Recent Submissions

  • Facebook and Other Internet Use and the Academic Performance of College Students

    DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Schifter, Catherine; Fullard, William; Thurman, S. Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    This study explored college students' use of the Internet and Facebook as well as whether usage patterns, and perceptions about the academic effects of use, relate to time spent studying and/or academic performance. One hundred sixty undergraduate students completed an online survey designed to measure the frequency, duration, intensity, and academic impact of their Internet and Facebook use. Results indicate that students devote a significant amount of time to both academic (M = 1.82 hrs per day) and recreational (M = 2.50 hrs per day) Internet activities, and that Facebook users (n = 153, 96% of the sample) spend an average of two hours per day on the site, accounting for almost half of total time spent on the Internet and approximately 80% of recreational use. Results also show that spending more time on the Internet for academic purposes, waiting longer to check Facebook when studying or doing schoolwork, and spending less time on the Internet for fun, are all significant predictor

    O'Hara, Daniel T.; Singer, Alan; Newman, Steven; Caserio, Robert L.; Arac, Jonathan (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
    This study situates the late work of Henry James in the tradition of Romantic revisionism. In addition, it surveys the history of James criticism alongside the academic critique of Romantic-aesthetic ideology. I read The American Scene, the New York Edition Prefaces, and other late writings as a single text in which we see James refashion an identity by transforming the divisions or splits in the modern subject into the enabling condition for renewed creativity. In contrast to the Modernist myth of Henry James the master reproached by recent scholarship, I offer a new critical fiction – what James calls the man of imagination – that models a form of selfhood which views our ironic and belated condition as a fecund limitation. The Jamesian man of imagination encourages the continual (but never resolvable) quest for a coherent creative identity by demonstrating how our need to sacrifice elements of life (e.g. desires and aspirations) when we confront tyrannical circumstances can become a prerequisite for pursuing an unreachable ideal. This study draws on the work of post-war Romantic revisionist scholarship (e.g. Northrop Frye, Frank Kermode, Harold Bloom, Geoffrey Hartman, and Paul de Man) as well as French theory (e.g. Maurice Blanchot, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida) and other traditions (e.g. Kenneth Burke, R.P. Blackmur, and Lionel Trilling) to challenge new instrumentalizing scholarly methodologies that aim to overcome the ironies of critical vision. I argue that James’s man of imagination not only presents a critical agency that profits from criticism’s penchant for ironic repetition but also a politics that can help us navigate the tension between artistic self-stylization and the social constraints intrinsic to the liberal rule of law.
  • Characterization of a functional role of the neurokinin-3 receptor in behavioral effects of cocaine

