeans faced the daunting task of cleaning and repairing their landscapes. Millions of acres of land were contaminated, and tons of chemical ordnance was to be disposed. Yet an antagonistic political climate, steep financial costs, and the German leadership's desire to continue chemical weapons research limited Europeans' ability to restore their land. Their actions resulted in horrific environmental and human consequences, including everything from the contamination of land with buried ordnance to the phosgene cloud catastrophe at Hamburg in 1928. Not only did the damage caused by chemical weaponry force German military officials to rethink military operations and tactics, chemical weapons also compelled the German people to solidify new cultural relationships between war and nature, specifically those which took environmental damage into account when thinking about the war experience. German artistic and written culture at that time reflected the environmental damage through pacifistic and anti-technological lenses, creating a framework where modern environmentalism could take shape. Ultimately, the use of chemical weapons for military gain shaped German cultural attitudes and changed European landscapes. It ushered in a new form of total war, and demonstrated how the environment directly influenced both the outcome of the chemical war in the field but also German cultural beliefs regarding the relationship between nature and warfare.

      Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Krueger, Rita; Ryan, Eileen, 1978-; Walton, Steven; Neiberg, Michael S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This research is about innovation. Using the example of the British Army, which underwent great changes during the First World War, I focus on the role of soldiers and civilian in its process of adaptation to the new tools of warfare. Innovation was not a process forced from the top of the Army or produced solely by officers. Change came from a complex interaction between soldiers, army institutions, and civilians at home. Technology was the topic of this interaction: soldiers used technology to lobby for change and improve their effectiveness on the battlefield, civilians used it to help and participate to the war, while institutions transformed their own structures to adapt to the fast-paced changes, providing a common place to absorb and redistribute innovation. I try to break the common narrative that portrays the inventor producing a weapon, a committee of the army adopting it, and the weapon changing warfare. Ideas surfaced from a complex environment that looked for solutions in a constant dialogue between the experience of the battlefield, the personal competencies of soldiers and civilians, and the necessities of the British Army to simplify, streamline, and standardize.

      Silberfein, Marilyn; Lucas, Susan, Ph. D.; Mennis, Jeremy (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Nicholas Adams (1993) suggests that the destruction of the built environment and architecture of a city during war is an effective way of demoralizing and even eradicating the enemy. Goonewardena and Kipfer (2007) suggest that the built environment helps establish not only the common shared spaces in which individuals live their lives, but a sense of place and community identity. When buildings and public spaces are anthropomorphized, their destruction affects every aspect of a community. Urbicide as a tactic of urban warfare has changed the look and feel of many places such as the Balkans, Germany in World War II, and The Gaza Strip. The many faces of war have changed the landscape and homogeneity of the areas affected. Long-term, continual bombardment, precision attacks, and incursions by armies have in many cases all but destroyed the pre-existing physical environment. In its stead, is created a non-permanent built environment on the verge of destruction or change by non-civil forces. This investigation uses The Gaza Strip as a case study and looks into the impermanence of the built environment. The continual violence of change has greatly affected the resident Palestinian population. I will also examine how the temporary nature of the built environment and constant threats of change and destruction have affected everyday spaces. Although the population understands the potentially transitory nature of the structures, this does not deter them from rebuilding, when materials are available. Using data obtained from different nongovernmental organisations and aid agencies, this paper examines how repeated bombardment, precision attacks, and incursions reconfigure space, buildings and the functionality of the built environment in The Gaza Strip. Changes in the form and functionality are conceptualized as continuous processes that produce constant rounds of rebuilding. The shape and composition of the built environment is evaluated after specific bombardments, attacks and incursions in order to assess the extent and form of rebuilding. The results show that each round of destruction is followed by differing degrees of reconstruction that again restructure the look of the built environment.
    • Not Forgotten: The Korean War in American Public Memory, 1950-2017

      Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Lowe, Hilary Iris; Kitch, Carolyn L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The “forgotten war” is the label most frequently used to recall the conflict that took place in Korea from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, with variations of this phrase found in museum exhibitions and monuments across the country. Since the widespread presence of so many mentions of Korea clearly demonstrates that the Korean War is not forgotten, this project critically evaluates several forms of public memory (including museum exhibitions, historical scholarship, films and television shows, state and local monuments, and memorial infrastructure including bridges, highways, buildings, and trees) in order to explore how the war has come to be called forgotten. This project also seeks to examine the foreign policy issues of labeling the Korean War as forgotten, by exploring how it is recalled globally and why it is essential to remember details about the war. This project also seeks to fill a niche in the scholarly literature on public memory of American wars by examining Korea as prior studies have both WWII and Vietnam. In addition, this project intervenes in several more scholarly conversations ranging from the argument that the television series M*A*S*H was not primarily an allegory for Vietnam, as is often alleged, to the contention that a Korean Anti-War Movement was much more widespread than has been appreciated by academics interested in the history of activism. This dissertation is designed to highlight the ongoing need to remember the Korean War in detail, given the threats to world peace made by North Korea, and to make clear that it is vital to understand the enduring legacy of the war for twenty-first century diplomacy, which can only be done by examining how the war has been publicly recalled and why the forgotten war label persists despite evidence that Korea has been widely remembered.
    • Philosophizing War: Arguments in the War on Iraq

      Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Alperson, Philip, 1946-; Taylor, Paul C. (Paul Christopher), 1967-; Schwartz, Joseph M., 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      I set out to analyze four main philosophical arguments which have dominated the Iraq war debate. Each of these arguments has been used by philosophers to varying degrees to assess the circumstances surrounding the war. The discussions customarily focused on four key issues: just war theory, humanitarian intervention, democratization, and preventive war. In each case, I examine the argument's methods, shortcomings, and implications, to conclude that each fails to satisfactorily address, explain, or elucidate the highly controversial war. I argue that we simply cannot rely on a meager set of arguments to provide us with greater insight or genuine understanding of this war, as well as new or postmodern wars more generally. First, arguments that focus on the just war tradition overlook key events and underemphasize developments that have effectively eroded the tradition's defining concepts, such as the distinctions between combatant/noncombatant, states/non-states, victories/defeats, armies/non-state or non-nation actors. Second, theoretical analyses are routinely misappropriated or misapplied; this is especially evident in calls for humanitarian intervention, implemented for past harms committed, using backward-causing logic intended to make up for past inaction, rather than halting ongoing or imminent harm. Third, the focus on forcible democratization overlooks the high probability for failure in such pursuits and readily dismisses moral, legal, economic, educational, and cultural obstacles to democratic national building. Fourth, arguments which focus on preventive war suffer from similar problems encountered with the previous three, especially since it is unclear that the event could be characterized as a case of preventive war. The relationship between belligerent state and target state was not one in which the target state posed a future or distant threat to the belligerent state. Collectively, the arguments err in their uncritical acceptance of methodological analyses that have no genuine application to the matter at issue; that is, each misunderstands the nature of new or postmodern wars and clings to concepts relevant to modern wars, which do not factor in developments such as non-state actors, the spread of global capitalism, economic and cultural globalization, strategic objectives or military preeminence, imperialist aims or empire-building.
    • Visual Frames of War Photojournalism, Empathy, Compassion, and Information Seeking

      Mendelson, Andrew L. (Andrew Lawrence), 1967-; Cai, Deborah A.; Darling-Wolf, Fabienne; Holbert, R. Lance; Arceneaux, Kevin (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Although it has long been assumed that pictures depicting the human suffering of war evoke empathy and compassion, which leads to social action, there is little empirical evidence of that claim. This study aimed to fill the gap in visual communication theory about the effects of war photojournalism on media consumers' emotional and behavioral responses. This mixed methods design included a between-subjects experimental design tested whether photos (from conflicts in Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo) with a human-cost-of-war visual frame had significantly different effects on participants' levels of empathy, compassion, personal distress, other-oriented distress, and information seeking than pictures with a militarism visual frame. A second study used series of focus group discussions, to investigate how media consumers make meaning out of images of conflict. The findings expand our understanding about the way audiences react to conflict photos, and they have implications for how photo editors might present audiences with images of war that will engage audiences.