• GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS' PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF MULTIMODAL MEANS IN MUSIC INSTRUCTION

      Confredo, Deborah A.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Dilworth, Rollo A.; Buonviri, Nathan O.; Brooks, Darlene M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The purpose of this study was to examine general music teachers' practices and attitudes regarding the use of multimodal pedagogy in music instruction. A survey design was used to explore the extent to which general music teachers, in a delimited geographical area in southeastern Pennsylvania, use multimodal pedagogy and their attitudes towards it. Data were gathered by contacting 600 potential participants via email and inviting them to take part. Of the 600 contacted, 170 respondents participated in the study (28% response rate). In total, 127 completed the survey and were considered by the researcher to be appropriate for analysis. General music teachers reported that the most frequent teaching modalities used while planning, teaching, and assessing their students were, in decreasing order of frequency, aural, multimodal, visual, and kinesthetic modality. However, this array of modalities was used less frequently while assessing students than planning and teaching. The majority of respondents favored the use of aural modality while assessing their students. The availability of movement materials predicted general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while planning, teaching and assessing students. Gender, teachers' educational degree, professional development, the availability of percussion instruments, and iPad and tablets predicted general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while assessing students. Attending Orff, Kodály, and Dalcroze professional development programs had a significant relationship with general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while planning and assessing their students. Responses to the open-ended questions provided evidence of how general music teachers actually experience the application of multimodal pedagogy in the classroom. Specifically, the responses showed how individual teachers considered students' learning styles while planning and teaching, and assessing to secure students' success. General music teachers reported a generally positive attitude towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. The availability of Orff instruments was a positive predictor, and guitar was a negative predictor for general music teachers' attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. Attending Orff, Kodály, and Music Learning Theory (MLT) professional development workshops had a significant relationship with the music teachers' attitude towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. These factors that contributed to general music teachers' positive attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy partially because Kodály, MLT, and Orff techniques including Orff instruments encouraged general music teachers to incorporate different learning modalities inside the music classroom. The open-ended question captured the participants' voices and provided further evidence of general music teachers' positive attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy and how they recognize the benefits of using it. These results have implications for music educators that include developing professional development programs designed to assist in the use of multiple modalities. Recommendations for further research include examining the effects of multimodal music pedagogy on elementary students' acquisition of specific music skills (e.g., singing voice, rhythmic achievement).