• A Development of Orthogonal Functions as Series Solutions of the Partial Differential Equations of Physics

      Kaigh, Irvin (Temple University. Libraries, 1949)
      Introduction. Statement of problem: The primary purpose of this study is to indicate the manner in which a Boundary Value problem in Physics leads to the solution in generalized Fourier Series. The conditions to be met in problems of this sort are generally the Partial Differential Equation and several unique physical conditions which are imposed on the distribution sought after. The problem is solved when a mathematical solution of the Differential Equation is found which satisfies all of the restrictions levied by the physical considerations. The secondary purpose of this study is to obtain a view of the generalized problem which leads ultimately to the Sturm-Liouville theory.
    • THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF THE EFFECTS OF C-CBL ON CYTOSKELETON-MEDIATED PHENOMENA

      Tsygankov, Alexander (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      c-Cbl functions as a multifunctional adaptor and an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. Several studies have shown that c-Cbl is involved in cytoskeleton-mediated events, but the molecular mechanisms linking c-Cbl to cytoskeletal rearrangements remain to be elucidated. Our previous results indicated that c-Cbl facilitates spreading and migration of v-Abl-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and suggested that small GTPases play important roles in the cytoskeletal effects of c-Cbl in this system. To elucidate the individual contributions of small GTPases to these effects, we assessed the roles of endogenous Rac1, RhoA and Rap1 in the c-Cbl-dependent spreading and migration of v-Abl-transformed fibroblasts overexpressing c-Cbl, using RNAi. Furthermore, since it has been shown that Rap1 can act as an upstream regulator of Rac1 in inducing cell spreading, we analyzed the interplay between Rap1 and Rac1 in the signaling pathways connecting c-Cbl to the cytoskeletal events. Our results indicate that Rac1 is essential for cell migration and spreading, whereas activation of RhoA exerts a negative effect. We have also shown that Rap1 is essential for cell spreading, although not for migration in our experimental system. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Rap1 is located upstream of Rac1 in one of the signaling pathways that regulate c-Cbl-facilitated cell spreading. Overall, our findings are consistent with the model describing the connection of c-Cbl to the cytoskeletal rearrangements via two pathways, one of which is mediated by PI3K and Rac1, and the other, by CrkL/C3G, Rap1 and Rac1. A major biological feature of glioma is the ability to invade normal brain tissue. The molecular mechanisms of glioma invasion are involved in multiple biological processes which are primarily associated with cytoskeleton-mediated events including adhesion, migration, degradation of extra cellular matrix (ECM). Biological functions of c-Cbl in glioma have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined biological roles of c-Cbl using RNAi-mediated depletion of endogenous c-Cbl and stably c-Cbl expressing glioma cells generated by lentiviral transduction and showed that c-Cbl increases invasion through degradation of ECM by upregulation of MMP2 but not through migration, adhesion, or growth of SNB19, a grade IV glioblastoma cell line.
    • Paradoja

      Greenbaum, Matthew; Klein, Michael Leslie; Brodhead, Richard; Sparks, Tram (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra consists of three contrasting movements: slow, fast, slow (Paradoja = "paradox," Sp.). These movements are framed by a motif that opens and closes each of them, and connects them all. This framing motif is based on an alternation between a rhythmical pattern in the bass drum, and a melody sung by a boy mezzo-soprano, both over a string pedal. The first movement, Lamentos (Sorrows), is dramatic in character; it goes from simple to complex in its orchestration, harmony, texture, dynamics and tempo changes. The second movement, Algarabía (Tangle), reflects a festive affection; it presents a contrast to the first in character, tempo and spirit. The third movement, Sosiego (Serenity) provides a peaceful ending to the piece; it is lighter than the other two movements in texture and orchestration. The general harmonic language of Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra is non-tonal yet centric, with surface references to functional harmony. However, the pitch content varies from movement to movement. The first movement is highly chromatic and based in the twelve-tone collection. The melodies are created by a combination of small pitch-class sets and sometimes are broken down and distributed among different instruments. Harmony is the result of the juxtaposition and counterpoint of these melodies, which vertically reiterate the same cells or creates new sets. The second movement is based on smaller collections than the first, and it is less chromatic. Contrast is often created by changing the collections or simply transposing them. The third movement is the most homophonic and the least chromatic of all three. It is based on a combination and juxtaposition of diatonic and non-diatonic collections that interact with each other. Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra is examined in two broad categories. The first is a structural analysis, which includes details of form and pitch selection such as pitch collections, set classes and motives. The second is a stylistic analysis, which includes aspects of style such as rhythm, orchestration. The conclusion refers to the influence of historical models and aspects of the compositional process. Both the structural and stylistic analyses demonstrate how I have tried to merge diverse stylistic music elements to obtain a new personal idiom.
    • Marimba Rossa

