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Recent Submissions

  • EXPLORING FORMER NCAA DIVISION I WOMEN SOCCER PLAYERS’ TRANSITION: COLLEGE TO CAREER

    Johnson, Jennifer; Levine Laufgraben, Jodi; Taylor, Elizabeth; Jordan, Jeremy (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women student-athletes are high-level athletes who experience the traditional demands of job-hunting, interviewing, and the range of emotions experienced by college students transitioning from postsecondary education into the workforce. In addition, they have unique experiences related to their collegiate playing careers ending and being women in the workplace. Guided by Nancy Schlossberg’s (1981) Model for Analyzing Human Adaptation to Transition, this qualitative study explored eight former NCAA Division I women soccer players’ perceptions about the transition to the workforce. The focus was on the student-athletes’ psychosocial and institutional influences related to the career transition process. Five themes emerged from the interviews: 1) institutional career support, 2) transferable skills, 3) career connections, 4) moving on, and 5) advice from former student-athletes. All the participants had a positive experience being a collegiate student-athlete, but still, they felt a lack of support and resources provided to them to aid with the career transition from their coaches, athletic department, and university. The participants acknowledged that internship experiences contributed to a positive transition into the workforce but expressed challenges completing an internship opportunity due to the time demands associated with being a student-athlete. The respondents also expressed other challenges with transitioning from being a student-athlete to a young professional, but all collectively used their families, friends, and teammates for support during the transition. The former student-athletes also unanimously believed they acquired several skills such as time management, conflict management, and discipline from being student-athletes that helped them have a more successful transition. Each participant provided advice to current student-athletes and recommendations to athletic programs, coaches, and administrators about the career transition process for student-athletes.
  • RESPONSE OF UiO METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS TO THERMAL PERTURBATIONS AND MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS

    Borguet, Eric; Willets, Katherine; Matsika, Spiridoula; Xu, Wenqian (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Chemical weapon attacks are a persistent and evolving global threat requiring novel mitigation and defense strategies. Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are amenable for a wide-range of protective applications against hazardous chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents (CWAs), given their highly tunable chemical and structural architecture. The zirconium-based UiO MOFs, in particular, offer a high degree of chemical, structural and thermal stability making them ideal candidates for filtration and decontamination applications. In this dissertation, a combination of in situ Temperature-Programmed Infrared (TP-IR) spectroscopy and Temperature-Programmed Desorption Mass Spectrometry (TPD-MS) are applied to understand the uptake, transport and desorption interactions of the nerve agent simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and complementary benign, potential alternative simulants, including acetone, isopropanol and n-heptane. The use of CWA simulants provides detailed information on the structure-activity relationship of live CWA agents and MOFs, while minimizing the consequences of accidental exposure. To understand temperature-dependent MOF-analyte interactions, the intrinsic thermal response of UiO MOFs is investigated revealing negative thermal expansion using a combination of TP-IR, TPD-MS and synchrotron X-ray Diffraction for UiO-67 MOFs. Ultimately, this multi-technique approach enables a fundamental understanding of CWA simulant interactions with single component MOFs and informs the rational design of superior sorbent materials with diverse functionality capable of selectively capturing, transporting and degrading hazardous chemicals.
  • BIOENGINEERING APPROACHES FOR IMPROVED DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED RETINAL TISSUES FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS

    Wang, Karin; Lelkes, Peter I; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A; Freer, Seema (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Sight is the most powerful of all human senses. For the vast majority of people on Earth, the loss of that sense would be unimaginable. Without assistive technology, it would separate them from their ability to work, their ability to travel, and their ability to interact with their loved ones. And yet, this extraordinary process, carefully refined by billions of years of evolution, is threatened for millions of people all over the world from a wide array of diseases of the retina. Many of these diseases arise from malnutrition and infection and are being rapidly eradicated. However, many dozens more result from convoluted permutations of genetics, age, and diet that threaten blindness for millions more with little hope of treatment, even with the best of modern medicine. As our life expectancies extend and our population ages, these diseases will only become more prevalent. In humanity’s ever-present pursuit of medicine and knowledge to improve our quality of life, cutting-edge treatments offer promise that one day soon, even these diseases may be eradicated. One key technology capable of treating these devastating illnesses, on the precipice of being translated to real-world clinical treatments, is pluripotent stem cell-derived therapies. Patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, meaning pluripotent stem cells sourced directly from the patient, have a wealth of applications ranging from drug identification to disease modeling to implantation and regeneration. This research has been developed and advanced remarkably in the approximately two decades since the early isolation of pluripotent stem cells. Naturally, this advancement has predominantly been focused on cell and molecular biology. However, this focus has left significant research questions to be answered from engineering perspectives across a wide latitude of sub-disciplines. This dissertation explores three independent avenues of engineering principles as they relate to improving 2D and 3D retinal tissues derived from pluripotent stem cells in materials, devices, and computation. The first aim explores how plant protein-based nanofibrous scaffolds can marry the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of synthetic and animal-derived scaffolds for the culture of 2D retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) constructs. The second aim describes the development and testing of a novel, perfusing rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor to support culture of 3D retinal organoids. Finally, the third aim performs a meta-analysis of published RNA-Seq datasets to determine the precise mechanisms by which bioreactors support organoid growth and extrapolate how these conclusions can support future experiments.
  • The Medicine Cabinet