    Unterwald, Ellen M.; Ashby, Barrie; Dun, Nae J.; Cowan, Alan; Walker, Ellen A.; Simmons, Mark A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    The tachykinin NK-3 receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor activated by mammalian tachykinin neuropeptides, which can modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission, and alter dopamine-mediated behaviors. The NK-3 receptor is currently under investigation as a novel therapeutic target for cocaine addiction. Our studies, as outlined in this dissertation, sought to determine if NK-3 receptors have a functional role in the acute as well as long-term behavioral effects of cocaine. Administration of NK-3 receptor agonists or antagonists potentiates or attenuates dopamine-mediated behaviors, respectively. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that blockade of neurokinin-3 receptors would alter acute and long-term behavioral responses to cocaine. We investigated whether acute and repeated administration of the NK-3 receptor antagonist SB 222200 altered hyperactivity induced by cocaine, and determined a possible mechanism involving dopamine D1 receptors in the striatum. We also determined whether NK-3 receptor blockade altered the development and expression of behavioral sensitization after repeated cocaine administration. Lastly, we investigated whether modulation of behavioral effects of acute and repeated cocaine by NK-3 receptors involved GSK3 phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens. As described in this dissertation, we show that acute administration of the NK-3 receptor antagonist SB 222200 before a cocaine injection attenuated stereotypic responses produced by cocaine. Repeated administration of SB 222200 enhanced stereotypic activity produced by either cocaine or a low dose of SKF 82958 (0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) when administered seven days later. Dopamine receptor binding studies were performed to determine the mechanism of enhanced stereotypic responses. Binding studies showed a 19.7% increase in dopamine D1 receptor density in the striatum seven days later after repeated SB 222200 administration. These findings demonstrate that acute blockade of NK-3 receptors attenuated cocaine-induced behaviors in agreement with previous studies. Furthermore, these studies also show novel effects of repeated blockade of NK-3 receptors, which causes subsequent enhancement of cocaine and dopamine D1 receptor-mediated behaviors, possibly resulting from dopamine D1 receptor up-regulation in the striatum. In order to determine a role of NK-3 receptors in the development of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization, the NK-3 receptor antagonist SB 222200 (2.5 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered prior to daily cocaine injections for 5 days. After a 7-day drug-free period, behavioral responses to a cocaine challenge were measured. Repeated administration of cocaine for 5 days induced a sensitized response upon a cocaine challenge 7 days later. Administration of SB 222200 prior to daily cocaine attenuated the development of behavioral sensitization. Moreover, administration of SB 222200 prior to the cocaine challenge blocked the expression of behavioral sensitization. These findings demonstrate that NK-3 receptor activity is involved in the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Lastly, we examined GSK3 phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens induced by acute and repeated cocaine administration and determined if phosphorylation was altered by NK-3 receptor blockade. Similar to the drug administration regimens used in the behavioral studies, the NK-3 receptor antagonist SB 222200 was administered 30 mins prior to an acute cocaine injection. The nucleus accumbens was examined for changes in GSK3 phosphorylation by Western blot analysis. Increases in phosphorylation of the isoforms, GSK3α and GSK3β in the nucleus accumbens were detected 20 mins after an acute injection of cocaine. NK-3 receptor blockade prior to cocaine administration did not alter the cocaine-induced increase in GSK3 phosphorylation. Similar to the behavioral sensitization studies, SB 222200 was administered prior to repeated cocaine for 5 days, and 7 days later GSK3 phosphorylation was measured after a subsequent cocaine challenge. In contrast to the increases in GSK3α and GSK3β in the nucleus accumbens after an acute cocaine injection, no regulation of GSK3 phosphorylation was found after prior repeated cocaine administration and cocaine challenge. Administration of SB 222200 prior to repeated cocaine produced an increase in GSK3α and GSK3β phosphorylation after a cocaine challenge. Collectively, these data point to involvement of NK-3 receptor activity in changes in the phosphorylation of GSK3 in the nucleus accumbens produced by cocaine. In summary, functional involvement of NK-3 receptors in acute and long-term behavioral effects of cocaine was investigated. In agreement with previous findings, studies in this dissertation demonstrate that acute blockade of NK-3 receptors attenuates cocaine-induced behaviors. In addition, we found novel effects of repeated blockade of NK-3 receptors on cocaine-induced hyperactivity. There is enhancement of subsequent cocaine and dopamine D1 receptor-mediated behaviors possibly due to dopamine D1 receptor up-regulation in the striatum. NK-3 receptor activity was shown to be involved in long-term behavioral effects of cocaine and molecular changes in GSK3 phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens. Blockade of NK-3 receptors prevented the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and also blocked the changes in the phosphorylation of GSK3 in the nucleus accumbens. This dissertation has demonstrated a role of NK-3 receptors in modulating acute as well long-term cocaine-induced behavioral hyperactivity. Therefore, there is potential clinical relevance of NK-3 receptors in cocaine abuse and dependence as a therapeutic target for treatment, which warrants further characterization in future preclinical and clinical investigations.

    Butz, Brian P.; Biswas, Saroj K.; Bai, Li (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
    This thesis describes the design, implementation, and assessment of a web-based mobile tutoring application. The goal of this application, called Circuit Tutor, is to address the educational needs of students with the aid of intelligent tutoring systems that are available on mobile devices and are used outside of the traditional classroom environment. The growth of sophisticated intelligent tutoring applications and systems has helped gradually change the preconceived notion that intelligent tutoring systems cannot be relied upon in secondary education. More so, with the advent of mobile learning applications, learning can no longer be restricted to a specific location or time to acquire knowledge or a place and time to apply knowledge. While many intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) have been mostly developed as desktop applications, the equivalent of these applications have only lately begun to be implemented for mobile devices. The proposed design aims to employ the various spheres of mobile human-computer interaction and mobile learning in the structure and implementation of an ITS for contemporary mobile tablets (for example, the iPad®). Circuit Tutor will not substitute traditional instruction; however, it will provide undergraduate electrical engineering students with intelligent support when instructors are not available. This tutoring system will perform some actions traditionally done by a teacher or instructor - such as detecting errors, identifying concepts that the student is finding difficult to comprehend, as well as referring the student back to the appropriate learning material if the student does not show progress after a set of exercises. Most importantly, this thesis aims to serve as a foundation for future research that investigates the design of mobile intelligent tutoring systems as well as research in the techniques of effectively converting existing desktop tutoring applications to mobile applications.
  • Future Orientation as a Mediating Factor in the Relation Between Family Instability and Adolescent Problem Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Overton, Willis F.; Xie, Hongling; Lester, Barry M.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Marshall, Peter J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
    Adolescent delinquency represents a significant threat to the health and future of developing persons. Due to the important implications of adolescent problem behaviors, it is essential that we understand the complex mechanisms in the life and mind of a developing person that may lead to these behavior problems in adolescence. I proposed that early family instability, including residential moves and changes in household composition, would be a primary predictor of adolescent problem behaviors, including risk-taking and externalizing behaviors. This relation was predicted to be mediated by future orientation. When young children are faced with uncertainty, they may develop a shorter-term view of their own life. Therefore, family instability is predicted to influence the developing orientation to the future, which is predicted to be related to problem behaviors in adolescence. Deviant peer association and family routine were predicted to be moderators in the model. The results reveal a significant association between early family instability and adolescent externalizing behavior. This association is significant while controlling for later family instability and other demographic variables, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and child IQ. This indicates that early family instability is directly related to adolescent behavior beyond the effects of continuing instability and other individual factors. Additionally, the level of future orientation was associated with adolescent risk-taking behavior for boys but not for girls. This indicates that for boys, lack of thoughts about one's future is predictive of risky behaviors in adolescence. Early family instability was not significantly related to future orientation, precluding future orientation as a mediator in the relation between early family instability and later problem behaviors. Family routine and peer deviance were not found to be significant moderators in this study. The results of this study indicate the important role family instability plays in adolescent behavior problems. These results demonstrate that experiences in the first five years of a child's life have potentially long-term effects on the individual. Additionally, future orientation appears to be a significant predictor of adolescent risk-taking behavior for boys. As risk-taking behavior may be detrimental to the individual's life and future, it is important to understand factors that predict risk taking. Future studies should examine the development of future orientation and its role in adolescent adjustment.