      Wright, Maurice; Brodhead, Richard; Walters, Darrel L. (Darrel Lee); Dileo, Cheryl (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      ABSTRACT Marimba Rossa is a three-movement concert piece for marimba and symphony orchestra. The 14-minute piece is written in the spirit of the Italian Baroque concertos of Antonio Vivaldi (the "Red Priest" for whom the piece is named), using a harmonic and rhythm language that is heavily influenced by the concert and pop music of the late twentieth-century. Marimba Rossa was composed with the concept of Ars Combinatoria in mind. First espoused by George Rochberg in 1973, Ars Combinatoria is concert music that uses musical gestures drawn from any musical tradition. The accompanying monograph provides a detailed history of the modern concert marimba and an account of the evolution of its concert and popular music repertoire. Specific information about the marimba's origins in Asia, its place in the Bible, the development of the European strohfiedel xylophone, the refinement of the instrument in America, and a discussion of the Guatemalan, Mexican, and Japanese
    • Techniques for Extracting Contours and Merging Maps

      Latecki, Longin; Lakaemper, Rolf; Vucetic, Slobodan; Sobel, Marc (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Understanding machine vision can certainly improve our understanding of artificial intelligence as vision happens to be one of the basic intellectual activities of living beings. Since the notion of computation unifies the concept of a machine, computer vision can be understood as an application of modern approaches for achieving artificial intelligence, like machine learning and cognitive psychology. Computer vision mainly involves processing of different types of sensor data resulting in "perception of machines". Perception of machines plays a very important role in several artificial intelligence applications with sensors. There are numerous practical situations where we acquire sensor data for e.g. from mobile robots, security cameras, service and recreational robots. Making sense of this sensor data is very important so that we have increased automation in using the data. Tools from image processing, shape analysis and probabilistic inferences i.e. learning theory form the artillery for current generation of computer vision researchers. In my thesis I will address some of the most annoying components of two important open problems viz. object recognition and autonomous navigation that remain central in robotic, or in other words computational, intelligence. These problems are concerned with inducing computers, the abilities to recognize and navigate similar to those of humans. Object boundaries are very useful descriptors for recognizing objects. Extracting boundaries from real images has been a notoriously open problem for several decades in the vision community. In the first part I will present novel techniques for extracting object boundaries. The techniques are based on practically successful state-of-the-art Bayesian filtering framework, well founded geometric properties relating boundaries and skeletons and robust high-level shape analyses Acquiring global maps of the environments is crucial for robots to localize and be able to navigate autonomously. Though there has been a lot of progress in achieving autonomous mobility, for e.g. as in DARPA grand-challenges of 2005 and 2007, the mapping problem itself remains to be unsolved which is essential for robust autonomy in hard cases like rescue arenas and collaborative exploration. In the second part I will present techniques for merging maps acquired by multiple and single robots. We developed physics-based energy minimization techniques and also shape based techniques for scalable merging of maps. Our shape based techniques are a product of combining of high-level vision techniques that exploit similarities among maps and strong statistical methods that can handle uncertainties in Bayesian sense.
    • The Role of Mu Opioid Receptors in the Behavioral Effects of Cocaine