    Jones, Nora L (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    In the city of Philadelphia there were over 4,000 opioid over-doses in 2018. There were many lives affected by over-prescribed medication and the dire need to have better policies and practices in place when delivering care is crucial. Better practices lead to shorter hospital stays, fewer readmissions and is cost efficient to all involved. Prescribed medications need to be better evaluated prior to dispensing for a non-acute pain. It is the pharmaceutical companies and healthcare provider’s obligation to be more educated when delivering care for the community that it serves. It is imperative to build better relationships between patients, physicians, and community leaders to alleviate this current opioid epidemic. The concerns within our current health care system are based on biased beliefs. These beliefs can lead to barriers of healthcare and give inadequate care for those who deserves the best quality of healthcare.
  • A MULTIPROXY APPROACH TO INTERPRETING ARIDITY ACROSS THE EOCENE-OLIGOCENE TRANSITION OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS (WHITE RIVER GROUP), NORTH AMERICA

    Terry, Dennis O; Grandstaff, David E; Chemtob, Steven M; Hren, Michael T (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    ABSTRACT The White River Group (WRG) represents consistent alluvial to eolian deposition across the North American Great Plains region during the late Eocene and early Oligocene, creating one of the most complete terrestrial records of the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT). The WRG is an archive of paleosols and biogeochemical signals, including vertebrate fossils and plant-derived organic compounds, that provide useful paleoclimate proxies. Contextualizing these proxies with newly dated tuffaceous ash beds allows for a high-resolution climate reconstruction that can be correlated to other terrestrial sections and the marine record. This study combines paleosol derived climate proxies with leaf wax n-alkanes and magnetic susceptibility to create a multi-proxy record related to aridity during the EOT. Paleosol and leaf wax analyses suggest that a stable subhumid environment, dominated by forested landscapes, was consistently present until the onset the EOT-1. During this time, n-alkane average chain length ranges from 29.29-29.92 and suggest minimal input from grasses. Between 35.224 - 33.939 Ma, a decrease in ACLs is concurrent with increased mean annual temperature and precipitation, negating previous assertions of prolonged late Eocene climate degradation. An abrupt 550.29 ± 147 mm drop in MAP is coincident with the EOT-1. This is the first terrestrial EOT study in the Great Plains region to produce a drop in MAP associated with the EOT that falls outside the statistical margin of error. In the earliest Oligocene, increased ACLs suggest a transition to grass-like landscapes. A change in landscape vegetation is supported by paleosol characteristics that suggest a shift to mollisols, including dense drab halo root traces and phosphorus trends that indicate mollic epipedons. CIA-K of B-horizons also indicate an abrupt shift from alfisols to mollisol across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. MS is strongly correlated with MAP in the late Eocene and shows the potential for a regionally specific transform function for estimating precipitation when MAP is > 700 mm/yr. Additionally, this study demonstrates that accurate interpretation of leaf wax n-alkanes relies on understanding the original n-alkane position within the paleosol profile and the impact of depositional events on plant succession. The negligible drop in MAT from the paleosol proxies in this study do not support the findings of Zanazzi et al. (2007). However, this study closely agrees with Boardman and Secord (2013), which does not show any meaningful decrease in δO18 from fossil tooth enamel. Boardman and Secord (2013) also interpret a shift towards open biomes and reduced “wetter habitats,” which is consistent with the shift away from Alfisols in the Eocene, to inceptisols and mollisols in the early Oligocene as described in this study.
  • THE BAND AIDE OF THE BROKEN HEART: THE IMMUNOMODULATORY PROPERTIES OF CORTICAL BONE DERIVED STEM CELLS POST ISCHEMIC INJURY

    Mohsin, Sadia; Koch, Walter J; Kishore, Raj; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Lavine, Kory J (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The inflammatory response mounted following Myocardial Infarction (MI) is closely coupled to myocardial wound healing. Recent reports have identified a consortium of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) that contain tissue specific regulatory signatures that modulate the homeostasis of the peripheral tissues they populate during times of challenge, with one of these populations occupying the heart following ischemic injury. Unfortunately, the identification of therapeutic modulators that can harness the expansion or preservation of tissue specific Tregs have yet to be identified. Cortical Bone Derived Stem Cells (CBSCs) can engraft in the MI heart long enough to modulate the inflammatory microenvironment of the infarcted heart, making CBSCs an ideal therapeutic to modulate Treg localization and function. Intramyocardial injection of CBSCs into the MI heart expanded pro-reparative TNFRII+ Treg residence in the MI heart during acute (1 week) and chronic (8 weeks) stages of ischemic injury. This pro-reparative Treg cell signature was also observed systemically in the splenic tissue. The ablation of Tregs in a FoxP3DTR transgenic animals model via diphtheria toxin administration or the administration of FTY720 to block Treg localization to the MI heart solicited infarct size expansion and compromised cardiac function. Paracrine profiling of CBSC secretome identified that CBSCs are enrichened in Osteoprotegrin (OPG), a TNFR decoy receptor. The depletion of OPG from CBSC secretome can compromised TNFRII Treg induction (in vitro) and localization in the ischemic heart following MI. CBSCs directly modulate post-MI cardiac inflammation via the direct modulation of Treg phenotype during acute and chronic stages of ischemic injury.
  • Economic Shocks and Financial Vulnerability