    Canney, Daniel J.; Gallo, James M.; Nagar, Swati V.; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Ofner, Clyde M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults for which overall prognosis remains poor despite recent treatment advances, thus emphasizing the need for developing effective therapeutic agents. Styryl sulfones belong to a class of non-ATP competitive antineoplastic agents in early stage clinical trials. Detailed investigation of the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of novel agents in the preclinical stage plays a pivotal role in drug development that could be applied to guide clinical trials. The main goal of the project was to undertake comprehensive PK and PD evaluation of new agents for brain tumor therapy and in the process establish a PK/PD strategy for the development of such novel agents. The current project was aimed to evaluate the potential of a styryl benzyl sulfone compound, ON01910.Na, as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of GBMs using PK/PD approaches. First, the systemic pharmacokinetics of ON01910 was characterized following single dose intravascular administration of ON01910.Na in healthy mice over a 50-fold dose range of 5 mg/kg - 250 mg/kg. Secondly, an evaluation of the brain and brain tumor disposition of ON01910 was conducted in an orthotopic U87 glioma model in mice using a steady-state dosing regimen, and, in addition, using the same brain tumor model its pharmacodynamic and antiangiogenic activity were determined following multiple dosing. ON01910 exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dose range of 50 mg/kg - 250 mg/kg. It showed inadequate brain and brain tumor penetration and insignificant antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity. The limited brain tumor penetration and activity of ON01910 in the intracerebral glioma model led to the evaluation of ON013105, a prodrug of its more lipophilic anticancer congener, ON013100. A similar PK/PD approach as for ON01910.Na was applied wherein systemic pharmacokinetic properties of ON013105 and its active form, ON013100 in healthy mice, as well as an analysis of their brain and brain tumor distribution following steady-state dosing regimen were determined following administration of prodrug. The active form, ON013100 showed appreciable brain and brain tumor penetration while the prodrug did not. Subsequent pharmacodynamic investigations conducted in vitro identified phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) as a PD marker. To assess time-dependent PK/PD characteristics, mice bearing intracerebral U87 glioma were administered ON013105 at 100 mg/kg intravenously and plasma, brain and brain tumor concentrations of ON013105 and its active form, ON013100 were quantitated as well as tumoral pERK levels. Further, a PK-PD model was developed that characterized plasma, brain and brain tumor concentration-time profiles of ON013105 and ON013100 and tumoral pERK levels. In summary, a PK/PD-driven approach was applied to evaluate and select novel compounds that may have potential in the treatment of brain tumors. The progression of studies yielded one compound, ON013100 that possessed favorable brain tumor distribution and showed PD activity that warrant continued evaluation.

    Asante, Molefi Kete; Talton, Benjamin (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
    'Post-colonial Dislocation and Amnesia: A Cure from Molefi Kete Asante's An Afrocentric Manifesto' aims at investigating the epistemological problems and theoretical inconsistencies in contemporary post-colonial studies. Capitalizing Molefi Kete Asante's theorizations on agency, location, identity, and history this project applies an Afrocentric approach in its reading of the post-colonial authors and theorists. While current postcolonial theory seems to be at stake with operationalizing many of its terms and concepts, the application of Afrocentric methods can help answering severe allegations raised by a number of critics against this discourse. Issues concerning spatial and temporal location of the term post-colonial, commodity status of post-colonialism, and crises in the post-colonial pedagogy can be addressed from an Afrocentric perspective based on a new historiography. To support the proposed arguments, the paper provides an extensive reading of two post-colonial writers from the Caribbean, and shows how they manipulate their apparent power in perpetuating the misrepresentations of the colonized people initiated by the colonial discourses. With a detailed discussion of the principles of Afrocentricity based on Asante's ground-breaking book An Afrocentric Manifesto, the paper proposes possible ways in which Afrocentric theory could be applied in addressing such misrepresentations and developing a true sense of identity for the oppressed people.
  • Moving Situations: Not Whether, but When and How Arm Flexion/Extension Relate to Attitude Change