      Unterwald, Ellen M.; Cowan, Alan; Dun, Nae J.; Kirby, Lynn; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Stojanovic, Susulic Vedrana (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Animal models have proven to be useful tools for modeling human neurochemical and behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Cocaine is a psychomotor stimulant that facilitates monoaminergic neurotransmission by binding to transporters and inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine into presynaptic neurons. Many of the behavioral effects of cocaine, including its locomotor-activating and reinforcing properties, have been attributed to the ability of cocaine to enhance dopaminergic activity. In addition to its direct effects on monoamine neurotransmitters, cocaine impacts other neurotransmitter systems including the endogenous opioid system. The effects of selectively antagonizing mu opioid receptors on cocaine-induced behaviors were evaluated during this research. This research also evaluated the effect of selectively antagonizing dopamine D1 or D2 receptors on cocaine-induced mu opioid receptor occupancy by endogenous opioid ligands. This research furthered our understanding of how the endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems interact to mediate cocaine-induced behaviors. Although data support the role of mu opioid receptors in modulating cocaine-mediated locomotion and reward, the location of the mu opioid receptors involved has not been established. An evaluation of the effects of a selective mu opioid receptor antagonist administered directly into specific brain regions on cocaine-induced behaviors is important for understanding how the endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems interact to mediate cocaine-induced behaviors. The studies outlined herein sought to determine the contribution of mu opioid receptors in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic system to the rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of cocaine in the rat. In addition, to further understand the role of mu opioid receptors in cocaine reward, neuronal activation was studied via cFos activation following the expression of cocaine-induced place preference. Results of the research outlined herein demonstrate the importance of mu opioid receptors in cocaine-induced reward and activity, and demonstrate the anatomical selectivity of mu receptors within the nucleus accumbens, VTA and caudate putamen in this regard. These data suggest that cocaine causes the release of endogenous opioid peptides and that these peptides contribute to the rewarding and locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine. Further, these data also suggest that opioid peptides are released in the nucleus accumbens shell during the expression of cocaine place preferences and that mu opioid receptors in this region are critical for the manifestation of this behavior. Although data demonstrate that extracellular levels of endogenous opioid peptides are increased following cocaine administration, the time- and dose-dependent occupancy of mu opioid receptors within specific brain regions had not been established in previous studies. The present research sought to determine the time- and dose-dependent occupancy of mu opioid receptors, measured indirectly by displacement of 3H-DAMGO binding, within specific brain regions. 3H-DAMGO binding was measured by in vitro autoradiography. In addition, the contribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine-induced 3H-DAMGO displacement was evaluated. Results demonstrate that cocaine administration caused a dose- and time-dependent displacement of 3H-DAMGO binding to mu opioid receptors within the nucleus accumbens core and shell. This displacement was attenuated by pretreatment with a selective D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, demonstrating that cocaine, acting via D2 dopamine receptors, can cause the release of an endogenous opioid peptide that binds to mu opioid receptors within the nucleus accumbens core and shell. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic administration of non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonists has profound effects on mu opioid receptor density and signaling. The research presented herein sought to determine whether chronic treatment with the selective mu opioid receptor antagonist, CTAP, would increase mu opioid receptor density and agonist-stimulated G-protein activation. In addition, this research sought to determine whether chronic CTAP administration would sensitize animals to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine. Results outlined herein demonstrate that chronic CTAP treatment sensitized animals to the locomotor effects of cocaine and that this sensitization occurred in conjunction with an increase in mu opioid receptor density within the nucleus accumbens core and shell.
    • A Conversation With Dance History: Movement and Meaning in the Cultural Body

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo); Meglin, Joellen A.; Weightman, Lindsay (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study regards the problem of a binary in dance discursive practices, seen in how "world dance" is separated from European concert dance. A close look at 1930s Kenya Luo women's dance in the context of "dance history" raises questions about which dances matter, who counts as a dancer, and how dance is defined. When discursive practices are considered in light of multicultural demographic trends and globalisation the problem points toward a crisis of reason in western discourse about how historical origins and "the body" have been theorised. Within a western philosophical tradition the body and experience are negated as a basis for theorising. Historical models and theories about race and gender often relate binary thinking whereby the body is theorised as text. An alternative theoretical model is established wherein dancers' processes of embodying historical meaning provide one of five bases through which to theorise. The central research questions this study poses and attempts to answer are: how can I illuminate a view of dance that is transhistorical and transnational? How can I write about 1930s Luo women in a way that does not create a case study to exist outside of dance history? Research methods challenge historical materialist frameworks for discussions of the body and suggest insight can be gained into how historical narratives operate with coercive power--both in past and present--by examining how meaning is conceptualised and experienced. The problem is situated inside a hermeneutic circle that connects past and present discourses, so tensions are explored between a binary model of past/present and new ways of thinking about dance and history through embodiment. Archives, elder interviews, and oral histories are a means to approach 1930s Luo Kenya. A choreography model is another method of inquiry where meanings about history and dance that subvert categories and binary assumptions are understood and experienced by dancers through somatic processes. A reflective narrative provides the means to untangle influences of disciplines like dance and history on the phenomenon of personal understanding.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVE EXPERTISE IN MUSIC: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SONGS OF COLE PORTER AND IRVING BERLIN

      Weisberg, Robert W.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Hineline, Philip Neil; Chein, Jason M.; Latham, Edward David (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Previous studies of musical creativity lacked strong foundations in music theory and music analysis. The goal of the current project was to merge the study of music perception and cognition with the study of expertise-based musical creativity. Three hypotheses about the nature of creativity were tested. According to the productive-thinking hypothesis, creativity represents a complete break from past knowledge. According to the reproductive-thinking hypothesis, creators develop a core collection of kernel ideas early in their careers and continually recombine those ideas in novel ways. According to what can be called the field hypothesis, creativity involves more than just the individual creator; creativity represents an interaction between the individual creator, the domain in which the creator works, and the field, or collection of institutions that evaluate creative products. In order to evaluate each hypothesis, the musical components of a sample of songs by two eminent 20th century American songwriters, Cole Porter and Irving Berlin, were analyzed. Five separate analyses were constructed to examine changes in the psychologically salient musical components of Berlin's and Porter's songs over time. In addition, comparisons between hit songs and non-hit songs were also drawn to investigate whether the composers learned from their cumulative songwriting experiences. Several developmental trends were found in the careers of both composers; however, there were few differences between hit songs and non-hit songs on all measures. The careers of both composers contain evidence of productive and reproductive creativity. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Reading the English Revolution: The Literature and Politics of Typological Interpretation

