• A PHENOMENOLOGICAL INQUIRY INTO INTER MUSIC THERAPY: AN “EXPERIENTIAL MEETING PLACE”

      Magee, Wendy; Shoemark, Helen; Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Analytical Music Therapy (AMT) is an advanced model of music therapy practice in the United States. Inter Music Therapy (IMT) is one of four required training stages to becoming an analytical music therapist. IMT is an experiential process where two AMT trainees take turns being therapist and client to one another, while under the direct supervision of the AMT trainer. Music is an integral component throughout IMT. All clinical material addressed and processed in IMT is lived experience, rather than role-play. To date, there is limited research documenting the experience of IMT for the AMT trainee. This study describes the IMT experience for AMT trainees, reveals the most significant experiences of IMT, and identifies how IMT shapes the clinical skills of music therapists who experience it. Findings from this study may add value to the training of music therapists in general. This study implemented the qualitative interpretivist research approach of Transcendental Phenomenology to explore the lived experience of IMT from the perspective of persons who have participated in it. Six participants were interviewed, interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the data were analyzed in two phases. Phase one resulted in a synthesis for each participant. Syntheses are rich descriptions of each participant’s IMT experience. The final step in phase one resulted in a global distilled global essence describing what it is like to experience IMT. Phase two was a cross participant analysis resulting in six global themes, and some of these themes were further developed through sub-themes. The self-experience of IMT provided multiple learning opportunities for AMT trainees. IMT shaped AMT trainees’ clinical skills in the following ways: increased capacity for empathy, enhanced therapeutic presence, recognition of how personal material influenced the therapy session, further developed self-awareness, and expanded musical creativity. The supervisory process enhanced AMT trainees’ appreciation for supervision, and the value of trust in the therapy process. Log writing was instrumental to integrating learning. The following recommendations are suggested to strengthen music therapy training and supervision in general: opportunities for music making while in the role of self to increase self-awareness in training and supervision, with an emphasis on creativity; opportunities for live or recorded observation of clinical work in supervision (in academic settings and professional supervision); and training opportunities for music therapy supervisors along with improved clarity in the competency of music therapy supervisors.
    • A randomized controlled trial of training in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety

      Kendall, Philip C.; Fauber, Robert L.; Giordano, Antonio, MD; Heimberg, Richard G.; Hineline, Philip Neil; Daly, Brian P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Establishing evidence-based training for therapists is of paramount importance for effective dissemination of evidence-based interventions. Using cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child anxiety, this study compared three therapist training conditions: (1) routine training: a workshop that covered a specific manual, (2) computer training: computer-based training via an interactive DVD, and (3) augmented training: a workshop that included a focus on core CBT competencies and active learning with behavioral rehearsal. Training success was operationalized as: (1) adherence to CBT for child anxiety, (2) therapeutic skillfulness, (3) a knowledge test, (4) and training satisfaction. The study also investigated the degree to which consultation following training impacted therapist outcomes. Participants (115 therapists) were randomly assigned to training condition and, following training, were invited to participate in weekly consultation. The results indicate that all three training conditions were effective in improving therapist adherence, skill, and knowledge. Participants were most satisfied with the in-person conditions. With regard to consultation, the number of consultation hours attended significantly predicted therapist training outcomes. This finding underscores the importance of consultation when training therapists.
    • An Examination of Active Learning as an Ingredient of Consultation Following Training in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Youth Anxiety

      Kendall, Philip C.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fauber, Robert L.; Panzarella, Catherine; Klugman, Joshua (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The training literature suggests that ongoing support (e.g., consultation) following initial training enhances training outcomes, yet little is known about the critical components of ongoing support and the lasting effects of ongoing support. The present study examined components of consultation calls that were provided to 99 community clinicians following training in the delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth anxiety. The 104 recorded consultation calls were coded for content and consultative methods present. A subset of the training sample (N = 50) completed a 2-year follow-up interview during which they reported on their implementation rates of CBT since ending consultation. They also completed measures assessing CBT knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practices (EBPs). It was hypothesized that active learning (i.e., role-plays) would predict therapist adherence, skill, self-efficacy, and satisfaction at postconsultation, but regression analyses found no significant relation. However, level of clinician involvement during consultation calls significantly positively moderated the relation between active learning and clinician skill. Analyses of the follow-up data indicated (a) high implementation rates of CBT and (b) maintenance of overall attitudes toward EBPs, willingness to implement EBPs if mandated, views regarding the appeal of EBPs, and beliefs regarding the clinical utility of EBPs. A significant decline in CBT knowledge and openness toward EBPs was observed. Consultation call attendance positively predicted therapist CBT knowledge, overall attitudes toward EBPs, and attitudes regarding the appeal and clinical utility of EBPs at the 2-year follow-up. Implications, strengths and limitations, and future directions are discussed.
    • Lean Accounting Comes to Lean Software Development

      Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Pavlou, Paul A.; Schmidt, Stuart M.; Gershon, Mark E., 1953- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      I argue that lean software development firms become more productive if they adopt and align lean managerial accounting systems with lean software development processes. I conduct two experiments on retraining and coaching of software development teams that have used lean and agile software development practices, demonstrating that these practices significantly improve productivity compared to control groups that did not receive this retraining and coaching. In a third experiment, I expand on this theme by introducing lean accounting productivity metrics to a treatment group of software developers. Team leaders actively use these metrics as quantitative “retrospectives” in team meetings to review past performance and identify areas for process improvement. Four months after these metrics are introduced, I measure their impact on the treatment group productivity and also survey the group to determine how these metrics affect employee attitudes and productivity compared to a control group that was not trained in use of these metrics for team meetings. The results indicate that introduction of lean accounting metrics does not impact employee attitudes and understanding of processes and metrics, nor does it improve productivity in the near term. Discussions with management indicate that retraining and coaching immediately improve productivity since they are directed at remedying specific operational and process issues. Using lean accounting metrics to impact team productivity and employee attitudes is more foundational and likely requires a longer period of exposure and learning. The experimental site is a large publicly traded software firm that uses lean and agile software development practices. Key Words: Lean Accounting, Training, Coaching, Software Development, Productivity
    • TEACHER PREPARATION IN A VIRTUAL K-12 CONTEXT: THE PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL LEADERS CONCERNING TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

      DuCette, Joseph P.; McGinley, Christopher W.; Hall, John; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Enrollment in cyber schools has increased steadily from their inception in 1996 through 2019. Despite this increase there is a limited understanding of how to train teachers to teach in virtual classrooms. Most virtual professional development is created and delivered by leaders of cyber schools. Therefore, to contribute to the literature on teacher training for online schools, this dissertation explores what school leaders of a cyber school perceive about the skills required to teach online and how they address these skills through the preparation and ongoing development of their new and veteran teachers. All 30 members of the focal school’s leadership team were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire, and additionally, they were invited to participate in an interview. The data were analyzed via frequency calculations and coding. Conclusions were focused on the knowledge gaps of new teachers, what defines a successful professional development experience, the state of teacher training at cyber schools, and the extent school leaders are involved with the creation of professional development at their school. I found that the knowledge gaps of new teachers depend on their prior teaching experiences, with the teachers who have more experience in brick-and-mortar schools having the most gaps. The most effective professional development activities were characterized to be engaging, relevant, timely, and a good example of what teachers should do in their own classrooms. The focal school uses several forms of professional development to meet the needs of new teachers: an in-person onboarding, induction, and mentorship. At the focal school, veteran teachers are provided with grade-level weekly workshops and a content-level professional learning community. Involvement in the creation of professional development is dependent on an individual’s title and role.
    • The Conceptions of Literacy of New Graduate Instructors Teaching Composition

      Goldblatt, Eli; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Newman, Steve, 1970-; Restaino, Jessica, 1976- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This study explores the variety of understandings of literacy, or conceptions of literacy, that exist among graduate instructors in the fields of English literature, rhetoric and composition, and creative writing in their first semester of teaching and what the implications are for having these conceptions, particularly with regard to their teaching. I collected two kinds of data from seven participants who were enrolled in a fall 2010 composition practicum at a large, public university in the Northeast. The data I elicited included interviews of participants in which they examine their own writing, an assignment ranking activity, observations of participants as they teach composition, and field notes I collected from the Practicum course meetings. I also collected artifacts from their work in the Practicum course and their teaching, including two drafts of a literacy autobiography that they wrote for the practicum and marked-up student paper drafts from the composition course they were teaching. Following the work of Michael W. Smith and Dorothy Strickland, I parsed the data by content units. Using Peter Goggin's categories for defining literacy from Professing Literacy in Composition Studies, I coded data using the qualitative data management system Atlas.ti according to seven conceptions: literacy for personal growth, literacy for personal growth, social/critical literacy, critical activist literacy, cultural literacy, functionalist literacy, and instrumental literacy. My analysis of the data reveals that graduate instructors came to their first semester of teaching with powerful preconceptions about why people read, write, and engage in other literacy activities and that these positions deeply affected their teaching. I also contend that although all of the graduate instructors had complex, multifaceted conceptions of literacy, each graduate instructor had one primary conception, which acted as a kind of lens through which every other conception was viewed and filtered. This primary conception functioned as the graduate instructors' terministic screen for viewing literacy, even when other conceptions were at play. Finally, given the fact that all of the graduate instructors received the same syllabus for the composition course they were teaching, the extent to which each one of them was able to inscribe their own ideas about teaching and literacy onto the course was surprising and points to the power of these literacy orientations, even in the face of competing conceptions communicated to them in their practicum.
    • The Effects of Action Video Game Training on Visual Short-term Memory

