• Clostridium difficile in an Urban, University-affiliated Long-Term Acute Care Hospital

      Nelson, Deborah B.; Wu, Jingwei; Han, Jennifer, 1974- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Background: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States, and has been associated with adverse outcomes in the acute care setting. However, little is known regarding the burden or impact of C. difficile infection (CDI) in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs). Methods: A retrospective matched cohort study was performed among patients at an urban, university-affiliated LTACH between July 2008 and October 2015. The incidence rate of LTACH-onset CDI was assessed and patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes examined. Patients with CDI were matched to concurrently hospitalized LTACH patients without a diagnosis of CDI. A multivariable model using logistic regression was developed to determine characteristics associated with a composite primary outcome of either 30-day readmission to an acute care hospital or mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with a diagnosis of severe CDI. Results: The overall incidence of CDI was 21.4 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Patients with CDI had a mean age (±SD) of 70 ±14 years and a mean admission Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 4 ±2. Median (IQR) time between admission and diagnosis of CDI was 16 days (range: 9-23 days). In the final multivariable model, CDI was not a significant risk factor for the primary outcome (OR, 1.06 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.53-2.10]). Congestive heart failure (OR, 2.27 [95% CI, 1.15-4.57]), albumin level (OR, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.22-0.79]), and immunosuppression (OR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.06-8.39]) were independent risk factors for the primary outcome. On subgroup analysis, severe CDI and CCI were significant risk factors for the primary outcome in bivariable analysis (OR, 2.91 [95% CI 1.03-8.20] and OR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.06-1.80], respectively). Only CCI remained significant in the multivariable model (OR, 1.32 [95% CI 1.02-1.75]). Conclusions: LTACH-onset CDI was found to have a relatively high incidence in an urban, university affiliated LTACH. CDI was not a significant risk factor for the composite outcome of 30-day readmission or mortality. Future research should focus on infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship measures to decrease CDI specifically in the LTACH setting.