      Miller, Shannon; Jackson, Gabriele Bernhard; Venuti, Lawrence; Traister, Daniel (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      My dissertation examines a group of seventeenth-century English religious dissenters whose shared millenarian beliefs, despite other theological and political differences, united them in an imagined community of readers. Those within this circle, including Eleanor Davies, John and Lucy Hutchinson, and John Milton, exerted a profound influence on the political debates of the 1640s to 1680s on both sides of the royalist-dissenter divide. The revival of ancient chiliastic doctrines, which held that certain events foretold in the Bible had not yet come to pass and that Christ soon would return to earth to rule over his saints, opened Holy Writ to history on an unprecedented scale. Millenarians treated the actors and events of the English Civil War as texts to be read and interpreted typologically, their mysteries unlocked through the divine mechanism of a Word unmediated except by human reason and the individual reader's spiritual communion with Christ. Positioned within this schema, and against the traditional agents of religious, state, and other institutional authority, readers arrogated to themselves positions of primacy. Simultaneously bound by the Bible's teleology and liberated by the metaphoric multivalency of its individual semantic units, literate prophets ceaselessly negotiated and renegotiated their personal and national identities using the tools of literary analysis and biblical exegesis. Precisely because their prophecies were rooted in acts of interpretation, they were able to revise their readings and reading protocols to accommodate shifting historical circumstances. As a result, the hermeneutic was able to exert a persistent influence upon narratives and literary representations of English history. Not only did millenarianism continue to win converts among radicals even after 1660, but its epistemological and ontological bases also framed in important, if sometimes refracted, ways royalist enactments of identity, agency, and history as late as the Exclusion Crisis, as I demonstrate in a study of Aphra Behn's Rover plays. Tracing the development of the hermeneutic from 1625-1681 allows me to illustrate the centrality of reading practices generally to historical change and, conversely, the effects of historical change on reading practices.
    • THE IMPACT OF COGNITIVE MONITORING LEARNING LOGS ON COLLEGE STUDENTS' DEVELOPMENTAL MATHEMATICS COURSE SUCCESS, PROBLEM-SOLVING PERFORMANCE, AND ATTITUDES

      Leonard, Jacqueline; Davis, James Earl; Ryan, Steve; DuCette, Joseph P.; Hill, Marc Lamont (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the cognitive monitoring learning log (CMLL), as a metacognitive strategy, on college students' developmental mathematics course success, problem-solving performance, and attitude toward mathematics and the CMLL. Using a pretest-posttest control group design that employed mixed research methodologies, the researcher examined data collected from four sections of a pre-algebra course; two of which received the CMLL intervention. Data sources included testing, surveys, student self-report, and interviews. Data analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent and paired samples t-tests were utilized, along with appropriate case analysis. Important findings that emerged from this study are as follows: the CMLL strategy can have some bearing on specific student outcomes (such as course grades); it can positively impact students' attitudes towards math, but not their problem-solving performance or attitudes towards CMLL. The case study analysis based on interviews and logs written by students provided additional insight into their thoughts and perceptions, supplementing the story gathered from the quantitative data. Eighty-eight percent (88%) of those interviewed reported benefits of the CMLL strategy. While findings from this study are inconclusive as to the impact of learning logs in the cognitive aspects, it was not shown to be a detriment either. Efforts should be made to determine how best to intertwine the CMLL strategy with other methods of instruction that will benefit college students in developmental mathematics courses the most. Recommendations for further study and future research considerations are included.
    • Room for Possibilities: James Joyce and the Rhetorical Work of Fiction

