• A Development of Orthogonal Functions as Series Solutions of the Partial Differential Equations of Physics

      Kaigh, Irvin (Temple University. Libraries, 1949)
      Introduction. Statement of problem: The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the manner in which a Boundary Value problem in Physics leads to the solution in generalized Fourier Series. The conditions to be met in problems of this sort are generally the Partial Differential Equation and several unique physical conditions which are imposed on the distribution sought after. The problem is solved when a mathematical solution of the Differential Equation is found which satisfies all of the restrictions levied by the physical considerations. The secondary purpose of this study is to obtain a view of the generalized problem which leads ultimately to the Sturm-Liouville theory.
    • A study of the cooperative office work experience program in New Jersey, 1958-1959

      Martin, Charles Wilford, Ed. M. (Temple University. Libraries, 1962)
      Introduction. Statement of the Problem: It was the purpose of this study to determine the current status, practice, and problem of the cooperative office work experience programs that existed in the public high schools in the State of New Jersey with implications for those who plan to organize and develop such programs. It is generally believed that a cooperative office work experience program is a learning device which will provide more effective training for office jobs.

      Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Connell, James; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      One of the most controversial issues in the field of education is the determination of the educational placement of deaf K-12 students. Although school psychologists are involved in the determination process, little is known about their specific role in decision-making. School psychologists (n=357) with varying degrees of specialization in this area were surveyed with regard to their experience and perceptions. Results indicated that student audiological status predicts the types of assessment data that school psychologists collect and report in order to inform educational placement decisions. Participants who responded to the survey on the basis of their experience making placement decisions for deaf students (n=54) perceived themselves as less influential over the decisions than participants who responded on the basis of their experience making placement decisions for hearing students (n=303). Additionally, there was a relationship between school psychologists' specialization in the area of deafness and the interpretation of the phrase, the "least restrictive environment." Possible explanations and the associated implications of these findings are discussed.
    • New Step Down Procedures for Control of the Familywise Error Rate

      Sarkar, S. K. (Sanat K.); Raghavarao, Damaraju; Hsuan, Francis C.; Chang, Steven (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The main research topic in this dissertation is the development of the closure method of multiple testing procedures. Considering a general procedure that allows the underlying test statistics as well as the associated parameters to be dependent, we first propose a step-down procedure controlling the FWER, which is defined as the probability of committing at least one false discovery. Holm (1979) first proposed a step-down procedure for multiple hypothesis testing with a control of the familywise error rate (FWER) under any kind of dependence. Under the normal distributional setup, Seneta and Chen (2005) sharpened the Holm procedure by taking into account the correlations between the test statistics. In this dissertation, the Seneta-Chen procedure is further modified yielding a more powerful FWER controlling procedure. We then advance our research and propose another step-down procedure to control the generalized FWER (k-FWER), which is defined as the probability of making at least k false discoveries. We compare our proposed k-FWER procedure with the Lehmann and Romano (2005) procedure. The proposed k-FWER procedure is more powerful, particularly when there is a strong dependence in the tests. When the proportion of true null hypotheses is expected to be small, the traditional tests are usually conservative by a factor associated with pi0, which is the proportion of true null hypotheses among all null hypotheses. Under independence, two procedures controlling the FWER and the k-FWER are proposed in this dissertation. Simulations are carried out to show that our procedures often provide much better FWER or k-FWER control and power than the traditional procedures.
    • The Policy of Neglect: The Canadian Militia in the Interwar Years, 1919-39

      Urwin, Gregory J. W., 1955-; Immerman, Richard H.; Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Bercuson, David Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The Canadian Militia, since its beginning, has been underfunded and under-supported by the government, no matter which political party was in power. This trend continued throughout the interwar years of 1919 to 1939. During these years, the Militia's members had to improvise a great deal of the time in their efforts to attain military effectiveness. This included much of their training, which they often funded with their own pay. They created their own training apparatuses, such as mock tanks, so that their preparations had a hint of realism. Officers designed interesting and unique exercises to challenge their personnel. All these actions helped create esprit de corps in the Militia, particularly the half composed of citizen soldiers, the Non-Permanent Active Militia. The regulars, the Permanent Active Militia (or Permanent Force), also relied on their own efforts to improve themselves as soldiers. They found intellectual nourishment in an excellent service journal, the Canadian Defence Quarterly, and British schools. The Militia learned to endure in these years because of all the trials its members faced. The interwar years are important for their impact on how the Canadian Army (as it was known after 1940) would fight the Second World War. To put it simply, the interwar years forced the Militia to focus on officer, NCO, and specialist development, creating a highly trained and effective nucleus of key personnel. This leadership core led Canada's land-based contribution to the war effort. Another important factor in the Canadian Army's performance was the Militia's interwar interest in mechanization, which revealed a remarkably progressive strain in this neglected organization.
    • Toward a Holistic Vectored Geography of Homicide

