• Constraint Preconditioning of Saddle Point Problems

      Szyld, Daniel; Seibold, Benjamin; Klapper, Isaac; Chidyagwai, Prince (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This thesis is concerned with the fast iterative solution of linear systems of equations of saddle point form. Saddle point problems are a ubiquitous class of matrices that arise in a host of computational science and engineering applications. The focus here is on improving the convergence of iterative methods for these problems by preconditioning. Preconditioning is a way to transform a given linear system into a different problem for which iterative methods converge faster. Saddle point matrices have a very specific block structure and many preconditioning strategies for these problems exploit this structure. The preconditioners considered in this thesis are constraint preconditioners. This class of preconditioner mimics the structure of the original saddle point problem. In this thesis, we prove norm- and field-of-values-equivalence for constraint preconditioners associated to saddle point matrices with a particular structure. As a result of these equivalences, the number of iterations needed for convergence of a constraint preconditioned minimal residual Krylov subspace method is bounded, independent of the size of the matrix. In particular, for saddle point systems that arise from the finite element discretization of partial differential equations (p.d.e.s), the number of iterations it takes for GMRES to converge for theses constraint preconditioned systems is bounded (asymptotically), independent of the size of the mesh width. Moreover, we extend these results when appropriate inexact versions of the constraint preconditioner are used. We illustrate this theory by presenting numerical experiments on saddle point matrices that arise from the finite element solution of coupled Stokes-Darcy flow. This is a system of p.d.e.s that models the coupling of a free flow to a porous media flow by conditions across the interface of the two flow regions. We present experiments in both two and three dimensions, using different types of elements (triangular, quadrilateral), different finite element schemes (continuous, discontinuous Galerkin methods), and different geometries. In all cases, the effectiveness of the constraint preconditioner is demonstrated.