    Weisberg, Robert W.; Karpinski, Andrew; Marshall, Peter J.; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas F.; Weinraub, Marsha (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    Flexion and extension arm actions have been studied with regard to whether and in what way(s) they are associated with attitudes. In this paper, I report the results of three experiments in which I investigated the valence of the attitude objects, the meaningfulness of the attitude objects, and the repetition of the arm action as factors that might influence the relation between flexion and extension arm actions and attitudes. In Experiment 1, I tested the influence of flexion and extension on attitude formation with novel, meaningless, but valenced, stimuli (Chinese characters). I predicted an Action x Stimulus Valence interaction such that both arm flexion and arm extension would result in higher pleasantness ratings of Chinese characters, when they were paired with positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Rather than the hypothesized interaction, I observed only a main effect for Stimulus Valence: positive characters were rated as more pleasant than were negative characters. In Experiment 2, I tested the influence of flexion and extension on attitude change with familiar, meaningful, valenced stimuli (foods). I predicted a main effect for Action, such that arm flexion would result in higher pleasantness ratings than would arm extension, regardless of Stimulus Valence, I also predicted a main effect of Stimulus Valence, such that positive foods would be rated as more pleasant than negative foods. Again, I observed only a main effect for Stimulus Valence in the predicted direction. In Experiment 3, I examined the influence of arm actions on attitudes over time using novel, meaningful, valenced stimuli (faces). I predicted that attitudes, as measured by an IAT, would be less biased for participants who repeatedly practiced responding to negative stimuli with a flexing action, compared to those of participants who repeatedly practiced responding to negative stimuli with an extending action. This prediction was weakly supported.
  • Win - Win: A Case Study of Collaborative Structures Between Labor and Management

    Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Davis, James Earl; Hochner, Arthur; Jordan, Will J.; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
    While society has begun its evolution from the industrial age to the information age, most teacher unions continue to pattern their behavior after the industrial model of unionism focusing almost exclusively on salary, benefits and working conditions. In some school systems, though, teacher unions and management are questioning the legitimacy of their adversarial relationships. They are beginning to abandon the belief in the separation of traditional labor and management roles, and replacing it with a collective operational model that offers promise for significant educational reform and improved employer-employee relations. This expanded scope of union activity is attempting to include non-traditional issues, such as teacher professional development, teacher quality, instructional delivery, student achievement standards and educational reform, as well as mechanisms that are highly flexible and reactive to immediate need (Koppich, 2005; Urbanski, 1998). The purpose of this case study was to uncover the events that led to formation of collaborative structures at each of the study sites, gain insight in the collaborative activity that is occurring, better understand the impact of collaboration on the collective bargaining process, and attempt to understand the various challenges to collaboration at each study site. Data collection for this case study relied heavily on intensive personal interviews. Study participants were selected from school systems that have strong collaborative relations between the district administration and the teachers' union. Care was given in the selection of diverse school systems and in different regions of the country. Contractual language from the negotiated agreement also provided additional supporting data. The convergence of this data resulted in a greater understanding on the formation and maintenance of collaborative structures. The results of this study exposed that there are, in fact, strong models of collaboration between labor representative groups and management. The work that is occurring in these school districts is significantly transforming labor relations and impacting student educational experience. Leaders for both management and labor have largely abandoned their traditional roles and relinquished power in favor of working more cooperatively for the betterment of all within the organization. At each site, many collaborative byproducts have emerged to address a plethora of identified needs and goals. The collaborative relationship has also impacted the collective bargaining process, as the parties attempt to more creatively address all issues that either party raises as a concern. Greater respect for the role of unions and management has also emerged, as participants began to realize that they shared more in common than previously thought. The participants in school systems with strong collaborative relations have also demonstrated that they are anxious to share their knowledge and experience with others, as evidence by their participation in informal networks like Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN), as well as with researchers interested in collaboration between labor and management.
  • A Comparison of Clustering Algorithms for the Study of Antibody Loop Structures

    Obradovic, Zoran; Dragut, Eduard Constantin; Vucetic, Slobodan; Zeng, Qiang; Dunbrack, Roland L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
    Antibodies are the fundamental agents of the immune system. The CDRs, or Complementarity Determining Regions act as the functional surfaces in binding antibodies to their targets. These CDR structures, which are peptide loops, are diverse in both amino acid sequence and structure. In 2011, we surveyed a database of CDR loop structures using the affinity propagation clustering algorithm of Frey and Dueck. With the growth of the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank, the number of antibody CDRs has approximately tripled. In addition, although the affinity clustering in 2011 was successful in many ways, the methods used left too much noise in the data, and the affinity clustering algorithm tended to clump diverse structures together. This work revisits the antibody CDR clustering problem and uses five different clustering algorithms to categorize the data. Three of the clustering algorithms use DBSCAN but differ in the data comparison functions used. One uses the sum of the dihedral distances, while another uses the supremum of the dihedral distances, and the third uses the Jarvis-Patrick shared nearest neighbor similarity, where the nearest neighbor lists are compiled using the sum of the dihedral distances. The other two clustering methods use the k-medoids algorithm, one of which has been modified to include the use of pairwise constraints. Overall, the DBSCAN using the sum of dihedral distances and the supremum of the dihedral distances produced the best clustering results as measured by the average silhouette coefficient, while the constrained k-medoids clustering algorithm had the worst clustering results overall.
  • Effects of a Video Self-Monitoring Procedure to Increase Treatment Fidelity of Paraprofessionals’ Implementation of Discrete Trial Training