      Brivic, Sheldon; Wells, Susan; O'Hara, Daniel T.; Burns, Christy L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The resurgence of interest in James Joyce's politics over the past decades reveals Joyce as a politically astute, if not active, writer. But Joyce's politics were never easily codifiable or traceable to a set of ideologically fixed positions. Instead, this dissertation argues, Joyce uses the novel as a space where political debate can be dramatized, and the novel becomes a form of deliberative rhetoric regarding future possibilities. For Joyce, the practices of rhetoric and aesthetics are complexly intertwined and interdependent, though they remain, in many ways, oppositional and contrary. Joyce and other modernist writers often viewed rhetoric as a discursive form that limited rather than expanded possibilities. But at other moments, Joyce presses rhetoric into the service of aesthetic (and vice-versa) since deliberative rhetoric and poetics (as defined by Aristotle) both attend to the possibilities of future action. This dissertation traces Joyce's evolution from a young socialist writer engaged in rhetorical experiments with the essay to his later dramatization of Irish political oratory in Ulysses. Joyce began his career as a self-described "socialist artist" in 1904, but would consciously eschew socialism within the next few years. This dissertation locates Joyce's early political rhetoric in his essay "A Portrait of the Artist" and the abandoned novel Stephen Hero as unconscious remainders reemerging in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. In the later text, aesthetics attempt to replace rhetoric as a means of creating radical materialist consciousness, but the later text also re-incorporates and reimagines its earlier incarnations. The earlier texts remain as "symptoms" around which the later is written. Drawing on the definitions of "symptom" in psychoanalytic and Marxist theoretical practice, this dissertation argues that A Portrait of the Artist functions as a text because it includes, even though it attempts to rewrite, the political and rhetorical work of its antecedents. In crafting the "Aeolus" chapter of Ulysses, Joyce returns to the art of rhetoric to dramatize the arguments surrounding Irish labor, politics, and language in 1904 Dublin. Unlike his work in A Portrait of the Artist, Joyce presents oratory as a staging ground for reasoned debate and discussion regarding the future course of Irish history. Whereas rhetoric was an unconscious remainder of socialist politics in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, rhetoric is consciously applied in the work of the characters in the episode who are preoccupied with the consequences of the Irish language movement and middle-class industrialization. This dissertation ultimately argues against positions that view rhetoric as a weak surrogate for aesthetics or as a discursive limitation that must be overcome for aesthetics to produce valuable contemplative effects. Aesthetics in Joyce's fiction has productive rhetorical purposes: to lead readers to contemplate false oppositions, consider the means by which history is produced, to attend to the process of political decision-making, and to deliberate about the consequences of actions.
    • Service Recovery from the Customer's Perspective: Extending the Consumer-Directed Theory of Empowerment (CDTE)

      Roehl, Wesley S.; Aaronson, William Edson; Hu, Clark; Corak, Sanda (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Satisfactory resolution of customers' complaints in service recovery is a critical driver of customer loyalty, positive word-of-mouth, cross-buying from the firm's portfolio of offerings, and firm's long-term financial performance. Yet, despite the costs and benefits associated with service recovery, many customers who encounter service failures are dissatisfied with the handling of their complaints. This research takes a non-traditional approach and empirically investigates the area of service recovery process from the customer's perspective whereby empowering customers to play the central role in service production and delivery may bring about their satisfaction. In the field of tourism and hospitality services, it appears that no study has developed an integrative model capable of investigating effectiveness of service recovery by examining the relationship between customer empowerment and customer satisfaction indicators. Moreover, a growing body of research shows that the issue of service recovery is at the development stage in tourism and hospitality literature, and there is a paucity of empirical research in this area. Thus, this study addresses these gaps by developing a theoretical model of service recovery process. The model proposes that the degree of customer-perceived empowerment during service recovery process determines both the level of customer's affective/cognitive responses and the level of subsequent process complaint satisfaction. A portion of the theoretical model is then examined using regression and Path Analyses to analyze data that was collected through a web survey of undergraduate tourism and hospitality students. The results indicate that process complaint satisfaction is indirectly shaped by customers' perceptions of empowerment and their affective (emotional) and cognitive (process quality and equity/fairness) responses.
    • Analysis of the Inflammatory and Degenerative State of Osteoarthritic Joints

      Sitler, Michael; Barbe, Mary F.; Ziskin, Marvin C.; Kendrick, Zebulon V.; Barr, Ann E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Development of disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs has been hindered by an inability to diagnose osteoarthritis prior to structural changes and by animal models that cannot predict human responses to disease modifying interventions. The first part of this dissertation evaluated if a novel nonsurgical-voluntary animal model was capable of producing joint inflammation and degeneration as well as if ibuprofen could attenuate these outcomes. Spraque-Dawley rats were divided among 7 groups. The four experimental groups consisted of two trained to perform a high-repetition, high-force (HRHF) task without ibuprofen for 6 (N = 5) and 12 weeks (n = 16) and two trained to perform a HRHF task for 6 (N = 5) and 12 weeks (N = 16) with ibuprofen initiated at week 4 of the 12 week training protocol. Three groups served as controls: trained controls (N = 8), trained controls plus ibuprofen (N = 9), and normal controls that were not trained or provided ibuprofen (N = 13). Twelve weeks of the HRHF task produced joint inflammation and degeneration. Ibuprofen attenuated these outcomes. The second part of this dissertation evaluated if skin potentials were a noninvasive diagnostic marker for osteoarthritis. Skin and intra-articular potentials as well as synovial protein concentrations were measured in osteoarthritic (N = 4) and normal knees (N = 4). Skin potentials were not different between the groups but correlated to 7 synovial protein concentrations. Six synovial protein concentrations were significantly different between the groups. The HRHF task animal model induced joint inflammation and degeneration, and may be useful for assessing therapeutic and disease modifying responses to interventions. Future research needs to assess if this model is predictive of human responses to interventions. Although skin potentials may not differentiate between osteoarthritic and normal knees, they do relate to biochemical conditions within the knee. Future research needs to determine the mechanism that produces this relationship with the goal of improving measurement techniques to develop an early diagnostic marker for osteoarthritis. Development of new diagnostic markers for osteoarthritis and animal models for studying early osteoarthritis and disease modifying drugs represents the key to advancing disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs.
    • Distinct Mechanisms Regulate Induction of Stress Effector, gadd45b

