Browsing Theses and Dissertations by Subject "2-pyridone"
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NATURAL PRODUCT ANALOGUES AND 2-PYRIDONE PHOTOCHEMISTRYThere is a profound need for new antibiotics which overcome bacterial resistance. The predominant source for these is natural products; however, they are often quickly rendered ineffective due to antibiotic resistance. A proven method in drug discovery is improving the properties of natural products through diverted total synthesis (DTS). Of particular interest is promysalin, which is produced by Pseudomonas putida, and selectively inhibits the growth of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa at nanomolar concentrations. The work herein describes modifications to the side chain which were shown to modulate antibacterial potency and specificity. A similarly inspired approach to countering antibiotic resistance is the targeted modification of a single carbon to silicon, motivated by the proven success of this substitution shown in pharmaceuticals and amino acids. The target for this modification is albocycline, a known macrolactone antibiotic that exhibits potent antibiotic activity against S. aureus. Replacing the C4 carbon of albocycline with silicon will provide sila-albocycline with enhanced hydrogen bonding properties and altered lipophilicity due to the slight changes from the carbon to silicon atom. In addition, there is anticipated intrinsic stability of the silanol toward rearrangement reactions than carbon-based. The proposed synthesis diverts from the known total synthesis of albocycline, as reported by the Andrade Group. This work details the efforts made towards the total synthesis of sila-albocycline. Lastly, there is untapped potential for UV-promoted photochemistry to create molecular scaffolds, which may lead to novel synthetic routes to complex molecules in addition to providing new polycycles that may expand current medicinal products. The work herein describes the synthesis of tethered chloro- and methoxy-substituted benzyl alcohols to 2-pyridones and the resulting products when exposing the solution to ultraviolet light. This generated new polycycles with complex structures which have unexplored biological or medicinal properties.
Photochemical and Titanium-Mediated Methods for Synthesis of Molecular ScaffoldsScreening small molecule libraries is a powerful method for identifying biologically active substances. Current compound libraries are typically comprised of a large number of structurally similar compounds designed around bioactive core structures of known molecules. While the number of tested compounds are increasing, there has been a decline in drug-discovery success due to only a small region of chemical space being represented in these compound libraries. In addition, newly discovered biological targets tend not to be modulated by currently known natural products and molecular scaffolds. Diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) aims to construct structurally novel and diverse products in a highly efficient manner to generate small-molecule libraries with a high degree of structural diversity and function. There is a need for new organic methodologies to access these atypical molecular scaffolds. The work presented here utilizes photochemical and titanium-mediated methodologies to access novel molecular scaffolds in two distinct directions: 1) by utilizing [2+2] photocycloaddition of pyridone-enynes to access functionalized cyclobutanoids capable of further modification and 2) by developing a novel Bredt’s rule-arrest Kulinkovich-de Meijere reaction to produce alkaloid building blocks with useful functionality. 2-Pyridones are known to undergo photo-initiated [2+2] and [4+4] cycloadditions with themselves and other conjugated -systems. These transformations provide rapid access to highly functionalized cyclobutanoid and cyclooctanoid derivatives capable of further manipulation to access both known and novel chemical space. Utilizing [2+2] photocycloaddition of pyridones conjugated with enyne partners we prepared polycyclic cyclobutanoids with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. Further, these products were functionalized to give complex tetracyclic molecular scaffolds. The described approach to the 5-8-5 framework of the fusicoccane family features a key intramolecular [4+4] photocycloaddition of tethered pyridones. Intelligent design of the tether and proper choice of solvent affords rapid assembly of the polycyclic framework and sets the relative stereochemistry of five stereogenic centers. The strategy for construction of cyclooctanoid natural products is part of a long standing program to utilize the powerful photochemical properties of 2 pyridone. A novel approach for rapid access to a structurally diverse array of amino-ketone scaffolds employing a Kulinkovich-de Meijere reaction of inexpensive lactam-olefin building blocks has been developed. The formation of cyclopropylamines from alkenes and amides, the Kulinkovich-de Meijere reaction, involves two carbon-carbon bond-forming steps. Strategic use of a tricyclic intermediate can arrest the process if the second step requires formation of a bridgehead double bond. This intramolecular transformation results in formation of carbocyclic amino ketone building blocks. Further manipulation provides access to novel three-dimensional chemical space from these building blocks to produce a spectrum of fused bicyclic scaffolds in a divergent yet predictable manner. These products allow access to complex molecular space that can serve as a platform for medicinal and biochemical investigations.