    Tincani, Matthew J.; Fisher, Amanda Guld; Axelrod, Saul; Hantula, Donald A.; Hineline, Philip Neil; Dowdy, Arthur G. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
    Behavior skills training is a didactic training format used to increase skill in an effective and efficient way. Video self-monitoring refers to the process of recording oneself for the purpose of self-review in order to observe and change one's behavior. The purpose of the following study was to determine if an intervention package that included Behavioral Skills Training (BST) and Video Self-Monitoring (VSM) would increase, generalize and, maintain high levels of treatment integrity of paraprofessional staff members while teaching a discrete trial training program to a student with autism. Additionally, student behavior was observed to determine if increased staff effectiveness would affect learner responding. The study found that the intervention package was effective in changing staff behavior by improving their treatment integrity. An observed change in student behavior emerged towards the end of the study when treatment integrity was high across staff members. Staff behavior generalized when the DTT program was implemented with a novel student. Additionally, maintenance of treatment integrity remained high after the intervention was withdrawn. Overall, these findings suggest that BST, followed by VSM, is an effective intervention for changing staff behavior.

    Blankinship, Khalid Yahya; Limberis, Vasiliki (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
    In his tenth-century work, al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah, the Muslim philosopher Abū Naṣr al-Fārābī posits a solution to the internecine hostilities between Muslim intellectual communities which occurred as a result of conflicting positions on the relationship between revelation and reason, religion and philosophy. In this work al-Fārābī demonstrates that both religion and philosophy are derived from, and dependent upon, divine revelation from Allah to the Prophet. Modern scholars of al-Fārābī interpret his work differently, reading him as an enemy of religion who subordinates Islam to philosophy. In this thesis, after establishing al-Fārābī within the historical and ideological context of tenth-century Islamic thought I analyze al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah in light of a commentary on the text by Richard Walzer, who is among those scholars who read al-Fārābī as an enemy of Islam who merely reproduces Greek philosophy in Arabic. Contrasting the original Arabic text with Walzer’s English translation and commentary I apply readings of several of al-Fārābī’s other works as an interpretive lens, through which the correct reading of al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah is made clear. I further analyze the text in light of Islamic Scripture, by which I demonstrate that the foundation on which al-Fārābī’s cosmology is founded has precedence within the Qur’ān. Working in the tenth century al-Fārābī sought to reconcile the conflicting views of his fellow Muslims, in order to bring peace to the community, the Muslim Ummah. Al-Madīnah al-Fāḍilah should be regarded as his crowning achievement in these efforts.
  • Communicative Language Teaching in Japanese High Schools: Teachers' Beliefs and Classroom Practices

    Beglar, David J.; Casanave, Christine Pearson; Ross, Steven; Sawyer, Mark; Houck, Nöel (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
    This study was an investigation of Japanese high school teachers' (N=139) beliefs and practices regarding communicative language teaching (CLT). Four research questions were posited concerning the beliefs that Japanese high school teachers hold regarding CLT, how Japanese high school teachers use CLT in the classroom, how Japanese teachers' beliefs and practices differ between academic and vocational high schools, and how the beliefs of Japanese high school teachers, their classroom practices, their learning experience, pre- and in-service training, perceived teaching efficacy, and contextual factors relate to and influence each other regarding the use of CLT. In order to provide answers to these questions, a survey, classroom observations, and interviews were conducted. Before conducting the quantitative analyses, the questionnaire data were analyzed using the Rasch rating-scale model to confirm the validity and reliability of the questionnaire and to transform the raw scores into equal interval measures. Regarding the first and second research questions, the descriptive statistics showed that despite holding positive beliefs about CLT, the respondents to the survey did not frequently use communicative activities. With respect to the third research question, a MANOVA indicated that the types of schools (academic and vocational) did not significantly influence the survey respondents' beliefs and practices regarding CLT. Concerning the fourth research question, the Pearson correlation coefficients showed relatively strong correlations between (a) Classroom Practices and Student-related Communicative Conditions (r = .56) and (b) L2 Self-confidence and CLT Self-efficacy (r = .55). Also, the best fitting path model indicated that (a) Student-related Communicative Conditions impacted Classroom Practices, (b) Positive CLT Beliefs indirectly influenced Classroom Practices via CLT Self-efficacy, and (c) Exam-related Expectations affected most of the indicator variables and Classroom Practices. Related to this, qualitative results indicated that the respondents' learning experience, in-service training, and contextual factors influenced their beliefs and practices.
  • Race Financial Institutions, Credit Discrimination And African American Homeownership In Philadelphia, 1880-1960