      Liebermann, Dan A.; Hoffman, Barbara; Grana-Amat, Xavier; Shore, Scott K.; Haines, Dale; Gamero, Ana (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The GADD45 family of proteins consists of three small nuclear proteins, GADD45A, GADD45B, and GADD45G, which are implicated in modulating the cellular response to various types of genotoxic/physiological stress. This family of proteins has been shown to interact with and modulate the function of cell-cycle control proteins, such as p21 and cdc2/cyclin B1, the DNA repair protein, PCNA, key stress response MAP kinases, including MEKK4 (an upstream regulator of JNK kinase), and p38 kinase. Despite similarities in amino acid sequence, structure and function, each gadd45 gene is induced differentially, depending on the type of stress stimuli. For example, the alkylating agent, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS), rapidly induces all three genes, whereas hydrogen peroxide and sorbitol preferentially induce gadd45a and gadd45b, respectively. Studies of the mechanisms of the stress-mediated induction of the gadd45 genes have predominantly focused on gadd45a, with knowledge of gadd45b and gadd45g regulation lacking. Thus, in order to generate a more complete understanding of the collective regulation of the gadd45 genes, a comprehensive analysis of the stress-mediated induction of gadd45b has been carried out. Towards this end, a gadd45b promoter-reporter construct was generated, consisting of 3897bp sequence upstream of the transcription start site of gadd45b, fused to a luciferase reporter. In a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (RKO), in which gadd45b mRNA levels profoundly increase by various stress stimuli, we observe similar, high levels of induction of the gadd45b-luciferase construct with MMS or UVC treatments, but surprisingly not with sorbitol or anisomycin. Linker-scanning mutagenesis of the gadd45b promoter reveals several important MMS and UVC cis-acting responsive elements contained within the proximal promoter, including a GC-rich region and the CCAAT box. Furthermore, we have identified three constitutively bound transcription factors, Sp1, MZF1, and NFY, and one inducible factor, Egr1, which bind to these regions and which contribute to MMS-responsiveness. In contrast, a post-transcriptional mechanism appears to regulate gadd45b induction upon sorbitol treatment, as this treatment increases the gadd45b mRNA half-life, compared to MMS treatment. Interestingly, with the exception of a common cis-element, the stress-mediated induction of gadd45b appears to be mechanistically distinct from gadd45a. In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that gadd45b induction by distinct stress agents, MMS and sorbitol, is regulated differentially at the level of mRNA transcription or mRNA stability, respectively.
    • SCHOOL PERSONNEL ESTABLISHING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING BASED ON A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WITH AUTISTIC STUDENTS IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SETTING TO REDUCE PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

      Axelrod, Saul; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Connell, James; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Autism is subset of the special education population that seems to be growing at an alarming rate. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), one of the three main deficits found in someone diagnosed with autism is a "qualitative impairment in communication". However, language skills are very difficult for autistic children to learn and are often associated with disruptive behaviors. Research has shown a strong correlation between problem behaviors and difficulties with communication. This study uses techniques (i.e. functional analysis and functional assessment) to determine the function of these problem behaviors and their communicative intent. This study also demonstrates that an experimental approach such as a functional analysis can be done in a public school setting by public school personnel. Once the function is determined, treatments incorporating Functional Communication Training (FCT) can be applied to reduce these problem behaviors while increasing communication. Research has shown that FCT that replaces each function of a problem behavior will reduce problem behaviors in autistic children. Therefore, functional analysis results allow for the reduction of problem behaviors while identifying optimal situations/settings to teach language. Three male autistic students, attending a public school, were involved in the study. All subjects exhibited one or more problem behaviors that interfered with their everyday functioning at school. Initially, functional assessment data were collected via a descriptive analysis using Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) data. The A-B-C data were taken throughout each subject's school day in various environments. The data for each subject were graphed and analyzed by a school psychologist. Based on the results, the school psychologist developed a hypothesis for each subject regarding the function of his problem behavior. Subjects were exposed to various functional analysis conditions using a single subject multielement manipulation design based on the A-B-C data. These functional analysis sessions were conducted in each student's current public school placement. Functional analysis conditions were implemented until stable levels of problem behaviors were obtained or a clear pattern provided evidence as to the function of the problem behavior. Data from all sessions were graphed in a multiple baseline across subjects and visually assessed. Based on the data from the functional analysis, the function of the student's problem behavior was hypothesized. The experimenter, who was also a school psychologist, designed and implemented a function based treatment package to successfully reduce each student's problem behaviors. The treatment for each subject was individually designed based on that subject's functional analysis. Each treatment also incorporated a FCT component. As a result, problem behaviors were successfully reduced for each subject using functional assessment methodology by a school psychologist in a public school setting.
    • Syntheses of Silanediol Amino acids and alpha-amino-alpha-alkylsilanediol precursors