    Collier, Benjamin; Grace, Martin; Shi, Tianxiang; Jerch, Rhiannon (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    This three-chapter dissertation explores firms' responses to financial shocks in three settings: severe climate events, market crash, and unexpected loss shocks. The first chapter examines how severe climate events affect small business financing outcomes and how they use credit to finance losses, using Hurricane Harvey as my setting. By using the credit reports data of 8,219 small businesses in the Harvey affected area, I estimate a treatment intensity difference-in-differences model where flooding at a firm’s location is the measure of treatment. I find that Harvey-related flooding increased credit delinquencies, especially short-term delinquencies approximately one year after Hurricane Harvey. Delinquencies also increased among firms in the disaster area whose properties were not flooded, suggesting spillover effects from flooded areas. I also find that firms without existing debt took on debt following Harvey. Firms with existing debt lowered loan balances while applying for new credit. The second chapter considers the funding challenges facing multiemployer defined benefit pension plans. I first explore whether the current funding rules have unintended consequences -- triggering employer withdrawals. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 requires that a multiemployer pension plan with an actuarial funded percentage of less than 80% must take corrective actions to improve financial health. In this paper, a regression discontinuity design is used to establish the causal effect of funding rule requirements on employer withdrawals from multiemployer pension plans. I find that multiemployer pension plans subject to funding rule requirements are about 14 percentage points more likely to experience employer withdrawals. Next, I investigate whether employer withdrawals exacerbate the funding challenges of multiemployer pension plans. Using an event study methodology, I find that plans with ex-ante employer withdrawal experiences are more vulnerable to financial shocks such as the 2008 financial crisis. This study provides important policy implications for regulators concerning best practices to build pension plan resilience to insolvency events. The third chapter investigates how rivals' loss shocks affect a firm's pricing decisions. I develop a simple theoretical model and predict that a firm's relative financial position matters. Unaffected firms may benefit from rivals' loss shocks by charging a higher price. I empirically examine the relationship in the setting of the U.S. property/casualty insurance industry. I find that insurers who only write personal lines outperform their adversely affected rivals and charge a higher price following rivals' commercial-line loss shocks. The competitive effects of loss shocks are more pronounced in states where rate regulation is not stringent.
  • Normal is a Cycle on a Washing Machine: The U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group

    Urwin, Gregory J. W.; Lockenour, Jay B.; McPherson, Alan; Schlosser, Nicholas J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    This dissertation presents the U.S. Army Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) as an example of that service implementing successful change in wartime. It argues that creating the AWG required senior leaders to adopt a vision differing from the Army’s self-conceptualization, change bureaucratic processes to permit that vision to produce an actual military unit, and then place the new unit in the hands of uniquely qualified leaders able to build and sustain it. In the process, the dissertation will consider forces that influence change within the Army, arguing that the two most significant are its self-conceptualization and institutional bureaucracy. Only determined senior leaders can overcome these barriers, and then only by deep personal engagement. Such engagement extends to manipulating the bureaucracy by placing like-minded subordinates in positions where they can sustain the tenets of change long after the visionaries retire. The dissertation also posits effective leadership as critical to building and sustaining organizations able to consistently meet their founders’ vision. To effectively tell the story, the dissertation explores three major subject areas that provide historical context. The first is the Army’s institutional history from the early 1950s through 2001. This period begins with the Army seeking to validate its place in America’s national security strategy and ends with the Army trying to chart a path into the post-Cold War future. That section includes the major bureaucratic changes brought about by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the early 1960s as these changes created processes the service still uses. It also addresses the Army’s post-Vietnam War focus on re-establishing itself as a technologically sophisticated force optimized to defeat similar opponents. This dissertation also looks at several episodes further in the past. Prior to World War I, the Army’s history is largely one of asymmetric warfare. The dissertation thus examines several campaigns that offered lessons for subsequent wars. Some lessons the Army took to heart, others it ignored. Finally, the dissertation chronicles the AWG’s creation in 2006. The AWG was a direct outgrowth of the failures and frustrations that the Army experienced in Afghanistan and Iraq. The dissertation examines these campaigns and identifies the specific problems that led senior Army leaders to create the AWG. It also chronicles the organizations growth and re-assignment from the Army staff to a fully-fledged organization subordinate to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command in 2011. This reassignment placed a now mature AWG in the Army’s standard force structure, a place it held until its 2021 deactivation. This deactivation did not result not from the unit’s failure to adapt to a post-insurgency Army focusing on technical modernization. Rather, it resulted from the Army’s inability to realize that while the AWG originated as a response to counterinsurgency, it provided a capability to support the Army during a period of great strategic and institutional uncertainty.
  • THE EFFECT OF ALTERNATING DISTRIBUTION OF TRANSITION METALS IN LAYERED MATERIALS ON OXYGEN EVOLUTION CATALYSIS