    Jenkins, Wilbert L.; Kusmer, Kenneth L.; Collier-Thomas, Bettye; Goldstein, Ira (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    In the wake of Emancipation, African Americans viewed land and home ownership as an essential element of their "citizenship rights." However, efforts to achieve such ownership in the postbellum era were often stymied by credit discrimination as many blacks were ensnared in a system of debt peonage. Despite such obstacles, African Americans achieved land ownership in surprising numbers in rural and urban areas in the South. At the beginning of the twentieth century, millions of African Americans began leaving the South for the North with continued aspirations of homeownership. As blacks sought to fulfill the American Dream, many financial institutions refused to provide loans to them or provided loans with onerous terms and conditions. In response, a small group of African American leaders, working in conjunction with a number of the major black churches in Philadelphia, built the largest network of race financial institutions in the United States to provide credit to black home buyers. The leaders recognized economic development through homeownership as an integral piece of the larger civil rights movement dedicated to challenging white supremacy. The race financial institutions successfully provided hundreds of mortgage loans to African Americans and were a key reason for the tripling of the black homeownership rate in Philadelphia from 1910 to 1930. During the Great Depression, the federal government revolutionized home financing with a series of programs that greatly expanded homeownership. However, the programs, such as those of the Federal Housing Administration, resulted in blacks being subjected to redlining and denied access to credit. In response, blacks were often forced to turn to alternative sources of high cost credit to finance the purchase of homes. Nevertheless, as a new wave of African American migrants arrived to Philadelphia during post-World War II era, blacks fought to purchase homes and two major race financial institutions continued to provide mortgage loans to African Americans in Philadelphia. The resolve of blacks to overcome credit discrimination to purchase homes through the creation of race financial institutions was a key part of the broader struggle for civil rights in the United States.
  • Heating Up and Cooling Out at the Community College: The Potential of Student-Faculty Interactions to Contribute to Student Aspiration

    Horvat, Erin McNamara; Shaw, Kathleen M.; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Jordan, Will J.; Goyette, Kimberly A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
    This study examines the potential of faculty at the community college to positively influence, or "heat up," student aspirations. With increasing emphasis on graduation and transfer rates in higher education, the importance of micro-level interactions that shape student aspiration has been neglected. To better understand how individuals within the institution, especially faculty, contribute to student aspirations, this study attempts to bridge the "cooling out" and "heating up" literature in the context of the modern community college by recognizing the role of the individual academic program. Applying organizational theory from a systems perspective, as well as the theories of Paolo Freire, the study examines the nature of student-faculty interactions that have the potential to contribute to student aspiration in the context of institutional limitations. The participants include students and faculty in three academic programs that have different approaches to student success within one urban community college. The case study involves a combination of qualitative approaches, including interviews and observations. The study inductively examines student-faculty interactions and their potential to contribute to student aspirations within three different academic programs. The most significant barriers to student success and increasing aspirations are found on the institutional level. These limitations, including bureaucratic confusion, advisement issues, remediation, variation in attendance policies, financial constraints, and lacking a cohesive institutional culture and commitment, have the potential to "cool out" student aspiration, as supported in the majority of the community college literature on this topic. However, the mezzo-level effects of programs and the micro-level practices of the individuals hold substantial potential in terms of "heating up" student aspiration. Programs vary in the degree to which they handle the institutional limitations. Programs that take an active role in mediating between the limiting institutional barriers and students provide a cushioning program-wide protection from the cooling out elements. The micro-level interactions between individual students and faculty also hold potential to heat up by helping students navigate the systematic confusion that seems characteristic of the community college. Therefore, this study suggests that there is hope for the community college in fulfilling its promise of educational opportunity. Macro-level institutional challenges, as well as larger societal inequalities, are substantial and pervasive at the community college and solutions are often limited by financial constraints. However, the programs and individuals within the community college hold promise. The study suggests that the roles of the program and the individual are instrumental in shaping student aspiration.
  • Tatar National and Religious Revitalization in Post-Soviet Kazan, the Republic of Tatarstan

    Cybriwsky, Roman A.; Kohl, Benjamin H.; Chakravorty, Sanjoy (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
    My thesis is about one of the most distinctive cities in the Russian Federation - Kazan. In my thesis I focus on the changes that were unfolding in the landscape and structure of Kazan in the post-Soviet period (1991-2000s). The collapse of the Soviet Union produced an immense paradigm shift as combined revival of nationalism and religion swept over Tatar people who in turn have been actively changing the city. In this work I researched how the Tatar religious and national revival affected the landscape and structure of Kazan. I used data such as landmarks, memorials, establishments, institutions and other symbolic, religious or national elements of the city in order to demonstrate the scope of the Tatar urban revival. Additionally, I tried to understand the actual causes and processes that contributed to the revival. Tatar revitalization of Kazan is a complex social phenomenon which reveals many important political and global processes.
  • A Hierarchy of Grammatical Difficulty for Japanese EFL Learners: Multiple-Choice Items and Processability Theory

