• Cognitive Transformation as a Value of Art: A Study of the Cognitive Value of Art

      Alperson, Philip, 1946-; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Feagin, Susan L., 1948-; Wells, Susan, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Art has been thought of as a source of cognitive value that might contribute to the survival and the enrichment of human life by providing us with knowledge about and insight into our world. The cognitive value of art, understood generally in terms of the provision of knowledge, has been discussed by many philosophers who have focused on issues concerning the means by which knowledge is acquired in the arts and the range of knowledge that art is able to provide. However, in focusing on knowledge as the end-product of art, philosophers have tended to neglect the subjective aspect of the cognitive value of art and the importance of the process of experiencing art, during which the subject who experiences an artwork goes through a particular kind of transformation. In recent years, Noël Carroll has overcome this problem by considering the moral cultivation of the subject who experiences works of art. However, the subjective aspect of art's cognitive value cannot be exhausted by moral cultivation. In this dissertation I argue that the principle cognitive value of art resides in the cognitive transformation of the subject that occurs throughout the process of experiencing works of art. My discussion of the transformation involves an analysis of the ways in which artworks articulate perspectives and promotes the processes of reconfiguration and particularization. I also, with the aid of John Dewey's philosophy of experience, explore the ways in which reconfiguration and particularization contribute to art's transformative potential and what characterizes the cognitive transformations which result from aesthetic experiences.

      Di Benedetto, C. Anthony; Venkatraman, Vinod; Harold, Crystal M.; Bharadwaj, Neeraj (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Understanding why organizational stakeholders choose to communicate company-relevant information to others in their network is an area of ongoing interest to both academics and practitioners. This dissertation advances internal marketing literature by conceptualizing employees as internal customers and modeling their communication behaviors as value exchanges. Communication choices were hypothesized to be based on the perceived values of available communication options, deriving influence from both employee internal characteristics and situational variations in the decision context. This framework was applied and analyzed within two contexts. The first essay examined the dynamics of internal customers’ propensity to “blow the whistle” on peer misconduct to organization higher-ups. These studies revealed that employees disclosed or withheld firm-damaging information based on the social and functional value characteristics presented in available communication options. The second essay examined the motivating factors behind front-line employees’ decisions to convey brand information to external customers. These studies showed that employees were driven by factors affecting the perceived intrinsic value of engaging in discussions about the brand topic, as well as the perceived extrinsic value of rewards expected as a result of having such customer interactions. Overall, this dissertation suggests that companies may enable the diffusion of company information by creating conditions that increase employees’ perceived value of engaging in brand communications.
    • Relevance in the Science Classroom: A Multidimensional Analysis

      Kaplan, Avi; Byrnes, James P.; Schifter, Catherine; Newton, Kristie Jones, 1973-; Lombardi, Doug, 1965- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different groups. The findings combine to support a multidimensional perspective of relevance in the 9th grade biology classroom; offering researchers a useful model for future investigation and educators with insights into the students' classroom experience.
    • The Foreign Language Learning Value Beliefs of Japanese Elementary School Students

      Beglar, David; Sawyer, Mark; Sick, James; Schaefer, Edward; Irie, Kay, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This study was an investigation of student beliefs about their EFL education, and it was based upon the subjective task value component of the expectancy-value theory, a prominent theory of achievement motivation. The participants were three cohorts of Japanese public elementary school students (Cohort 1 from 2008; Cohort 2 from 2009; and Cohort 3 from 2010); each cohort consisted of third through sixth graders (N = 1,478; N = 3,693; and N = 1,336, respectively). Three research questions with associated hypotheses were posited in order to determine: (a) if students of all age groups could differentiate the three value components of Enjoyment, Importance, and Use; (b) the degree to which grade levels and genders were different with regard to each value; and (c) if grade level and gender differences were consistent between cohorts. The Young Learners Value Scale (YLVS) was an 11-item, 4-point Likert self report scale created in order to investigate elementary school students' values concerning their EFL education. Prior to conducting inferential analyses on the collected data, the dimensionality, validity, and reliability of the YLVS were established through the use of the Rasch rating-scale model. In addition, the raw scores were converted into interval Rasch measures. Results of the principal components analyses showed that each grade level was able to differentiate the three values of Enjoyment, Importance, and Use. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the instrument measures as well as the factorial structure of the theoretical model were both invariant across grade level. Results of the two-way ANOVAs indicated that the third grade students valued the Enjoyment, Importance, and Use of English to a statistically significant higher degree than the higher grade levels. Descriptive statistics showed that all grade levels valued the Enjoyment and Importance of English, yet all grade levels responded neutrally to the Use of English. With regard to gender, female students held statistically significant greater values of Enjoyment, Importance, and Use of English and their EFL class than boys, yet these differences were found for only Cohorts 2 and 3. This study was the first, to the best of my knowledge, to use the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation as a basis for an investigation of public school EFL students. The results indicated that the elementary school students valued the Enjoyment and Importance of English, but were neutral to the Use of English. The integration of more skill-based activities that focus on listening to English and speaking in English to communicate to others and a reduction in fun-focused activities such as songs and games might provide a greater opportunity to enhance the students' value of Use.