• Antioxidant enzyme targeting to ICAM-1 improves outcomes following experimental traumatic brain injury

      Ramirez, Servio H.; Gallo, Gianluca; Gamero, Ana; Praticò, Domenico; Soprano, Dianne R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Traumatic brain injury, hereon referred to as TBI, can be simply defined as a disruption to normal brain function as a result of an outside force to the head. TBI contributes to one third of all injury related deaths in the United States, and treatment strategies for TBI are supportive. Although primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have been clearly identified, the heterogeneous and intertwined pathophysiology of TBI is not fully understood. Primary injury results from the impact itself and causes immediate damage. However, secondary mechanisms of injury in TBI, such as oxidative stress and inflammation, are points at which intervention may reduce neuropathology. Trials taking advantage of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of several agents have had little clinical success, while the use of targeted therapeutics in TBI is relatively unexplored. Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) propagate blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability and exacerbate inflammation following TBI. In the studies presented herein, we tested the hypothesis that targeted detoxification of ROS may improve the pathological outcomes using the controlled cortical impact mouse model of TBI. Following TBI, endothelial activation results in a time dependent increase in vascular expression of ICAM-1, an endothelial activation and cell adhesion molecule, as was observed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining of isolated cortical microvessels. We conjugated catalase, an antioxidant enzyme, to anti-ICAM-1 antibodies and administered the conjugate intravenously to 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice at 30 minutes after moderate controlled cortical impact TBI. Results indicate that catalase targeted to ICAM-1 reduces markers of oxidative stress including levels of hydrogen peroxide and 3-nitrotyrosine detected in the cortex ipsilateral to the area of injury. Anti-ICAM-1/catalase also preserved BBB permeability based on two assays of barrier permeability to the plasma protein fibrinogen and small fluorescent tracer sodium fluorescein. Following TBI, mice receiving the conjugate exhibited attenuated neuropathological indices for astrocyte and microglia activation as well as cortical neuronal loss compared to controls. For each of these endpoints, anti-ICAM-1/catalase was found to be more effective than anti-ICAM-1 antibodies or catalase administered alone. An extensive study of microglia by two-photon microscopy of ex vivo brain segments from CX3CR1-GFP mice revealed that anti-ICAM-1/catalase prevented the transition of microglia to an activated phenotype after TBI. Finally, anti-ICAM-1/catalase offered functional improvement in Rotarod and elevated zero maze performance compared to controls at acute and chronic time points, respectively. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the use of a targeted antioxidant enzyme to interfere with oxidative stress mechanisms acutely in TBI. The results demonstrate histological and functional benefit of anti-ICAM-1/catalase administration and provide a proof-of-concept approach to improve acute TBI management that may also be applicable to other neuroinflammatory conditions.