    Beglar, David J.; Kozaki, Yoko; Sawyer, Mark; Ross, Steven; Schaefer, Edward (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
    This study investigated the difficulty order of 38 grammar structures obtained from an analysis of multiple-choice items using a Rasch analysis. The order was compared with the order predicted by processability theory and the order in which the structures appear in junior and senior high school textbooks in Japan. Because processability theory is based on natural speech data, a sentence repetition test was also conducted in order to compare the result with the order obtained from the multiple-choice tests and the order predicted by processability theory. The participants were 872 Japanese university students, whose TOEIC scores ranged from 200 to 875. The difficulty order of the 38 structures was displayed according to their Rasch difficulty estimates: The most difficult structure was subjunctive and the easiest one was present perfect with since in the sentence. The order was not in accord with the order predicted by processability theory, and the difficulty order derived from the sentence repetition test was not accounted for by processability theory either. In other words, the results suggest that processability theory only accounts for natural speech data, and not elicited data. Although the order derived from the repetition test differed from the order derived from the written tests, they correlated strongly when the repetition test used ungrammatical sentences. This study tentatively concluded that the students could have used their implicit knowledge when answering the written tests, but it is also possible that students used their explicit knowledge when correcting ungrammatical sentences in the repetition test. The difficulty order of grammatical structures derived from this study was not in accord with the order in which the structures appear in junior and senior high school textbooks in Japan. Their correlation was extremely low, which suggests that there is no empirical basis for textbook makers'/writers' policy regarding the ordering of grammar items. This study also demonstrated the difficulty of writing items testing the knowledge of the same grammar point that show similar Rasch difficulty estimates. Even though the vocabulary and the sentence positions were carefully controlled and the two items looked parallel to teachers, they often displayed very different difficulty estimates. A questionnaire was administered concerning such items, and the students' responses suggested that they seemed to look at the items differently than teachers and what they notice and how they interpret what they notice strongly influences item difficulty. Teachers or test-writers should be aware that it is difficult to write items that produce similar difficulty estimates and their own intuition or experience might not be the best guide for writing effective grammar test items. It is recommended to pilot test items to get statistical information about item functioning and qualitative data from students using a think-aloud protocol, interviews, or a questionnaire.
  • The Role of Cellular and Viral Oncogenes in the Regulation of Hypoxia and Glucose Metabolism in Malignant Brain Tumors

    Khalili, Kamel; Tuszynski, George P.; Hu, Wenhui; Safak, Mahmut; Laterra, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    Glioblastomas continue to carry poor prognoses for patients despite advances in surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation regimens. One feature of glioblastoma associated with poor prognosis is the degree of hypoxia and elevated expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 á (HIF-1á). HIF-1á expression allows metabolic adaptation to low oxygen availability, partly through upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and increased tumor angiogenesis as well as induction of anaerobic glycolysis. In this study, we demonstrate an induced level of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) by hypoxia in glioblastoma cells. AEG-1 has the capacity to promote anchorage-independent growth and cooperates with Ha-ras in malignant transformation. In addition, AEG-1 was recently demonstrated to serve as an oncogene and can induce angiogenesis and autophagy in glioblastoma. Results from in vitro studies show that hypoxic induction of AEG-1 is dependent on HIF-1á stabilization during hypoxia and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition abrogates AEG-1 induction during hypoxia through loss of HIF-1á stability. Furthermore, we show that AEG-1 is induced by glucose deprivation and that prevention of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents this induction. Additionally, AEG-1 knockdown results in increased ROS production and increased glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, whereas AEG-1 overexpression prevents ROS production and decreases glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that AEG-1 induction is necessary for cells to survive this type of cell stress. From studies examining the expression of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, we demonstrate that AEG-1 alters the tumor metabolic profile in a partially 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Moreover, glycolytic inhibition modulates the metabolic effects induced by AEG-1, and AEG-1 knockdown reduces the growth and alters the metabolic phenotype of glioblastoma subcutaneous xenografts. These observations link AEG-1 overexpression observed in glioblastoma with hypoxia and glucose metabolic signaling, and targeting these physiological pathways may lead to therapeutic advances in the treatment of glioblastoma in the future. Recent studies have reported the detection of the human neurotropic virus, JC Virus (JCV), in a significant population of brain tumors, including medulloblastomas. Accordingly, expression of the JCV early protein, T-antigen, which has transforming activity in cell culture and in transgenic mice, results in the development of a broad range of tumors of neural crest and glial origin. Evidently, the association of T-antigen with a range of tumor-suppressor proteins, including p53 and pRb, and signaling molecules, such as â-catenin and IRS-1, play a role in the oncogenic function of JCV T-antigen. We demonstrate that T-antigen expression is suppressed by glucose deprivation in medulloblastoma cells that endogenously express T-antigen. Mechanistic studies indicate that glucose deprivation-mediated suppression of T-antigen is partly influenced by AMPK, a critical sensor of the AMP/ATP ratio in cells. We have found that AMPK activation inhibits T-antigen expression, whereas AMPK inhibition prevents glucose deprivation-mediated T-antigen suppression. In addition, glucose deprivation-induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase is blocked with AMPK inhibition, which also prevents T-antigen downregulation. Furthermore, T-antigen-expressing medulloblastoma cells, as compared to those which do not express T-antigen, exhibit less G1 arrest and an increased percentage of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle during glucose deprivation. On a functional level, T-antigen downregulation is partially dependent on ROS production during glucose deprivation. Additionally, studies indicate that T-antigen prevents ROS induction, loss of ATP production, and cytotoxicity induced by glucose deprivation. We have also found that T-antigen is downregulated by the glycolytic inhibitor, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), and the pentose phosphate inhibitors, 6-aminonicotinamde (6-AN) and oxythiamine (OT). Enzyme expression studies also indicate that T-antigen upregulates the expression of the pentose phosphate enzyme, transaldolase-1 (TALDO1), demonstrating a potential link between T-antigen and glucose metabolic regulation. These studies highlight the potential involvement of JCV T-antigen in the proliferation and metabolic phenotype of medulloblastoma and may enhance our understanding of the role of viral proteins in tumor glycolytic metabolism, thus implicating these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of virus-associated tumors.
  • The Design, Simulation and Synthesis of Pipelined Floating-Point Radix-4 Fast Fourier Transform Data Path in VHDL