      Sieburth, Scott McNeill; Williams, John R.; Davis, Franklin A.; Berry, Donald H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Two research projects are described: studies of the synthesis of alpha-amino-alpha-alkylsilanes, the synthetic precursor of silanediol-based protease inhibitors, and the synthesis and stability evaluation of silanediol amino acids with an unprecedently unhindered silanediol group. Two methods were investigated as approaches to alpha-amino-alpha-alkylsilanes. First, a silicon-substituted aziridine was chosen as the precursor of an alpha-amino-alpha-alkylsilane via ring opening reactions with carbon nucleophiles. Silyl-substituted aziridines 2-24 and 2-30 were prepared via direct lithiation/silylation of aziridine and employed as substrates for ring opening reactions. In spite of many attempts to ring open these silylaziridines and prepare ?-amino-?-alkylsilanes, optimization of the reaction conditions were unsuccessful. Secondly, alpha-chloro-alpha-benzylsilane 3-12 was prepared as the precursor of an alpha-amino-alpha-alkylsilane via lithiation/benzylation. The alkylation at carbon alpha to silicon to give chloromethylsilane 3-14 was successful when using n-butyllithium for lithiation, which could be explained by the steric encumbrance inherent in the structure. Several attempts for nucleophilic displacement of chloride to obtain alpha-chloro-alpha-benzylsilane 3-11 were unsuccessful possibly due to the steric effect as well as the electronic effect of silicon on the alpha carbon which made the chloride less reactive toward nucleophilic substitution. The silanediol amino acid 4-1 was synthesized originally as a potential arginase inhibitor. Although the expected biological activity was not observed, the studies on silanediol-siloxane distribution of the silanediol amino acid revealed the unique properties of this compound. Under basic conditions, the silanediol amino acid was mainly stable in monomeric form. As the pH decreased, the silanediol amino acid gave a mixture of siloxanes which consisted of a variety of stereoisomers. With available instrumental techniques, monomer, dimers and trimers of the silanediol amino acid were identified.
    • Relationship Between Leisure Sport and Exercise Participation and Psychological Benefits for Horsemen

      Sachs, Michael L.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Shapiro, Ira; Swalm, Ricky L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study was a description of horsemen's perceived psychological benefits and liabilities derived from leisure sport and exercise participation. The horsemen that participated in this study were active trainers or grooms who stabled their horses at a training center. Sixty-six horsemen completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: 2, Stress Profile, and this researcher's inventory of horsemen's activities entitled Samaha Horsemen's Activities Questionnaire (SHAQ). Seven horsemen were interviewed to obtain qualitative data. Two of the seven horsemen were omitted from the analysis due to no or limited responses to the questions. Quantitative data results revealed that leisure participation in exercise activities positively correlated with greater well-being, physical self concept, and total self concept scores. There was a statistically significant negative relationship between time devoted to participation in exercise and stress scores. The horsemen that participated in this study work in professional harness racing. An allowable and acceptable leisure activity is gambling. However, results indicated that there were statistically significant negative relationships between time spent gambling and physical self concept, well-being, and exercise and sport participation. Horsemen who were above the median on participation in sport and exercise had significantly higher physical self concept and well being scores than those who were below the median. The results indicate that participation in a variety of exercise and sports as well as time devoted to leisure physical activity had the strongest relationship with improved well-being. Analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed two major themes (limitations and perceived outcomes) and three subthemes within limitations (time, injury, and competitiveness) and perceived outcomes (socialization, physical, and psychological well-being) that described horsemen's participation in leisure sport and exercise. A central conflict emerged within horsemen's reluctance to become assertive in addressing their limitations. Horsemen viewed limitations in participation in sport and exercise as time, injury, and competitiveness. Those who participate in leisure sport and exercise were assertive in addressing their own limitations. The perceived outcomes were physical, socialization, and psychological benefits. Participants expressed that leisure sport and exercise provided possible benefits regardless of their involvement or adherence to an exercise program.
    • Evaluation of The Efficacy of a Seven Week Public School Curriculum Based DIR/Floortime Parent Training Program for Parents of Children on The Autism Spectrum

