• Shape-Engineering Substrate-Based Plasmonic Nanomaterials

      Neretina, Svetlana; Cohen, Richard; Borguet, Eric; Suh, Won H.; Zhang, Huichun (Judy) (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The advancement of next generation technologies is reliant on our ability to engineer matter at the nanoscale. Since the morphological features of nanomaterials dictate their chemical and physical properties, a significant effort has been put forth to develop syntheses aimed at fine tuning their size, shape and composition. This massive effort has resulted in a maturing colloidal chemistry containing an extensive collection of morphologies with compositions nearly spanning the entire transition of the periodic table. While colloidal nanoparticles have opened the door to promising applications in fields such as cancer theranostics, drug delivery, catalysis and sensing; the synthetic protocols for the placement of nanomaterials on surfaces, a requisite for chip-based devices, are ill-developed. This dissertation serves to address this limitation by highlighting a series of syntheses related to the design of substrate-based nanoparticles whose size, shape and composition are controllably engineered to a desired endpoint. The experimental methods are based on a template-mediated approach which sees chemical modifications made to prepositioned thermally assembled metal nanostructures which are well bonded to a sapphire substrate. The first series of investigations will highlight synthetic routes utilizing galvanic replacement reactions, where the prepositioned templates are chemically transformed into hollow nanoshells. Detailed studies are provided highlighting discoveries related to (i) hollowing, (ii) defect transfer, (iii) strain induction, (iv) interdiffusion, (v) crystal structure and (vi) the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The second series of investigations, based on heterogeneous nucleation, have Au templates serve as nucleation sites for metal atoms arriving in either the solution- or vapor phase. The solution-phase heterogeneous nucleation of Ag on Au reveals that chemical kinetics (injection rate & precursor concentration) can be used to control the nature of how Ag atoms grow on the Au template. It was discovered that (i) slow kinetics leads to an anisotropic growth mode (heterodimeric structures), (ii) fast kinetics causes a very uniform deposition (Au-Ag coreshell morphology, or Au@Ag) and (iii) medium kinetics produces structures with an intermediate morphology (truncated octahedron). In the second case, where the nucleation event is carried out at high temperatures, the Ag vapor is sourced from a sublimating foil onto adjacent Au templates. This process drives the composition and morphology from a Au Wulff-shape to a homogeneous Au-Ag nanoprism. By tracking over time the (i) morphological features, (ii) LSPR and (iii) composition; insights into the fundamental atomic scale growth mechanisms are elucidated. Overall, substrate-based template-mediated syntheses have proven to be an effective route for directing growth pathways toward a desired endpoint giving rise to an impressive new group of complex substrate-based nanostructures with asymmetric, core-shell and hollowed morphologies. While this dissertation is focused heavily on the development of synthetic procedures aimed at generating substrate-based plasmonic nanomaterials, the last chapter will serve to highlight a series of on-going studies aimed at defining these nanomaterials as highly effective heterogeneous catalysts. Several examples are shown including (i) nanoparticle films synthesize via sputter deposition, (ii) mechanically induced nanotexturing of bulk copper foils, (iii) ultra-small AuPd nanoparticles synthesized via pulse laser, (iv) substrate-based AuCu nanoprisms and (v) the Wulff in a Cage Morphology.

      Neretina, Svetlana; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Neretina, Svetlana; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Huichun (Judy); Borguet, Eric; Cormode, David Peter; Jahangir, Alireza (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Nanostructures have potential for use in state-of-the-art applications such as sensing, imaging, therapeutics, drug delivery, and electronics. The ability to fabricate and engineer these nanoscale materials is essential for the continued development of such devices. Because the morphological features of nanomaterials play a key role in determining chemical and physical properties, there is great interest in developing and improving methods capable of controlling their size, shape, and composition. While noble nanoparticles have opened the door to promising applications in fields such as imaging, cancer targeting, photothermal treatment, drug delivery, catalysis and sensing, the synthetic processes required to form these nanoparticles on surfaces are not well-developed. Herein is a detailed account on efforts for adapting established solution-based seed-mediated synthetic protocols to structure in a substrate-based platform. These syntheses start by (i) defining heteroepitaxially oriented nanostructured seeds at site-specific locations using lithographic or directed-assembly techniques, and then (ii) transforming the seeds using either a solution or vapor phase processing route to activate kinetically- or thermodynamically-driven growth modes, to arrive at nanocrystals with complex and useful geometries. The first series of investigations highlight synthesis-routes based on heterogeneous nucleation, where templates serve as nucleation sites for metal atoms arriving in the vapor phase. In the first research direction, the vapor-phase heterogeneous nucleation of Ag on Au was carried out at high temperatures, where the Ag vapor was sourced from a sublimating foil onto adjacent Au templates. This process transformed both the composition and morphology of the initial Au Wulff-shaped nanocrystals to a homogeneous AuAg nanoprism. In the second case, the vapor-phase heterogeneous nucleation of Cu atoms on Au nanocrystal templates was investigated by placing a Cu foil next to Au templates and heating, which caused the Cu atoms from the foil to sublimate from the foil and heterogeneously nucleation on the surface of the immobilized Au seeds. This process caused the composition and morphology of the Au Wulff-shape to transform into a homogeneous AuCu nanotriangle. Lastly, we characterized the morphological features and composition, optical properties, and also the catalytic and photocatalytic performance toward hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenolate. The second series of investigations highlight synthetic routes utilizing competencies of substrate-based techniques with colloidal chemistry. We have demonstrated two substrate-based syntheses yielding bimetallic nanostructures where shape control was achieved through (i) facet-selective capping agents and (ii) additive and subtractive process. In the first case a citrate-based cubic structure has been synthesized in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid and the role of each has been considered in shape control. Reactions were carried out in which Ag+ ions were reduced onto substrate-immobilized Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt seeds. It was discovered that for syntheses lacking ascorbic acid, citrate acts as both the capping and the reducing agent, resulting in a robust nanocube growth mode; however, when ascorbic acid was included in these syntheses, then the growth mode reverted to one that advances the octahedral geometry. The conclusion of these results was that citrate, or one of its oxidation products, selectively caps (100) facets, but where this capability was compromised by ascorbic acid. In the second case, galvanic replacement reactions have been carried out on immobilized cubic and Wulff structures to create the substrate-based nanoshells and nanocages, where the prepositioned templates were chemically transformed into hollow structures. In this novel research, Wulff-shaped templates of Au, Pt, or Pd, formed through the dewetting of ultrathin films, were first transformed into core−shell structures through the reduction of Ag+ ions onto their surface and then further transformed through the galvanic replacement of Ag with Au. Detailed studies were provided highlighting discoveries related to (i) alloying, (ii) dealloying, (iii) hollowing, (iv) crystal structure and (vi) the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Overall, a series of synthetic strategies based on physical and chemical vapor deposition were devised and validated to achieve novel substrate- based nanomaterials with different shapes and compositions for a variety of applications such as sensing, plasmonics, catalysis, and photocatalysis. The novel research in this dissertation also takes advantage of competencies of substrate-based techniques with colloidal chemistry and, brings this rich and exciting chemistry and its associated functionalities to the substrate surface.