      Chein, Jason M.; Curby, Kim; Olson, Ingrid R.; Newcombe, Nora; Weisberg, Robert W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Marshall, Peter J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VSTM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work provide evidence that action video game play influences VSTM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VSTM and whether these VSTM advantages extend visual working memory (VWM). The results suggest that VSTM capacity is increased after action video game training, as compared to training on a control game, and that some limited improvement to VSTM precision occurs with action game training as well. The VSTM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game are not better accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared to the control group used. However, these findings do not appear to extend to measures of VWM, nor to verbal working memory. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VSTM system might be enhanced.
    • The Effects of Multitasking Training in Star Craft II

      Sachs, Michael L.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Blair, Mark; Breslin, Casey; Krafft, Larry John, 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This study explored the relationship between general or real-world multitasking and task specific multitasking as related to the real time strategy game Star Craft II: Wings of Liberty (Blizzard, 2010). In addition to exploring this relationship, the research also attempted to examine the effect task specific multitasking training had within Star Craft II. Data for the current research were collected in two phases. Phase one consisted of a pre/post-test design, with random assignment to either the gamer-control or experimental group. Participants in the experimental group were asked to complete 10 to 11 hours on the Star Craft II based Multitasking Trainer (stet_tcl, 2010) in between two, five trial blocks of the SynWin (Acivity Research Services, 2000); a computer based general multitasking measure. Participants in the gamer-control group were asked to complete 10 to 11 hours of one-versus-one Star Craft II ladder matches, and complete the same pre/post-test SynWin battery. Both groups were asked to send the researcher their three most recent one-versus-one ladder matches prior to starting the assigned protocol, and three more upon completion. Phase two participants only completed the pre-test SynWin battery, and were assigned to either the non-gamer control or gaming-control groups based on their weekly use of PC/console games and Star Craft II play. Inclusion in the non-gamer control group required less than one hour of PC/console gaming per week. Participants in the gaming-control group were asked to submit their three most recent one-versus-one Star Craft II ladder replays. For the purpose of this research, the operational definition for Star Craft II multitasking was effective actions per-minute (EAPM), a subset of actions per-minute (APM). Analysis of the gathered data from both phases of recruitment indicated a moderately strong positive relationship between SynWin scores and EAPM values (r = 0.636, p = 0.014). An evaluation of the effectiveness of the multitasking trainer was not completed due to a lack of adequate participation.
    • The Examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; Connell, James; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      The School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale (SPMCS) is a 45-item, self-report measure designed to assess the multicultural competence of school psychologists and school psychology trainees. The SPMCS was developed to address the need for a multicultural assessment tool specific to school psychology. The purpose of the present study was twofold: to determine the underlying factor structure of the SPMCS and to determine which characteristics of training programs and individual trainees were related to higher self-reported scores on multicultural competence. Participants in this study were 312 school psychology specialist and doctoral students enrolled in NASP approved and/or APA accredited school psychology programs in the United States. All students completed the SPMCS and a brief demographic survey in which they were asked about coursework in multicultural and diversity issues and practicum experiences with culturally and linguistically diverse populations. The results of the factor analysis demonstrated that a four factor solution best fit the data obtained from the sample of graduate students who completed the SPMCS. The four factor subscales were Cultural Knowledge/Skills, Cultural Appreciation, Basic Skills, and Cultural Awareness. These four subscales may provide a clearer and more accurate description of multicultural competence in professional psychology. Overall, education and training (i.e., advanced standing in graduate program, multicultural/diversity coursework, practicum with culturally and linguistically diverse clients, and internship) were associated with higher self-reported scores of multicultural competence. Female trainees, ethnic minority trainees, and bilingual/multilingual speakers also reported higher multicultural competence than male, Caucasian, and monolingual trainees. These results lend tacit support for an integrated-separate course model of multicultural training with explicit coursework in multicultural issues, integration of multicultural content into all coursework, and practicum experiences with culturally and linguistically diverse clients.
    • THE ROLE OF VISION IN SCHOOL LEADERSHIP

      McGinley, Christopher W.; Estrada, Armando X.; Laurence, Janice H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The cornerstone of transformational leadership is vision. For our school leaders to act as more than middle managers, they have to foster a school community's vision - cultivate the school community's direction and purpose. This qualitative study uses semi-structured interviews with school leaders and following focus groups with their teachers to understand better how principals develop and instantiate their vision and how this vision is perceived to have manifested by the school community. This study was designed to answer the questions of (1) do principals have a clearly defined personal vision for the schools they serve, and in what ways do they enact their vision?, (2) what professional and training experiences contribute to how a principal develops a vision for a school?, (3) what the relationship between the articulated vision and the culture of the school? The four themes that emerged from this study were that ( 1 ) principals have guiding statements that serve the same purpose as a formal vision that gives them and their school communities direction for the work, (2) principals primarily invest their teams in a shared vision through a visioning process, (3) principals most cited avenue for vision development was through working with others, and (4) principals whose articulated vision most aligned with the culture of the school were successfully able to operationalize the vision. The recommendations and implications for all stakeholders from this research are that (1) principals are trained taught how to develop guiding statements, (2) principals are taught how to invest others in a shared vision, (3) the importance of mentor matching and principal reflection in the principal training and development process, and (4) principals are taught how to operationalize their vision through ongoing coaching and support.