      Fullard, William; Wieder, Serena; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Stahler, Gerald (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a seven week DIR/Floortime parent training on (1) the quality of the parent-child dyad and (2) the child's developmental level. The results of this study provide support for the notion that short term parent training significantly increases the quality of the parent/child interaction and also significantly increases the developmental level of the child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. These significant results were evidenced on the first two levels and the total scores on both the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale - Child (FEAS) and the Neuro-Developmental Disorders of Relating and Communication Functional Emotional Developmental Levels (NDRC-FEDL).
    • An Evaluation of Meaningful Learning in a High School Chemistry Course

      Schmuckler, Joseph S.; Fitt, David; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Ketelhut, Diane (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This study utilized an action research methodology to examine students' understandings of science knowledge, and meaningful learning using the SLD (Science Lecture Demonstration) and laboratory instructional method in a high school chemistry classroom. This method was a modification of the Science Lecture Demonstration Method as developed by Majerich and Schmuckler (2004, in press), the modification due to the addition of a laboratory component. The participants in this study represented a convenience sample which included one class of twenty-two, middle to high socio-economic status students (Mean family income over $75,000/year in 2005 U.S. dollars) in an honors chemistry course at a public high school in the state of New Jersey. These participants included nine girls and thirteen boys. The results of this study indicated what the students' understandings of science knowledge were, how the understandings differed among students, and to what extent those understandings were indicative of meaningful learning. These results were obtained by careful analysis of student generated concept maps, narratives from demonstration quizzes, laboratory reports, and test questions, as well as a teacher/researcher reflection upon the classroom experience. A simple taxonomy for analyzing students' understandings of science knowledge was developed, based upon the work of Majerich (2004). Findings indicated that the students' understanding of science knowledge, as well as the extent of meaningful learning that occurs in the chemistry classroom may be influenced by the roles of : explicit directions, pre-existing knowledge from elementary and middle school science classes, using examples vs. non-examples, macroscopic vs. microscopic views of nature, time for reflection, and everyday vs. scientific language. Results obtained from high school student responses confirmed Novak's observation of elementary students' lack of differentiation between the terms vapor and gas (Novak, 1998).
    • The Role of Gamma-Delta TCR+ T-cells in the Pathogenesis of Systemic Sclerosis

      Platsoucas, Chris D.; Tsygankov, Alexander; Monestier, Marc; Oleszak, Emilia; Ashby, Barrie; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Myers, Allen R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      The human gamma-delta (gd) TCR+ T-cell subset may undergo specific antigen-driven activation and clonal expansion, in the context of systemic sclerosis (SSc) pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was; 1) To determine whether gd TCR+ T-cells are clonally expanded in skin biopsies and peripheral blood from patients with SSc; and 2) To develop approaches for identification of the antigens recognized by these clonally-expanded gd TCR+ T-cells. Total RNA was isolated from the skin biopsies and peripheral blood of patients with SSc (n=8). After cDNA synthesis, the g- and d-chain TCR transcripts were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced for analysis. Full length copies of the TCR transcripts were constructed, expressed in a TCR-negative Jurkat T-cell line using retroviral gene transduction, and verified by RT-PCR and flow cytometry for gd TCR expression. Putative antigen recognition, by the transduced gd TCR+ Jurkat T-cell lines, was assessed via; 1) Measuring intracellular calcium flux in the transduced cells after stimulation with putative SSc antigens, including DNA topoisomerase I, centromere proteins A and B, hsp 27, hsp 90 and the viral lysate of human cytomegalovirus; and 2) Cytotoxicity against human endothelial cell lines (HUVEC and HLMVEC) via measurement of lactate dehydrogenase release from the targets. We report the presence of substantial, statistically-significant, proportions of identical g- and d-chain transcripts in skin biopsies and PBMC of patients with SSc, demonstrating the presence of antigen-driven clonal expansions. Jurkat T-cells, transduced with the clonally-expanded gd TCR transcripts from a patient, showed no evidence of cytotoxicity against the human endothelial cell lines, or calcium flux in response to stimulation with the putative SSc antigens assessed. In conclusion, extensive clonal expansions of g- and d-chain TCR transcripts were identified in skin biopsies and peripheral blood of patients with SSc, demonstrating the presence of oligoclonal populations of gd TCR+ T-cells in these patients. These gd TCR+ T-cells have undergone proliferation and clonal expansion in vivo in response to as yet unidentified antigens. Furthermore, an approach has been developed for the identification of the antigens recognized by the clonally-expanded gd TCR transcripts, which can be expanded to additional patients with SSc.