• CD40 monocyte differentiation mediates tissue inflammation in chronic kidney disease

      Wang, Hong, 1956 September 19-; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ashby, Barrie; Gallucci, Stefania; Merali, Salim; Susztak, Katalin (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), have increased inflammatory monocytes (MC) and 10-times higher cardiovascular mortality than the general population. Here, we investigated HHcy-related MC differentiation in CKD. Twenty seven CKD and CVD, and 14 healthy subjects were recruited. CD40 was selected as a CKD-induced MC activation marker by mining for CKD-MC-mRNA screen database. We found that CD14++CD16+ MC, often denoted as inflammatory subset, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and TNFα/IL-6 levels were augmented in CVD and CKD subjects. CD40hiCD14++CD16+ MC, plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were increased in CVD and further elevated in CKD subjects. In cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CKD patient serum, Hcy, CD40L and TNFα/IL-6 induced CD40hiCD14++CD16+ MC differentiation, which was prevented by Hcy-lowering folic acid and neutralizing antibodies against TNFα and IL-6. Interestingly, CD14++CD16+ and CD40hiCD14++CD16+ MCs were negatively correlated with plasma S-adenosylmethionine/SAH (SAM/SAH) ratios, an indicator of methylation status, in CKD and CVD subjects. In white blood cells (WBC) isolated from CKD and CVD subjects with lower SAM/SAH ratios, hypomethylation was identified on the CG pair of NFκB consensus element in the core promoter located at the CpG island of CD40 gene by DNA methylation mapping using bisulfite converting pyrosequencing. Moreover, Hcy inhibited DNA methyltransferase-1 activity in cultured human blood MC. In conclusion, HHcy induces CD14++CD16+ and CD40hiCD14++CD16+ MC differentiation, at least in part, via sCD40L induction and CD40 DNA hypomethylation in CKD and CVD subjects. To study the role of CD40 in the development of kidney pathology and vascular disease, we then established mouse model of CKD-induced CVD (5/6 nephrectomy CKD model plus left carotid artery ligation) in CD40-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were traced by the transplantation of BM cells from enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic CD40+/+ mice after sublethal irradiation of the recipient CD40-/- mice. We demonstrated here that CKD accelerated carotid artery atherosclerosis, exacerbated metabolism, increased spleen weight and circulating CD40+ inflammatory MC, and further increased differentiation of mononuclear phagocytic cells (MPC); CD11b+F4/80- MC, CD11b+F4/80+ macrophage (Mϕ) and CD11c+CD11b+F4/80+ bone marrow-derived dendritic cell in the kidney and aorta, which were abolished by CD40-/- mice. We also found that CKD kidney elevated CD40 expression and induced MC chemotactic signals; CCL2, CCL12, and CCL5 chemokines, which were abolished in CD40-/- mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CD40 induction in the chronic kidney disease mediates kidney chemokine production, which in turn contributes to acceleration of myeloid cell infiltration, MPC differentiation, and carotid artery atherosclerosis.