      Rengert, George F.; Auerhahn, Kathleen, 1970-; Groff, Elizabeth (Elizabeth R.); Felson, Marcus, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      A minority of the research conducted on the geography of crime has considered crime as a vectored event, consisting of multiple locations of interest and straight-line connections between them. Within this small literature, very little attention has been paid to relationships between the various 'journey' vectors available for consideration. Recently several studies have resurrected the notion of Mobility Triangle Analysis as a method for examining crime as a multi-vectored event. The research described here illustrates that geometric configuration of multi-vector homicide events drives prior findings related to mobility triangle analyses, and demonstrates a two-stage method for reconciling this issue. In addition to examining the geometric configuration of homicide, the research also examines issues of orientation, extent, and the impact of contextual factors in multi-vector models of homicide geography.
    • The Leadership Succession Process In Megachurches

      Folger, Joseph P., 1951-; Jones, Tricia S.; Krafft, Larry John, 1941-; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the succession processes and experiences of senior pastors in megachurches. The term succession is used in the study to refer to the transition in which one leader leaves an organization and another one takes her/his place. The term process speaks of the sequence of individual and collective events, actions, and activities unfolding over time in context (Pettigrew, 1985). The term senior pastor is used to refer to the top leader in churches with multiple pastoral staff. The term megachurch is used here as a descriptive term to refer to Protestant churches with 2,000 or more attendees in their worship services each week (Thumma, 1996). Few changes have greater impact on an organization than the change of the senior leader. Historically, succession processes in churches have been disruptive events often leading to temporary or, in many cases, permanent decline (particularly when the predecessor led the church to a perhaps unprecedented time of growth). Succession was often an undiscussed matter until the departure of a predecessor. Since the proliferation of megachurches is a relatively new social phenomenon, little is known about the succession processes of senior pastors in these churches. This study on succession process seeks to address a gap in the literature regarding succession in megachurches by offering first- hand descriptive accounts by those who have lived through the succession process. Further, this study seeks to enrich the literature by seeking to integrate current leadership theory with this succession study. Examination of the processes of succession and the nature of the proposed research questions favor a qualitative approach methodologically. Since this is an attempt to holistically describe what is going on and to build a knowledge base for developing theory rather than test hypotheses, the methodology adopted needs to allow maximally for serendipitous discovery, description and explanation. This study proposes to describe, analyze and compare the succession processes and experiences of senior pastors in three megachurches through in-depth interviews with those most immersed in the succession process, through document review, archival review and through a basic organization profile survey.
    • Room for Possibilities: James Joyce and the Rhetorical Work of Fiction

      Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Wells, Susan, 1947-; O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948-; Burns, Christy L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The resurgence of interest in James Joyce's politics over the past decades reveals Joyce as a politically astute, if not active, writer. But Joyce's politics were never easily codifiable or traceable to a set of ideologically fixed positions. Instead, this dissertation argues, Joyce uses the novel as a space where political debate can be dramatized, and the novel becomes a form of deliberative rhetoric regarding future possibilities. For Joyce, the practices of rhetoric and aesthetics are complexly intertwined and interdependent, though they remain, in many ways, oppositional and contrary. Joyce and other modernist writers often viewed rhetoric as a discursive form that limited rather than expanded possibilities. But at other moments, Joyce presses rhetoric into the service of aesthetic (and vice-versa) since deliberative rhetoric and poetics (as defined by Aristotle) both attend to the possibilities of future action. This dissertation traces Joyce's evolution from a young socialist writer engaged in rhetorical experiments with the essay to his later dramatization of Irish political oratory in Ulysses. Joyce began his career as a self-described "socialist artist" in 1904, but would consciously eschew socialism within the next few years. This dissertation locates Joyce's early political rhetoric in his essay "A Portrait of the Artist" and the abandoned novel Stephen Hero as unconscious remainders reemerging in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In the later text, aesthetics attempt to replace rhetoric as a means of creating radical materialist consciousness, but the later text also re-incorporates and reimagines its earlier incarnations. The earlier texts remain as "symptoms" around which the later is written. Drawing on the definitions of "symptom" in psychoanalytic and Marxist theoretical practice, this dissertation argues that A Portrait of the Artist functions as a text because it includes, even though it attempts to rewrite, the political and rhetorical work of its antecedents. In crafting the "Aeolus" chapter of Ulysses, Joyce returns to the art of rhetoric to dramatize the arguments surrounding Irish labor, politics, and language in 1904 Dublin. Unlike his work in A Portrait of the Artist, Joyce presents oratory as a staging ground for reasoned debate and discussion regarding the future course of Irish history. Whereas rhetoric was an unconscious remainder of socialist politics in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, rhetoric is consciously applied in the work of the characters in the episode who are preoccupied with the consequences of the Irish language movement and middle-class industrialization. This dissertation ultimately argues against positions that view rhetoric as a weak surrogate for aesthetics or as a discursive limitation that must be overcome for aesthetics to produce valuable contemplative effects. Aesthetics in Joyce's fiction has productive rhetorical purposes: to lead readers to contemplate false oppositions, consider the means by which history is produced, to attend to the process of political decision-making, and to deliberate about the consequences of actions.
    • An Evaluation of Meaningful Learning in a High School Chemistry Course

      Schmuckler, Joseph S., 1927-; Fitt, David; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Ketelhut, Diane Jass (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study utilized an action research methodology to examine students' understandings of science knowledge, and meaningful learning using the SLD (Science Lecture Demonstration) and laboratory instructional method in a high school chemistry classroom. This method was a modification of the Science Lecture Demonstration Method as developed by Majerich and Schmuckler (2004, in press), the modification due to the addition of a laboratory component. The participants in this study represented a convenience sample which included one class of twenty-two, middle to high socio-economic status students (Mean family income over $75,000/year in 2005 U.S. dollars) in an honors chemistry course at a public high school in the state of New Jersey. These participants included nine girls and thirteen boys. The results of this study indicated what the students' understandings of science knowledge were, how the understandings differed among students, and to what extent those understandings were indicative of meaningful learning. These results were obtained by careful analysis of student generated concept maps, narratives from demonstration quizzes, laboratory reports, and test questions, as well as a teacher/researcher reflection upon the classroom experience. A simple taxonomy for analyzing students' understandings of science knowledge was developed, based upon the work of Majerich (2004). Findings indicated that the students' understanding of science knowledge, as well as the extent of meaningful learning that occurs in the chemistry classroom may be influenced by the roles of : explicit directions, pre-existing knowledge from elementary and middle school science classes, using examples vs. non-examples, macroscopic vs. microscopic views of nature, time for reflection, and everyday vs. scientific language. Results obtained from high school student responses confirmed Novak's observation of elementary students' lack of differentiation between the terms vapor and gas (Novak, 1998).

