• A Great and Urgent Imperial Service: British Strategy for Imperial Defense During the Great War, 1914-1918

      Urwin, Gregory J. W., 1955-; Immerman, Richard H.; Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Newland, Samuel J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation investigates the reasons behind combined military and naval offensive expeditions that Great Britain conducted outside of Europe during the Great War. It argues that they were not unnecessary adjuncts to the war in Europe, but they fulfilled an important strategic purpose by protecting British trade where it was most vulnerable. Trade was not a luxury for the British; it was essential for maintaining the island nation's way of life, a vital interest and a matter of national survival. Great Britain required freedom of the seas in order to maintain its global trade. A general war in Europe threatened Great Britain's economic independence with the potential of losing its continental trading partners. The German High Seas Fleet constituted a serious threat that also placed the British coast at grave risk forcing the Royal Navy to concentrate in home waters. This dissertation argues that the several combined military and naval operations against overseas territories constituted parts of an overarching strategy designed to facilitate the Royal Navy's gaining command of the seas. Using documents from the Cabinet, the Foreign and Colonial Offices, the War Office, and the Admiralty, plus personal correspondence and papers of high-ranking government officials, this dissertation demonstrates that the Offensive Sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defense drafted the campaign plan. Subsequently, the plan received Cabinet approval, and then the Foreign Office, the Admiralty, and the Colonial Office coordinated with allies and colonies to execute the operations necessary to prosecute the campaign. In Mesopotamia, overseas expeditions directed against the Ottoman Empire protected communications with India and British oil concessions in Persia. The combined operations against German territories exterminated the logistics and intelligence hubs that supported Germany's commerce raiders thereby protecting Britain's world-wide trade and its overseas possessions.
    • Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and its Determinants in the Southwest Pacific

      Friedlaender, Jonathan Scott; Lorenz, Joseph G.; Weitz, Charles A.; Greenfield, Leonard; Schurr, Theodore G. (Theodore George), 1961- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this study is to examine mitochondrial DNA variation in the Southwest Pacific and determine what factors contribute to the degree and patterning of the observed variation. Population variation is known to be influenced by factors including demographic history, natural selection, climate, isolation, island area/complexity, and population age, as older populations are generally more diverse. The groups compared are from three regions in the Southwest Pacific; (a) northeast New Guinea, (b) Manus in northern Island Melanesia and (c) Easter Island in eastern Polynesia. MtDNA surveys have revealed highly significant differences in molecular variance across these populations. According to traditional biogeographical theory, the likely determinants of these differences are (a) length of time since initial settlement, (b) the comparative isolation of particular islands or regions since settlement, and (c) the size and complexity of settlement areas. Evidence from archaeology and linguistics provides the necessary framework for the study. Detailed archaeological surveys for several of the study regions provides evidence for settlement dates as well as evidence for isolation and/or frequent contact with other areas, usually in the form of trade and translocation of animals and artifacts. Linguistics, though not as informative as archaeology for settlement dates, provides detailed evidence for isolation and/or contact in the form of language isolates, language families, borrowing and linguistic divergence. The mtDNA haplogroups found in this study belong to several documented haplogroups, some of Melanesian origin, and some of Southeast Asian origin. The distribution of mtDNA variants and the pattern and degree of variation was examined using Analysis of Molecular Variance, standard diversity measures and partial Mantel matrix correlations. There were strong positive correlations between insular area, isolation and degree of variation. There were also measurable differences between inland and coastal populations on the larger islands where diversity in the isolated inland populations was greater than diversity in the coastal population. While there was some confounding of the variables, the results of our analysis indicate that insular area/complexity and isolation influence the pattern of variance more than length of settlement time.