    Zdilla, Mike Dr; Strongin, Daniel Dr; Valentine, Ann Dr; Perdew, John Dr (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The goal of this project is the design of heterogeneous catalysts to facilitate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Considering the industrial feasibility for this reaction, first-row transition-metal-based materials are good candidates since they are cheap, abundant and possess variable oxidation states. However, most of them give only moderate catalytic activities, compared with noble-metal-based materials. To achieve efficient catalysts while maintaining low cost, it is important to discover and modify new systems based on the study of existing materials.In chapter 3 we present a study of the effect of surface reduction of birnessite on catalytic activity. A sample of birnessite was reduced by stirring with sodium dithionite, in which case the oxidation states of surface Mn decreased faster than those of inside Mn. We characterized the difference between the oxidation states of Mn of surface and inside (ΔAOS) and further investigate the effect of ΔAOS on catalysis. The catalytic activity was examined by reaction of birnessite samples with ceric ammonium nitrate, and O2 evolution was monitored using a dissolved oxygen probe with respect to time. The most reduced samples with ΔAOS of 0.15 was found to possess a turnover number (TON) of 36 mmol O2 per mol Mn, a value 10-fold higher than the unmodified sample. This result suggests oxidation state differential across layers aids the catalysis. In chapter 4, a more rigorous study is conducted by the examination of few-layer catalysts constructed by manganese oxide sheets with different oxidation states. We stacked low-AOS manganese oxide sheets with high-AOS manganese oxide sheets in various ordered combinations to obtain few-layer birnessite samples with non-uniform distribution of Mn(III). We found samples with more variation in AOS had a lower overpotential (~510 mV) in electrochemical OER catalysis than uniform stacks of the parent manganese oxide sheets (~750 mV for low-AOS sheets, >1000 mV for high-AOS sheets. The result indicates that the distribution of Mn(III) in stacking direction was the dominant factor for OER catalysis in birnessite and is more important than the overall Mn(III) content. We also found the band structures via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and provide an electronic-structure-based explanation of the observed activity. In chapter 5 an analogous strategy to that used in chapter 4 is applied to optimize lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) and lithium nickel oxide (LNO) layered catalysts. LCO and LNO contains various oxidation states (or spin states) of cobalt and nickel atoms. With alternatively stacking a high-AOS and a low-AOS cobalt (or nickel) oxide sheets one by one, the electrochemical OER catalytic activity of the obtained few layer LCO (or LNO) sample was enhanced. The results indicated that the structural feature of the alternating distribution of oxidation states affected not only the birnessite catalysts but also both cobalt and nickel oxide materials. In chapter 6 we incorporated both cobalt and nickel oxide sheets into layered heterostructured catalysts. We present findings that mixed transition metal oxide material K-CoxNiyO2 with alternating distribution of cobalt and nickel oxide layers showed enhanced activity mixed Ni-Co metal oxides with homogeneously distributed transition metals. The overpotential of the sample K-Co0.5Ni0.5O2 with alternating distribution of Co and Ni is 460 mV, 190 mV smaller than that of the sample with homogeneously distributed Co and Ni, even though they had a similar elemental composition.
  • PERFORMANCE AND ENDURANCE CONTROL IN EMERGING STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES

    Kant, Krishna KK; Shi, Justin JYS; Tan, Chiu CCT; Biswas, Saroj SKB (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The current diverse and wide range of computing moves towards the cloud and de- mands high performance in low latency and high throughput. Facebook reported that 3.3 billion people monthly and 2.6 billion people daily use their data centers over the network. Many emerging user-facing applications require strict control over the stor- age latency’s tail to provide a quality user experience. The low-latency requirement triggers the ongoing replacement of hard drives (HDDs) by solid-state drives (SSDs) in the enterprise, enabling much higher performance and lower end-to-end storage latencies. It becomes more challenging to ensure low latency while maintaining the device’s endurance ratings. We address this challenge in the following ways: 1. Enhance the overall storage system’s performance and maintain the SSD endurance using emerging Non-volatile memory (ENVM) technology. 2. Implement deterministic la- tency in the storage path for latency-sensitive applications. 3. Provide low-latency and differentiated services when write-intensive workloads are present in a shared environment. We have proposed the performance and endurance-centric mechanisms to evaluate the tradeoffs between performance and endurance. In the first approach, our goal is to achieve low storage latency and a long lifetime of the SSD simultane- ously, even for a write-heavy workload. Incorporating a significantly smaller amount of ENVM with SSD as a cache helps to achieve the said goal.SSDs using the NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) interface can achieve low latency as the interface provides several advanced features. The second approach has iii explored such features to control the storage tail latency in a distributed environment. The ”predictable latency mode (PLM)” advanced feature helps to achieve determinis- tic storage latency. SSDs need to perform many background management operations to deal with the underlying flash technology traits, the most time-consuming ones be- ing garbage collection and wear leveling. The latency requirement of latency-sensitive applications violates when the I/O requests fall behind such management activities. PLM leverages SSD controllers to perform the background operations during a win- dow, called a ”non-deterministic window (NDWin)”. Whereas during the ”determin- istic window (DTWin)”, applications will experience no such operations. We have extended this feature in the distributed environment and showed how it helps achieve low storage latency when the proposed ”PLM coordinator (PLMC)” is incorporated. In a shared environment with write-intensive workloads present, result in latency peak for Read IO. Moreover, it is required to provide differentiated services with multiple QoS classes present in the workload mixture. We have extended the PLM concept on hybrid storage to realize the deterministic latency for tight tail-controlled appli- cations and assure differentiated services among multiple QoS applications. Since nearly all of the storage access in a data center is over the network, an end-to-end path consists of three components: The host component, Network component, and Storage Component. For latency-sensitive applications, the overall tail latency needs to consider all these components. In a NAS (Network Attached Storage) architecture, it is worth studying the QoS class aware services present at the different components to provide an overall low request-response latency. Therefore, it helps future research to embrace the gaps that have not been considered yet.
  • SISTERS IN A JAPANESE PROFESSIONAL COMMUNITY: UNCOVERING FACTORS FOSTERING PARTICIPATION