    Sendaula, Musoke H.; Biswas, Saroj K.; Silage, Dennis; Chiang, Chen Huan (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) converts time or spatial information into the frequency domain. The FFT is one of the most widely used digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. DSPs are used in a number of applications from communication and controls to speech and image processing. DSPs have also found their way into toys, music synthesizers and in most digital instruments. Many applications have relied on Digital Signal Processors and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for most of the signal processing needs. DSPs provide an adequate means of performance and efficiency for many applications as well as robust tools to ease the development process. However, the requirements of important emerging DSP applications have begun to exceed the capabilities of DSPs. With this in mind, system developers have begun to consider alternatives such as ASICs and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Although ASICs can provide excellent performance and efficiency, the time, cost and risk associated with the design of ASICs is leading developers towards FPGAs. A number of significant advances in FPGA technology have improved the suitability of FPGAs for DSP applications. These advances include increased device capacity and speed, DSP-oriented architectural enhancements, better DSP-oriented tools, and increasing availability of DSP-oriented IP libraries. The thesis research focuses on the design of a single precision floating-point radix-4 FFT FPGA using VHDL for real time DSP applications. The paper will go into further detail pertaining to the FFT algorithm used, the description of the design steps taken as well as the results from both simulation and synthesis.

    Delalic, Zdenka J.; Kargbo, David M.; Sheffield, Joel B.; Silage, Dennis; Bai, Li (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
    Gas detection is vital in different fields including environmental applications, clinical analysis, and homeland security. To perform these tasks the sensors need to be stable, sensitive, selective, operating at room temperature, rapidly responding, and easy to regenerate. On the other hand, most chemical sensors often suffer from a lack of selectivity, i.e., reacting more or less similarly to a collection of substances. As a result, these sensors may lead to false alerts. Even worse, the molecules to be detected could be masked by some interfering compounds which may result in failure to detect the targets. The goal of this research is to develop a portable gas-sensing device that integrates a zeolite/dye unit with an optoelectronic detector. At nano-scale the sensor is expected to be more accurate, more sensitive, and can better differentiate and detect one chemical component in a mixture of different gases. This could be achieved by incorporating fluorescent dyes into the zeolites' cavities, measuring gas absorption, desorption and photo-chromic interaction of dye and gases, interfacing the zeolite/dye sensor arrays with light source and electronic detectors and fully integrating the sensor arrays into a portable unit. This research addresses many of the above-sated threads. The highly fluorescent organic dye, nile red, was successfully included in the supercages of different zeolites Y (ammonium Y, hydrogen Y, and sodium Y) via chemical reaction. The research also developed an effective method to clean the synthesized inclusions, which is a combination of ultrasound and centrifuge. The cleaned inclusions were baked to remove any gases and/or moisture trapped inside the zeolites' structure. The spectra of the baked inclusions were used as references. The cleaned inclusions were optically characterized in terms of light absorption and fluorescence emission. When exposed to acetone, ethanol, methanol, and de-ionized water, the fluorescence emission spectra of zeolite-sodium-Y/nile-red inclusion showed a similar spectral shift compared to the reference spectrum. On the other hand, the fluorescence emission spectra of zeolite-hydrogen-Y/nile-red inclusion and zeolite-ammonium-Y/nile-red inclusion showed different spectral shifts compared to the reference spectra. This shows the successful proof of encapsulating the nile red dye in zeolites Y's cages, cleaning the zeolite/nile-red combinations, and measuring the desorption and fluorescence emission of the combinations. The optical characteristics of the nile red adsorbing to the external surface of the zeolites Y were studied as well. The research also included the design of the optical system to excite the sensing elements (zeolite/nile-red inclusions), and to collect the fluorescence response, the design and simulation of electronic circuits to condition and process electrical signal, and overall design of an integrated gas detector onto a pressed ceramic optical bench.

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