      Choi, Jongmoo Jay, 1945-; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Mao, Connie X.; Chen, Zhaohui; Kotabe, Masaaki (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Outsourcing became an important corporate strategic issue and part of the business lexicon since the 1980s. Existing studies on outsourcing mostly focus on benefits of outsourcing such as cost saving and resource reallocation, and the results are generally ambiguous regarding outsourcing outcomes. We study three important aspects of outsourcing that were largely overlooked in the existing literature: the benefit of flexibility acquisition, the power play between the CEO and labor in outsourcing decisions, and the effects of flexibility and governance for global outsourcing. This dissertation consists of three essays and constitutes an empirical investigation that (a) what the effects of flexibility and governance are for US firms engaged in outsourcing, (b) how the power play between the CEO and labor affects the decision to outsource and its outcomes, and (c) how offshore outsourcing is decided and what the value of offshore outsourcing is. The first paper examines the influence of a firm's flexibility on its decision to outsource. It is commonly believed that flexibility is good, but there is little empirical evidence on whether flexibility affects corporate performance. The paper casts outsourcing in terms of real options and presents evidence regarding the value of flexibility for US firms engaged in outsourcing. From a real option perspective, a major source of gains from outsourcing is the flexibility it entails, compared to continued in-house production under high fixed cost and demand uncertainty. Empirical analyses include an examination of market reactions to outsourcing announcements and long-term post-outsourcing firm performance, as well as the relation between flexibility and outsourcing outcomes. The results show that market reactions are positive and significant, along with a potential synergy between outsourcing and insourcing firms. More importantly, after controlling for potential switching costs related to outsourcing, outsourcing gains are significantly associated with the presence of a firm's growth options. In addition, firm performance is related to corporate governance, underscoring the importance of effective corporate governance as a requisite to aid the realization of potential gains from outsourcing. The second paper asks the question of whether the power play between the CEO and labor affects a firm's outsourcing decisions and outcomes. Outsourcing can be viewed as a power play between the CEO and labor. Fundamentally, outsourcing may be potentially desirable because of cost saving and the value of flexibility. However, to make it happen, the CEO must negotiate with labor that may resist outsourcing because of its concern for jobs. Yet without outsourcing, the firm may lose out competitively and labor may lose even more. This paper empirically examines the extent to which outsourcing decisions and outcomes depend on CEO power and labor participation in major corporate decisions. Using the sample of US firms, we find that the likelihood of outsourcing is positively related to CEO power and negatively associated with labor power. More importantly, prior firm performance is likely to be a moderating factor in the resistance of labor against outsourcing. The long-term firm performance is found to be influenced by the power dynamics between the CEO and labor as well as the general efficacy of corporate governance. The third paper investigates the widely debated issue of offshore outsourcing. Given the diversity of cost structure, the gains from outsourcing can be potentially greater internationally than domestically. While uncertainties are greater internationally, these may be offset by the real option benefits of a multinational network. Empirical work for U.S. outsourcing firms indicates that the market valuation is greater and more significant for international outsourcing than domestic outsourcing. The gains are related to flexibility that can be obtained from multinational network. In addition, international differences in locational factors including differences in corporate governance influence the valuation gains from outsourcing as well as the division between outsourcers and insourcers.
    • Structural Determinants for Heparin Binding in Human Coagulation Factor XI

      Walsh, Peter N.; Shore, Scott K.; Collins, Jimmy H.; Suhadolnik, Robert J., 1925-; Soslau, Gerald (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Coagulation factor XI plays an important role in the consolidation phase of blood coagulation. Previous studies from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that zymogen factor XI (FXI) binds to heparin with moderate (KD~110 nM) affinity via residues (K252, K253 and K255) located in the apple 3 (A3) domain of the molecule. In contrast, the enzyme, factor XIa (FXIa), was shown to bind to heparin with significantly higher affinity (~1.5 nM by ELISA) via residues (K529, R530 and R532) within the catalytic domain (CD). The interaction between heparin and FXIa potentiates the inhibition of FXIa by protease nexin-2 by 10-fold. In addition, related polyanions heparin and dextran sulfate inhibit the catalytic activity of FXIa. The present study was designed to determine the relative contributions of positively charged residues as well as the dimeric structure of FXI in heparin binding. During this project, wtFXI, FXIR504A, FXIK505A, FXIR507A, FXIR529A, FXIR530A, FXIR532A, and FXIR586A have been expressed and purified. All mutants were homogenous and identical to wtFXI on SDS-PAGE, clotting assays and 1G5 monoclonal antibody binding studied by SPR. In addition, monomeric FXI C321S/K331A was expressed and purified. Utilizing an ELISA assay, no difference in the affinity for heparin between FXIa and FXI was found. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) data collected for FXI clearly indicate a complex interaction which does not conform to a simple 1:1 Langmuir binding model making it difficult to obtain quantitative information. The complexity of FXI interactions with heparin is likely to arise from the multivalent nature of the binding, in which both protein and heparin have multiple binding sites. Two positively charged residues in the FXI catalytic domain, FXIR507A and FXIR532A, were found to be particularly important for interaction with heparin. The FXIR507A and FXIR532A mutants demonstrated ~ 65% and ~50% decreases respectively in total number of heparin binding sites based on ELISA. Also, the apparent dissociation constants for FXIR507A (KDapp ~13 nM) and FXIR532A (KDapp ~21 nM ) were 6 and 10-fold increased respectively compared with 2.1 nM for the wtFXI. Mutant FXIR586A also demonstrated a defect in affinity (KDapp ~ 13 nM) without an effect on the Bmax. The monomeric FXIC321S/R331A was also characterized for its ability to bind heparin compared with wtFXI. Surprisingly, the monomeric FXI displayed defective binding to heparin according to ELISA (KDapp ~ 30 nM) and SPR methods. Thus, the unique homodimeric structure of FXI in addition to the residues both in its catalytic and A3 domain chains are necessary for high-affinity heparin binding.