    Casanave, Christine; Beglar, David; Aspinall, Robert; Yokota, Gerry (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    ABSTRACT Women comprise half of the world’s population but less than half of the paid workforce, less than half of organized workers, and far less than half of union leadership positions. Women benefit from union membership by enjoying a smaller gender wage gap than women without union representation. Unionized teachers enjoy higher salaries and better working conditions than those who are not union members. Despite the advantages of being in a union, women are under-represented in union membership and, more importantly, leadership positions. Considering these disparities, I conceptualized this critical study to describe and better understand how women’s participation in union activities is meaningful to them. My ultimate goal was to find ways in which more union women could be encouraged to take leadership roles in the workers’ rights movement.The primary purpose of this research is to identify factors that explain the dearth of women’s participation in their labor union. Gender disparity in union leadership is, in part, a reflection of gender disparity in the workforce. Women make up less than half of the paid workforce but occupy the majority of the contingent workforce, which enterprise-based unions in Japan have been reluctant to organize (Weathers, 2012). Furthermore, a lack of female role models in union leadership might also contribute to gender disparity in unions’ leaderships. From this, I suggest changes that potentially allow more women to participate and eventually lead in their unions. The theoretical justification of the methodology used in this study is to show the utility of communities of practice theory and intersectionality in this type of research. Because I examined participation, I used communities of practice as the primary theoretical framework, and because the participants were all women, intersectional feminism served as the secondary theoretical framework. Furthermore, I review conceptual research on communities of practice, women, and labor and review empirical research on labor, communities of practice, and women in the labor movement. For the methodology, I applied a qualitative critical case study approach to this investigation of a labor union in western Japan that primarily organizes foreign language teachers. This study is a collection of case studies of female non-Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers from inner circle countries. I investigated how these women participated in their labor union in western Japan and how their participation was meaningful to them. I was a participant observer, and the three core participants were all American. I am Canadian. At the time of this study, all four of us were union leaders. Data sources included interviews, a focus group discussion, artifacts, and the research journals that I kept over the years. The findings echoed aspects of communities of practice theory as well as intersectionality. Communities of practice theory highlighted the transformational nature of participating in a community. Furthermore, the importance of trust in the community was made clear. I considered the participants’ identities from the perspective of intersectionality. Considering differing emphases on these aspects of identity led me to realize that increasing solidarity between women working for workers’ rights and women working for women’s rights might lead to the growth of both movements. I drew the main conclusion from considering differing emphases on aspects of research participants’ identities. As has been well documented in research literature, women in the workers’ rights movement and women in the women’s rights movement place an emphasis on different aspects of their identities (Dye, 1975; hooks, 2012; Milkman, 2016). Therefore, what is lacking is a sense of solidarity, the fundamental principle of the workers’ rights movement, between these two groups of women. The original contribution to knowledge of this dissertation is an enhanced understanding of how both the workers’ rights movement and the women’s rights movement are held back by this lack of solidarity among women.
  • THE COLLECTIVE PERCEPTIONS OF K-12 SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHERS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC

    Boyle, Joseph; Thurman, Ken; Jordan, Will; DuCette, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    In the spring of 2020, nearly every school aged student and K-12 teacher across the United States was forced to participate in remote educational activities online, prompting an unexpected departure from the status quo in public education. This was a result of government mandated social distancing practices, as a mitigation strategy for combating the global pandemic induced by the novel coronavirus. Most school districts were compelled to repurpose their daily practices by rapidly planning to ascertain resources for the implementation of an emergency remote education initiative. These unprecedented events presented many challenges for educators, especially given most had no formal training for conducting online instructional delivery utilizing various technologies. Special education teachers in particular confronted a unique set of challenges when considering how to support the complex needs of diverse learners. This included student support for engagement with access to technology, knowledge of various applied technological pedagogical skills, teacher preparation, technical training, ongoing professional support, interactions with stakeholders, and individual social emotional well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine how special education teachers perceived various aspects of their experiences, when teaching remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was designed to measure these perceptions containing aligned items to the domains of the technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework. The COVID-19 Special Education Teacher Survey (C-SETS) was a 42 item questionnaire set on a 5-point Likert scale that contained an additional open-ended question. It was administered online and completed by 280 participants, across 46 states, primarily via a social media platform. While the results demonstrated that special education teachers overall were technically skilled, had increased communication with parents/caregivers, and gained skills for future practices, there was a significantly insufficient level of preparation, a deficit with various pedagogical skills using technology, less collaboration with IEP team members, inconsistent student engagement, varying access to technology, a lack of technical training, ongoing professional development and support, contributing to social emotional stress, anxiety and fatigue. Aspects of these findings were particularly evident in historically under resourced districts and those that did not participate in technology infrastructure initiatives, where an overwhelming majority of the statistically significant differences, with the exception of respondents’ level of educational attainment, were attributed to school characteristics. Implications for future teacher preparation, technical training, ongoing professional development, and best practices are presented. Keywords: Special Education, COVID-19, Teacher Preparation, TPACK, Emergency Remote Education, Digital Divide, SEL, Educational Technology, Students with Disabilities, Technical Training, Professional Development, Social Media, Facebook, Pandemic, C-SETS
  • THE ROLE OF STIGMA IN THE MECHANISMS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY OUTCOME: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Olino, Thomas; Heimberg, Richard; Chen, Eunice; Giovannetti, Tania; Fauber, Robert; Sayers, Margaret (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Concealable stigma such as sexual or gender identity or mental illness has been linked to numerous adverse outcomes. Additionally, stigma of mental illness and help seeking stigma has been associated with reduced treatment utilization for psychological problems. Research on internalized stigma of mental illness (ISMI) has largely focused on a) the stigma associated with serious mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia; psychosis spectrum; bipolar-spectrum disorders) and b) the impact of stigma on disparities in treatment access/utilization. However, there have been few studies that have examined the impact of ISMI on treatment outcome or mechanisms through which ISMI influences treatment outcome. The current study addresses these gaps in literature by focusing on ISMI in a diverse outpatient sample within the Psychological Services Center (PSC) at Temple University. In this study, we investigated how mental health self-stigma influences outcome; processes that account for the relationship between mental health self-stigma and outcome; and how self-stigma changes over the course of up to ten therapy sessions in an outpatient setting. Data were drawn from adults participating in individual therapy at the PSC. Participants included 50 individuals (54% female; 76% White, 6% African American, 8% Multiracial, 6% Hispanic, 2% Middle-Eastern and Asian-American) who completed self-report measures of internalized stigma, psychological distress, shame, self-efficacy, social isolation, and hope for up to ten therapy sessions. Multilevel models were used to identify the trajectories of change for the main outcomes (psychological distress) and other variables of interest (stigma, shame, self-efficacy, social isolation, hope) across treatment. Baseline assessment of stigma was used to predict changes in the primary outcome in a set of conditional multilevel models. Logistic regression was used to examine effect of baseline stigma on treatment dropout. Additionally, multilevel models with indirect effects were used to examine the mechanism of relationship between ISMI and treatment outcome. Gender, gender role conflict and demographic variables were considered as potential covariates. Psychological distress, social isolation, and shame significantly reduced over the course of treatment. We did not find significant changes in depression, self-efficacy or hope. Stigma did not significantly change over the course of treatment. Most notably, greater stigma at baseline and over time (at each time point) was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (i.e., poorer treatment outcome), and greater baseline stigma predicted a greater likelihood of treatment dropout. However, baseline stigma was not associated with rate of change in psychological distress. There were no significant indirect effects mediating the impact of stigma on treatment outcome. Findings suggest that greater ISMI impacts subjective report of psychological distress in the beginning stages of treatment and contributes to early treatment dropout. These findings suggest that clients’ personal beliefs about mental health and stigma should be attended to throughout treatment to help clients achieve better treatment outcomes, not only in terms of symptom/distress reduction, but also functionally.
  • UNDERSTANDING MID-LEVEL STUDENT AFFAIRS PROFESSIONALS’ EXPERIENCES THROUGH BELONGING

    Johnson, Jennifer; Ding, Meixia; Paris, Joseph; Brunner, Eric (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Despite the critical contributions that student affairs professionals make to college students’ learning and development and campus operations, mid-level professionals are at risk of leaving the field altogether. The current study investigated the role of sense of belonging in mid-level student affairs professionals’ experiences and their turnover intentions through a qualitative, phenomenological analysis. Ten mid-level student affairs professionals from various institutions were interviewed about how they experience belongingness within their work, and how their evaluation of belonging influences their intention to stay at their institution or in the field of student affairs. The results demonstrate that sense of belonging is experienced by mid-level student affairs professionals, but in varied ways, and it is shaped through relationships, being trusted for professional expertise and competence, and feeling supported by others. Salient identities, especially marginalized identities, can shape the experience of belonging as can professional networks outside of institutional experiences. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that sense of belonging, whether it was experienced or lacking, influenced the intentions of many participants to stay at their institution and in the field of student affairs more broadly. Should colleges and universities be committed to addressing the attrition of mid-level student affairs professionals, they should commit to supporting and cultivating sense of belonging as it does indeed matter.
  • AN EXAMINATION OF STUDENT FINANCIAL SECURITY AND STUDENT PERSISTENCE DECISION-MAKING IN COLLEGE

    DuCette , Joseph; Davis, James E; Levine-Laufgraben, Jodi; Schlenker, Steven (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether a student’s sense of financial security can increase the degree of predictability of retention over and above the more traditional predictors typically found in the literature, and to get a better sense for how student financial security impacts student persistence decision-making in college. To determine whether or not a student’s sense of financial security can increase the degree of predictability of retention over and above expected family contribution (EFC) and grade point average (GPA), data on these variables were collected from students at Mid-Atlantic University between the years of 2017 and 2019. Each variable was run separately at the univariate level through correlations (or chi square for race) to answer the question of whether the variables high school GPA, EFC and financial security (both as a percentile, and as a raw score) correlate with retention. What was found was that only high school GPA significantly predicts retention, with financial security having no effect. To obtain additional information on how students’ sense of financial security impacts student persistence decision-making in college, a series of interviews were conducted with students who made the decision to persist, despite identified financial insecurities. To better understand the decision-making of students from both a relatively high socioeconomic (SES) status, as well as the decision-making of students from a relatively low SES, students from both the 1st EFC quartile, as well as students from above the 3rd EFC quartile at Mid-Atlantic University were interviewed about whether financial security had impacted their persistence decision-making. A thematic analysis of the six student interviews revealed that students are: (1) Averse to risk and sometimes reluctant to take on debt; (2) Unmoored from traditional financial support systems; (3) Lacking general money management knowledge, (4) Employed on and off campus, and (5) Committed to reaching their educational goals. If institutions of higher education are going to help students better navigate persistence decision-making, they need to understand the nuances of how student financial concerns influence such decisions. This study provides valuable insights into the multi-dimensional nature of student persistence decision-making, especially as those decisions are impacted by student financial pressures and insecurities. Such insights can help institutions develop effective interventions and initiatives to promote greater financial confidence in students, encouraging student persistence and educational goal achievement.
  • Faculty Perceptions of Dual Enrollment Students' College Readiness

    Smith , Michael W.; Levine-Laufgraben, Jodi; DuCette, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of faculty members who teach courses to high school dual enrollment students. Existing literature on dual enrollment focuses mainly on academic achievement and grade point averages; few studies explore the lived experiences of those who participate in dual enrollment. Although there is limited research on how students perceive their experiences with dual enrollment, a missing piece of the existing literature is in how faculty members perceive their experiences with dual enrollment students. The research questions sought to explore professors’ experiences with dual enrollment students, to what extent they believe their students were prepared to perform in a college course, and to what extent they believed their students were prepared to access resources on a college campus. The method included interviewing professors who have taught dual enrollment students in the last 10 years and exploring their experience working with high school students. Interviews were transcribed, codes were applied to the data, and a thematic analysis was conducted to analyze the data. Five themes were discovered as a result of the thematic analysis. Data showed that faculty members perceive that dual enrollment students show regularly improvement, are responsive to feedback, are as prepared or more prepared than their peers who do not participate in dual enrollment, have academic related soft skills that help them succeed, and they are just as resourceful as their peers. Additionally, a common perception among faculty members is that they think dual enrollment students benefit from committed professors. The data suggested from this study has implications for the recruitment of dual enrollment students and the way programs are structured. Additionally, it recommends further research on students’ lived experiences of their participation in dual enrollment.  
  • Identification of Heme Binding Loci using Heme-Seq