      Axelrod, Saul; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Connell, James; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Autism is subset of the special education population that seems to be growing at an alarming rate. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), one of the three main deficits found in someone diagnosed with autism is a "qualitative impairment in communication". However, language skills are very difficult for autistic children to learn and are often associated with disruptive behaviors. Research has shown a strong correlation between problem behaviors and difficulties with communication. This study uses techniques (i.e. functional analysis and functional assessment) to determine the function of these problem behaviors and their communicative intent. This study also demonstrates that an experimental approach such as a functional analysis can be done in a public school setting by public school personnel. Once the function is determined, treatments incorporating Functional Communication Training (FCT) can be applied to reduce these problem behaviors while increasing communication. Research has shown that FCT that replaces each function of a problem behavior will reduce problem behaviors in autistic children. Therefore, functional analysis results allow for the reduction of problem behaviors while identifying optimal situations/settings to teach language. Three male autistic students, attending a public school, were involved in the study. All subjects exhibited one or more problem behaviors that interfered with their everyday functioning at school. Initially, functional assessment data were collected via a descriptive analysis using Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) data. The A-B-C data were taken throughout each subject's school day in various environments. The data for each subject were graphed and analyzed by a school psychologist. Based on the results, the school psychologist developed a hypothesis for each subject regarding the function of his problem behavior. Subjects were exposed to various functional analysis conditions using a single subject multielement manipulation design based on the A-B-C data. These functional analysis sessions were conducted in each student's current public school placement. Functional analysis conditions were implemented until stable levels of problem behaviors were obtained or a clear pattern provided evidence as to the function of the problem behavior. Data from all sessions were graphed in a multiple baseline across subjects and visually assessed. Based on the data from the functional analysis, the function of the student's problem behavior was hypothesized. The experimenter, who was also a school psychologist, designed and implemented a function based treatment package to successfully reduce each student's problem behaviors. The treatment for each subject was individually designed based on that subject's functional analysis. Each treatment also incorporated a FCT component. As a result, problem behaviors were successfully reduced for each subject using functional assessment methodology by a school psychologist in a public school setting.
    • Preparation and Evaluation of Novel Initiators for the Thermally Mild Living and Controlled Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates: Potential Application in Dental Composite Resins

      Wunder, Stephanie L.; Varnum, Susan A.; Stanley, Robert J.; Wei, Yan (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      A number of nitroxide adducts and N-acyloxytrialkylammonium salts were prepared, isolated, characterized and evaluated as initiators for the controlled and living free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate monomers under mildly thermal and photochemical conditions. The initiators and polymerization methods that were developed could potentially be used for improving resins employed in dental applications. Using very easy synthesis strategies, the following nitroxide initiators were prepared in high purity, isolated and characterized: 1-Benzoylperoxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine (BPO/TEMPO), 1-(2'-Cyano-2'-propoxy)-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (AIBN/TEMPO), 1,1-ditertbutyl-1-(1-methyl-1-cyanoethoxy)-amine (AIBN/DBN), 1,1-ditertbutyl-1-(benzoylperoxy)-amine (BPO/DBN) and 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-4-oxo-1-(1-methyl-1-cyanoethoxy)-piperidine (AIBN/4-OXO-TEMPO). Using H2SO4 additive and an improved unimolecular initiation in nitroxide mediated polymerization, living and controlled polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) were accomplished, for the first time ever for most of the initiators. Linear polymers (PMMA) were produced in high yield (93 %) under mildly thermal conditions (T = 70 oC) and with excellent attributes: (PDI = 1.04-1.26), Mn (87000), Tg (122-128 oC), Td (290-410 oC). Highly crosslinked polymers, poly(TEGDMA) and poly(EBPADMA), were produced in high yield (100 %) with Td (350-400 oC). The initiators were stable for a year and half at 0 oC. Two routes were investigated for the preparation of N-acyloxytrialkylammonium salts. The more efficient of these routes was used to make several novel analogs of the salts. The salts were evaluated for the free radical polymerization of MMA, TEGDMA and EBPADMA under mildly thermal (T = 60 oC) conditions with and without H2SO4 additive. Polymerization rate, yield and polymer attributes all improved upon application of H2SO4 additive. PMMA was produced with excellent attributes (PDI = 1.01-1.06), Mn (96,000-122000), Td (330-385) and Tg (127-134). Highly crosslinked poly(TEGDMA) and poly(EBPADMA) were produced with Td ranges of 300-374 oC and 375-411 oC respectively.
    • Self-disclosure as a predictor of outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth

      Kendall, Philip C.; Fauber, Robert L.; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Weisberg, Robert W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxious youth; however, approximately 30% of youths continue to meet diagnostic criteria for their primary anxiety disorder at posttreatment. Efforts to identify predictors and moderators of outcome in CBT are encouraged in order to enhance treatment efficacy. One potential predictor is youth pretreatment self-disclosure (e.g. Panichelli-Mindel, Flannery-Schroeder, Kendall, & Angelosante, 2005). Using a sample of 101 Anxiety Disordered (AD) youths meeting criteria for a primary diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), or Social Phobia (SOP) who were treated with 16-weeks of CBT (individual or family), this study examined (a) youth self-disclosure as a predictor of CBT outcomes, (b) pre- to post-treatment change in disclosure and distress during disclosure task, for responders relative to nonresponders, (c) disclosure and distress while disclosing in anxious youth relative to community volunteers (N=74); and (d) disclosure and distress while disclosing in treatment responders and nonresponders (posttreatment), and community volunteers. Videotaped recordings of a four-minute Youth Speech Sample (YSS) in which the youth was instructed to talk about him/herself were coded by reliable coders who were blind to diagnostic status, using the Youth Self-Disclosure Rating Scale (YSDRS) for each of the variables of interest (Feared Situations, Personal Content, Global Rating of Disclosure, and Distress while Disclosing). Text analysis software was used to measure Disclosure Language. Treatment outcome was measured using posttreatment diagnostic status and severity, youth self-report, and mother- and father-reports. Findings of the present study indicate that pretreatment disclosure does not predict CBT outcomes for anxious youth. Additionally, there were no differences in the pre- to post-treatment change in disclosure and distress for responders and nonresponders; however, a main effect of treatment on disclosure of personal content was observed, such that youths disclosed more at posttreatment relative to pretreatment. Anxious youths appear more distressed in the disclosure task relative to community volunteers, but groups do not differ in their level of disclosure. Similarly, treatment responders and nonresponder at posttreatment were rated as more distressed while disclosing relative to community volunteers, but do not differ in their level of disclosure. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
    • Studying the Effects of Increased Volume of On-level, Self-selected Reading on Ninth Graders' Fluency, Comprehension, and Motivation

      Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969-; Wasik, Barbara A.; Sullivan, Francis J.; Fiorello, Catherine A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      In response to the literacy achievement gap that exists between high-poverty, high-minority school districts and their counterparts, a quasi-experimental multi-measure study was designed to increase the reading skills and attitudes of ninth grade students. The goal of this study was to increase the volume of on-level, self-selected reading with the expectations of positively impacting the students' fluency, comprehension, and motivation. Two teachers participated in the study, each teacher taught both a control and a treatment group. The treatment consisted of twenty minutes of daily increased volume of on-level, self-selected reading. The students also kept daily response logs. The results did not support the expectations. At the end of the sixteen-week study, the data showed that the treatment was not effective in increasing the fluency, comprehension, and motivation of ninth grade students. Other studies should be done that address the time factor in this study.