    Gerhard, Glenn S; Chitrala, Kumaraswamy-Naidu; Engel, Nora (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    G-quadruplexes, a type of nucleic acid secondary structure consisting largely of folded quartets of guanines, appear to play a regulatory role in the human genome. Heme has been shown to interact with G-quadruplexes. The ChIP-Seq-like Heme-Seq assay was developed to identify heme binding G-quadruplex loci. Using Heme-Seq, 3 primary heme binding loci and 4 secondary minor heme binding loci were identified on six chromosomes. Two of the primary heme binding loci were found at the centromeric boundaries of the long arms of metacentric chromosomes with the majority of reads from the primary heme binding loci consisting primarly of Human Satellite II (HSATII) nucleotide repeat sequences. Numerous putative G-quadruplex forming sequences were found in the heme-binding locus on Chromosome 2. Comparison of Heme-Seq results with available data from a G-quadruplex ChIP-Seq study in live cells, revealed that the regions which exhibited binding at the three peaks from the Heme-Seq data also showed binding coverage in the CHIP-Seq data. In addition to the known association with G-quadruplexes, heme also appears to bind to HSATII repeats,. The biological role and importance of this binding is not known.
  • Effectiveness of Undergraduate Music Teacher Education Programs: Perceptions of Early-Career Music Educators

    Confredo, Deborah; Dilworth, Rollo; Parker, Elizabeth C; Brunner, Matthew (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Most states in the country have adopted a broad P-12 licensure for music teacher certification (Henry, 2005). This broad licensure puts a strain on music teacher education programs. Faculty create degree programs which must include coursework from internal and external influencers, all while trying to create a curriculum for preservice teachers that incorporates a wide breadth of topics, balanced with enough depth for teachers to be prepared for success in the profession. Harsh criticisms have risen about music teacher education programs shortfalls in trying to strike a balance between breadth and depth (Forsythe, et. al., 2007; Legette, 2013; Leonhard,1985). Much of the content within a music teacher education program reflect guidance from and is approved by a single external influence–the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM). The NASM is the national accrediting agency for schools of music who voluntarily choose to subscribe to this oversight. Their accreditation standards are the most recognized and supported in the country, and because of that accrediting function, NASM has great power and influence over music programs in higher education (Ester & Brinkman, 2005). However, research informing the requirements from the NASM and their effectiveness are scarce (Forsythe et. al., 2007). The purpose of this research is to explore early-career music educators’ perceptions of the value, effectiveness, and relevance of their NASM accredited undergraduate music studies in preparation for teaching. A marketing research approach and subsequent analysis provides empirical evidence of novice music educator’s perception of the efficacy of teacher preparation curricula as they correspond to each NASM guideline. Study participants (n=36) were early-career teachers (1-3 years professional experience) from the National Association for Music Educators Northeast Region who responded to a survey request. In the survey, participants used a 1-5 Likert-type scale to rate the importance of NASM competencies to their first years of teaching and the instructional performance of their music teacher education program. Lastly, participants rated the overall importance and performance of their music teacher education programs. Survey results indicate the overall average perceived importance of all music competencies from the NASM in music teacher education programs (MTEP) are rated higher than the overall perceived performance of instruction (3.61, 2.81). Analysis of the results also revealed a discouraging gap between the high importance of general, vocal, and instrumental music curriculum knowledge and the less than sufficient performance by music teacher education programs. A similar gap in laboratory and field teaching experiences in individual, small group, and whole group settings was identified. The results of this study indicate a need for more reflective research into music teacher education programs and the competencies required by the National Association of Schools of Music.
  • BEST PRACTICES IN POSTSECONDARY TRANSITION PLANNING FOR STUDENTS WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD)

    Fiorello, Catherine; Stull, Judith C.; Farley, Frank H; Hindman, Annemarie H (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    Students with an educational classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) make up 1.1% of the total enrollment in public schools and 8.3% of the total number of students receiving special education services and is the fastest growing disability classification (U.S. Department of Education, 2016). As more students with these unique needs begin to age out of the educational system, the demand for quality transition planning services that address the spectrum of ability in this population increases. While IDEA (2018) provides some basic guidelines, there is significant room for interpretation and individualization within these mandates. As such, practitioners are often left searching the available literature to determine the best way to provide students, families, and school personnel with some guidance in interpreting and implementing federal law. Furthermore, the best practices literature is limited and often does not address some of the unique needs of students with ASD, given the core features of the classification (Wehman, 2013). The current study evaluates school program variables that predict postsecondary outcomes in education/training and employment for students with ASD and considers the individual student and family variables that vary with this relationship. Consistent with the literature (Kohler & Fields, 2003), results suggest that student focused-planning, student development, and interagency collaboration correlate with postsecondary education/training and employment outcomes. In addition, consistent with what we know about the broader population of students receiving special education services (Landmark, et al., 2010) and the theoretical work (Wehman, et al., 2014), the current study demonstrates that inclusion in the general education setting in an academically rigorous content area is also related to postsecondary success in education/training and employment. These findings not only highlight the importance of including students with ASD in the general education classroom as part of their transition programming, but it also speaks to the need for additional research about inclusion practices as part of the child’s transition plan for students with ASD.
  • PROJECT 02: MEDIA, POWER, AND ECOLOGY AT THE GOOGLE DATA CENTER IN THE DALLES, OREGON

    Coover, Roderick; Cagle, Chris (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
    The climate emergency and the accompanying ecological and cultural crises challenge existing modes of critique in the humanities. Described by terms such as Anthropocene, Capitalocene, and Chthulucene, these crises are distributed across large scales of space and time and confound simple notions of causality, requiring new paradigms for research in the humanities. Recent work in media studies engages these concerns by examining the ecologies of media and media infrastructures. The Internet is arguably the most critical media infrastructure. Media studies augments cultural analyses of the Internet by focusing on the materialities of this Internet, foregrounding ways that information, infrastructures, cultures, and materialities are—and always have been—intimately entwined.Data centers—the massive server farms that store data, perform cloud computing, and host much of the Internet—are critical sites of the Internet’s computational power. Project 02: Media, Power, and Ecology at the Google Data Center in The Dalles, Oregon contributes to existing work on data centers by focusing on Google’s first hyperscale data center—named “Project 02” in early permitting documents. In media studies, Tung-Hui Hu’s A Prehistory of the Cloud, Jennifer Holt and Patrick Vonderau’s “Where the Internet Lives: Data Centers as Cloud Infrastructure,” and a series of articles by Mel Hogan address the imaginaries of data centers, the discourse around them, and the ecologies they produce. While this work on data centers is foundational, it relies on insights derived primarily from promotional materials and brief site visits. These methodologies address data centers as static objects rather than emergent processes, circumscribing scholars’ ability to address ongoing changes in an industry defined by rapid change and constant growth. Further, these studies often tacitly accept the data centers’ own definition of their spatio-temporal boundaries rather than challenging them. Because data centers are inherently relational, it is necessary to apply a similar network logic to defining the data center itself—as an assemblage of infrastructural relations rather than a self-contained object with discrete connections to the world. My research addresses these methodological and conceptual concerns through a longitudinal study of Google’s first hyperscale data center. Project 02 will be the first book-length study of a single data center, drawing on repeated site visits over four years, talks and publications by Google, and extensive research into government archives. The Introduction, Where the Internet Lives, contrasts this data center’s role in Google’s global network with phenomenological accounts of its ever-expanding security perimeter. Chapter 1, Secrecy, Sustainability, and Security, traces shifts in Google’s discourse, from secrecy to promoting sustainability, through a survey of publications, talks, websites, video tours, and maps. Chapter 2, Territorial, Temporal, and Material Processes in The Dalles, examines political and ecological implications of changes in network topologies and the implementation of artificial intelligence-focused Tensor Processing Units. Chapter 3, Rocks, Water, Salmon, Treaties, and Networks: Making Space for The Dalles data center, frames the data center on an expansive scale of time and space, situating it within the ongoing process of settler colonialism in the northwestern United States. Chapter 4, The Bonneville Power Administration Film Archives: Ecologies of Infrastructural Media from 1939 to the Present, investigates the data center’s source of electrical power, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), through an archiveology of the films and photographs produced by the BPA from 1939 to the present. This survey of BPA films attends to a central infrastructure of settler colonialism, while highlighting Indigenous activists’ success in producing changes to the operation of BPA dams. The Conclusion, An Owner’s Manual, considers potentials for analogous infrastructural activism at the Google data center and foregrounds instabilities within the immense power embodied in Google’s corporate infrastructure. This book project informs—and is shaped by—a multimodal research practice that engages contemporary and archival media related to the data center and the infrastructures that support it. Project 02 interweaves videos produced by Google with photographs and films from the archives of the Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Bonneville Power Administration alongside my own video, audio, and photography of the data center and a series of related sites. This media-centric methodology builds meaning from a dual conception of media ecologies as both relations among media objects and as ecologies produced by—and alongside of—these media objects. This method of working through multiple flows of media attends to the expansive spatio-temporal scales of the data center’s ecological, political, and cultural entanglements. In parallel to the book, Project 02 has two multimodal realizations. The media exhibition frames the data center in relation to the last 150 years along a fifteen-mile stretch of the Columbia River. Media produced by Google is interwoven with materials from government archives and my own video and audio of the data center, The Dalles Dam, active Indigenous fishing sites, and the Columbia River. The exhibition immerses the audience in a disparate body of media emerging from, and around, the Google data center, leading the audience to consider long-term implications of the Internet’s central role in our culture. The second multimodal project is a feature-length documentary film which leverages a haptic approach to the data center, cinematic engagements with surrounding environments, and affective encounters with archival media to produce a narrative that spirals outward from the data center to attend to the infrastructural relationships that support it. The book, film, and media exhibition contribute to a broader reckoning with the substantial power accumulated by Google. My research grounds concerns over Google’s monopolization of critical infrastructure in an environmental history of Google’s oldest hyperscale data center. At the hydroelectric dams that power this data center, the New Deal era dream of “power for the people” has evolved into a complexly negotiated system incorporating salmon ecologies, Indigenous land and water rights, and emerging challenges of climate change into the management of an aging network of dams. Project 02 considers analogous potentials for Google’s technological and engineering contributions to be rethought and reconfigured, informed by logics and concerns beyond their original intent. These potential reconfigurations are critical to reimagining the Internet, democratizing the production of knowledge, and bolstering our ability to navigate the ongoing crises of the Anthropocene.

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