      Raines, John C.; Gross, Rita M.; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Levitt, Laura, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation studies the social and ethical implications of the core Buddhist teaching of Interdependent Co-Arising, which is the logic of Buddhist reasoning and the guiding principle of Buddhist ethics. By appealing to the Nikaya-s, the foundational texts recognized by all Buddhist schools on the one hand, and referencing contemporary socio-economic studies and poststructuralist feminist theories on the other, I revive and theorize about a dynamic sense of Buddhist social ethics, examine its relevance in the contemporary world, and make it acceptable and accessible to the largest number of Buddhists and non-Buddhist scholars and activists. This approach of appropriating non-Buddhist sources in order to make the Buddhist Dhamma relevant in alleviating dukkha is grounded in the Buddha's own teachings and examples. Poststructuralist feminist theories not only offer a much needed critique to the pervasive androcentrism in Buddhist circles, but are also useful in capturing the dynamic complexities that are conveyed by the teaching of Interdependent Co-Arising. In poststructuralist feminist language, any individual subject is a socio-psycho-physical compound shaped and delimited by socio-cultural sedimentations as well as by his/her mental formations, hence the Buddhist teaching of Non-Self. At the same time, it is due to people's repeated actions that socio-cultural sedimentations are formed and dukkha is created and perpetuated in the world. Therefore, in the Buddha's teachings, kamma inevitably has a social dimension and demands attention to the dukkha-producing social norms. Ethics is thus not a set of rigid, inalterable rules, but an ongoing process of striving to be ethical in the midst of ever-changing relations among ever-changing beings. And Sangha, one of the Three Jewels in which all Buddhists take refuge, is not a closed community bound by blood relation or geographical proximity, but an unending effort of building communities and working interconnections with multiple different others. The cessation of dukkha, in this view, is not a static existence where nothing happens, but a dynamic endeavor of working on one's behavioral, emotive, and conceptual transformation in order to alleviate dukkha and continuingly make peace in this world. It requires the participation of everyone entangled in the interconnected web of life.
    • A Qualitative Exploration of the Experiences of Mother-Athletes Training for and Competing in the Olympic Games

      Sachs, Michael L.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Napolitano, Melissa A.; LaVan, Sarah-Kate (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to provide a rich description of the experiences of mothering athletes training for and competing in the Olympic Games. Specifically, the study explored the post-partum return to training and competition, the integration of mothering and training responsibilities, the emotional and social experience of being a mother-athlete, and the Olympic experience. A purposive sample of eight athletes was utilized. All participants had competed in either the 2004 Summer or 2006 Winter Olympic Games and was mother to at least one child under the age of six at the time of their Olympic participation. Participants represented six different sports and two North American countries. In-depth interviews were conducted with the participants from September 2007 to April 2008. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, yielding eight major themes and 26 sub-themes. The themes that emerged included: (1) becoming a mother-athlete, (2) the initial return to training, (3) the effects of motherhood on training and competing, (4) the effects of the elite sport career on motherhood and the family, (5) social support, (6) organizational support, (7) the Olympic experience, and (8) advice and recommendations. In general, participants reported that their children and families enhanced their lives, both in and out of sport. They felt that motherhood gave their lives more balance and gave them a healthier perspective on their sport participation. For most, this resulted in increased enjoyment of sport, less pressure to perform, and in turn, enhanced performance. Participants faced struggles as well. They reported lack of time and energy as barriers to training (especially in the first year of motherhood), and found traveling with children to be logistically and financially difficult. The athletes in this study reported high levels of support, both physical and emotional, from their husbands/partners and immediate families. Within the athletic community, the participants found support from coaches, yet reported varying levels of support from athletic peers and sport organizations. Overall, the athletes reported positive Olympic experiences, with two discussing disappointing experiences. Recommendations for researchers and sport professionals based on the interviews are also discussed.
    • Measuring Japanese University Students' Readiness for Second-language Group Work and Its Relation to Willingness to Communicate

      Beglar, David; Schaefer, Kenneth G.; Casanave, Christine Pearson, 1944-; Sawyer, Mark; Jacobs, George M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study was an investigation of students' Readiness for L2 Group Work and its relationship to Willingness to Communicate in L2 Group Work in a Japanese university. Readiness for L2 Group Work is defined as learners' self-perception of the degree to which they are prepared cognitively and affectively for L2 group work. It consists of Communication Confidence in L2 Group Work and Beliefs about L2 Group Work. Two versions of the same questionnaire were administered to approximately 750 students with two English proficiency levels in the Communication and the Language and Culture courses at the beginning and end of the 2005 spring semester. A factor analysis identified six factors: Communication Apprehension in L2 Group Work, Self-perceived Communicative Confidence in L2 Group Work, Positive Beliefs about the Value of Group Work, Negative Traditional Instruction Orientation, Beliefs of Group Work Usefulness, and Willingness to Communicate in L2 Group Work. First, the descriptive statistics and the 2 × 2 ANOVA results for both questionnaires showed that the Communication course students had significantly higher Readiness for L2 Group Work than the Language and Culture students. However, there was also a statistically significant Level and Course interaction, which was caused by the lower proficiency Communication course students who displayed higher Radiness for L2 Group Work than their higher proficiency counterparts, and the higher proficiency Language and Culture students who showed higher Readiness for L2 Group Work than their lower proficiency counterparts. Second, the mixed between-within-subjects ANOVA results showed that the participants had significantly higher Readiness for L2 Group Work at the end than at the beginning of the course. The Level and Course interaction was statistically significant for the same reason as mentioned above. Finally, structural equation modeling showed that Willingness to Communicate in L2 Group Work was influenced by Beliefs about L2 Group Work via Communication Confidence in L2 Group Work. This study contributes a new concept, Readiness for L2 Group Work, to the group work literature. Further, the structural model specifies the relationship between Readiness for L2 Group Work and Willingness to Communicate in L2 Group Work.
    • Christian Mysteries in the Italian Renaissance: Typology and Syncretism in the Art of the Italian Renaissance

      Hall, Marcia B.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Bolman, Elizabeth S., 1960-; O'Malley, John W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      My dissertation studies the typological juxtaposition and syncretic incorporation of classical and Christian elements-subjects, motifs, and forms-in the art of the Italian Renaissance and the significant meaning of classical subjects and figures in such contexts. In this study, I analyze the interpretative modes applied to extra-Biblical and secular literature in the Italian Tre- and Quattrocento and the syncretic philosophies of the later Quattro- and early Cinquecento and reevaluate selected works of art from the Italian Renaissance in light of the period claims and beliefs that are evident from such a study. In summary, my dissertation considers the use of classical subjects, motifs, and forms in the art of the Italian Renaissance as a means to gloss or reveal aspects of Christian doctrine. In chapter 1, I respond to the paradigm proposed by Erwin Panofsky (Renaissance and Renascences) and establish a new criteria for understanding the difference between medieval and Renaissance perceptions of classical antiquity. Chapter 2 includes a study of the mythological scenes painted in the Cappella Nova of Orvieto Cathedral, which are here shown to gloss and reveal aspects of the developing Christian doctrine of Purgatory. In chapter 3, I study the Renaissance use of representational ambiguity as a means of signifying the propriety of pursuing an allegorical interpretation of a work and specifically address the typological significance of figures in Botticelli's Primavera. In chapter 4, I examine the philosophical concepts of prisci theologii and theologicae poetae and their significance in relation to the representation of classical figures in medieval and Renaissance works of art. This study provides the necessary background for a reevaluation of syncretic themes in Raphael's Stanza della Segnatura, which is the subject of the final chapter. In chapter 5, I identify classical figures in the frescoes of the Stanza della Segnatura-among them, Orpheus in the Parnassus and Plato and Aristotle in the Disputa-and offer a new interpretation of the iconographic program of the Stanza della Segnatura frescoes as a representation of the means by which participants in the Christian tradition, broadly conceived, approach God through the parallel paths of dialectic and moral philosophy.
    • The Impact of Text-Picture Relationships on Reader Recall and Inference Making: A Study of Fourth Graders' Responses to Narrative Picturebooks

      Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Wasik, Barbara A.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Sipe, Lawrence R.; Mahar, Robert J.; Goldstone, Bette P., 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Picturebooks play an important role in elementary education, but few teachers focus on their text-picture relationships. This qualitative study examined the impact of four narratives with different text-picture relationships on fourth graders' explicit recall and inference making, both immediately after reading and after a one week delay. The four relationships were loosely symmetrical, complementary, text carries the narrative, and ironic or contradictory. Twelve urban fourth graders, four reading at or above grade level, four reading moderately below grade level, and four reading significantly below grade level, met with the researcher on six occasions. The purpose was to read, retell, and answer questions about a story in a one-to-one setting. While each student read and responded independently, each received help with word recognition. Data consisted of transcriptions of oral retellings, interviews, and a cued recall measure. Transcriptions of story retellings were parsed into kernels and coded according to cognitive process, either explicit or implicit, and source of content. Possible sources were text, picture, text-picture overlap, and background knowledge. Five categories of inference emerged from the analysis of story retellings: local inferences, global inferences, associations, evaluations, and misinterpretations. An analysis of codes and categories and interview data revealed that the text-picture relationship influenced the sources of content readers recalled, inferences they constructed, expressed ease of story comprehension and recall, and expressed level of enjoyment. It also affected the meaning that students at three levels of reading ability constructed. Given that different text-picture interactions provide support for specific comprehension processes, this study suggests that teachers should consider the relationship of words and images when selecting reading materials for their classrooms, especially when students are reading below grade level.