From Poe to Auster: Literary Experimentation in the Detective Story Genre
AuthorConnelly, Kelly C.
Committee memberOrvell, Miles
O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948-
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12613/1001
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AbstractTwo dominating lines of criticism regarding the detective novel have perpetuated the misconception that detective fiction before the 1960s was a static and monolithic form unworthy of critical study. First, critics of the traditional detective story have argued that the formulaic nature of the genre is antithetical to innovation and leaves no room for creative exploration. Second, critics of the postmodern detective novel have argued that the first literary experiments with the genre began only with post-World War II authors such as Umberto Eco, Italo Calvino, and Paul Auster. What both sets of critics fail to acknowledge is that the detective fiction genre always has been the locus of a dialectic between formulaic plotting and literary experimentation. In this dissertation, I will examine how each generation of detective story authors has engaged in literary innovation to refresh and renew what has been mistakenly labeled as a sterile and static popular genre.
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Rapid Detection of Biogenic Amines using Capillary Electrophoresis and Gradient Elution IsotachophoresisShackman, Jonathan G.; Spano, Francis C.; Strongin, Daniel R.; Nicholson, Allen W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)The metabolism of amino acids produces important chemical signaling molecules called neurotransmitters, which are responsible for carrying out important actions within the human body. There are approximately one hundred identified neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter study is important due to their involvement in biological, physiological, pharmacological, and pathological functions. Commonly employed methods for neurotransmitter detection are mainly based upon microdialysis. However, the methods suffer from disadvantages. Microdialysis fails to determine the absolute concentration of analytes and therefore requires it to be tied in with an analytical technique such as high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis. Although high performance liquid chromatography is the most powerful analytical technique to date, it necessitates high maintenance and suffers from poor temporal resolution. While capillary electrophoresis affords more rapid separations than high performance liquid chromatography, it suffers from poor concentration limits of detection and requires large sample dilutions of highly conductive samples, such as biological fluids. Consequently, research is focused on detection of various amino acids and neurotransmitters employing novel analytical techniques along with traditional capillary electrophoresis. First, a method was developed using traditional capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection to detect two major excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate in planaria. The method was later applied to detect several biogenic amines using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser induced fluorescence detection in planaria to study the effect of feeding on the levels of biogenic amines within individual planaria homogenates. The concentration sensitivity issue of capillary electrophoresis led to the use of a new method for sensitive neurotransmitter measurements, gradient elution isotachophoresis. Gradient elution isotachophoresis is an efficient capillary-based enrichment and separation technique based on balancing hydrodynamic counter-flow against electrophoresis. Enrichment is achieved with the aid of high concentrations of leading electrolyte in the counter-flow solution that creates an ionic interface near the capillary inlet. Discrete electrolyte spacers or carrier ampholyte mixtures are used to separate analyte zones. The method was applied to the enrichment and separation of physiologically relevant concentrations of aspartate and glutamate labeled with dansyl chloride, phenyl isothiocyanate, or carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester in artificial cerebrospinal fluid using ultraviolet absorbance detection. Finally, gradient elution isotachophoresis was combined with capillary zone electrophoresis to eliminate the use of spacers and provide rapid separations and enrichment. The technique was applied for the detection of biogenic amines in a glass microfluidic device.
IN VITRO EVALUATION OF A DIFFERENTIAL REFLECTOMETRY DENTAL CALCULUS DETECTION INSTRUMENTRams, Thomas E.; Rams, Thomas E.; Wada, Keisuke; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)Objectives: The presence of subgingival dental calculus on tooth root surfaces, an important risk factor in the pathogenesis of human periodontitis, is clinically challenging to reliably detect with existing tactile-based, manual forms of dental instrumentation. In 2003, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted approval for marketing in the United States of a differential reflectometry-based device (DetecTar, NEKS Technologies, Laval, Quebec, Canada) for detection of subgingival dental calculus in humans. The instrument employs a light-emitting diode to deliver red light from the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum, with a 635 nm-specific wavelength, onto tooth root surfaces through an optical fiber extending to the tip of a periodontal probe-like handpiece. The optical fiber also collects light reflected back from oral surfaces, from which the optical signature of dental calculus is identified by matching the spectra of the reflected light to an internal computer software database containing red light spectra characteristic of dental calculus in its reference library. To date, only a limited amount of in vitro and in vivo research has been conducted on the DetecTar differential reflectometry device. As a result, the purpose of this study was to to assess, with an in vitro typodont model system, the ability of the DetecTar differential reflectometry device to reliably identify subgingival dental calculus on tooth root surfaces. Methods: A total of 108 subgingival sites on mandibular posterior plastic teeth, of which 73 (67.6%) exhibited artificial dental calculus deposits, were mounted within typodont models of the human oral cavity, comprised of white plastic teeth emerging from and surrounded by anatomically-accurate pink silicone gingival and palatal soft tissues. Each typodont was attached to a phantom head with simulated soft tissue mouth shrouds. Sheep blood was irrigated into subgingival and interproximal areas around typodont teeth to simulate gingival tissue inflammation, and artificial saliva applied onto supragingival typodont tooth surfaces to further simulate typical oral cavity conditions in humans. The 108 test subgingival surfaces were then evaluated with the DetecTar differential reflectometry device in duplicate readings performed by a single periodontist examiner blinded to the typodont distribution of subgingival dental calculus. Emission of a sustained audible signal tone from the DetecTar differential reflectometry device upon entry of its optical fiber tip into typodont periodontal pockets indicated detection of subgingival dental calculus. The diagnostic performance of the DetecTar differential reflectometry device, relative to in vitro detection of subgingival dental calculus, was assessed among all test root surfaces, as well as among proximal and non-proximal root surfaces, with calculations of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood value, negative likelihood value, diagnostic odds ratio, accuracy (diagnostic effectiveness), and Youden’s Index. Results: Among all root surfaces, the DetecTar differential reflectometry device revealed a sensitivity of 75.4%, specificity of 86.3%, positive predictive value of 86.0%, negative predictive value of 75.9%, positive likelihood value of 5.5, negative likelihood value of 0.3, diagnostic odds ratio of 19.6, accuracy (diagnostic effectiveness) of 80.6%, and Youden’s index value of 0.62, for in vitro detection of subgingival dental calculus. More favorable diagnostic test findings for the device were found on non-proximal (buccal and lingual) than proximal (mesial and distal) root surfaces, with accuracy (diagnostic effectiveness) values 22.7% lower at proximal sites, indicating a poorer performance capability of differential reflectometry within interproximal periodontal pockets. Only a fair level (kappa = 0.42) of reproducibility was found in duplicate scoring of tooth root surfaces for subgingival dental calculus by the DetecTar differential reflectometry device. Conclusions: These study findings suggest marked limitations in the potential clinical utility of the DetecTar differential reflectometry device for detection of subgingival dental calculus. The device demonstrated markedly decreased in vitro accuracy on mesial and distal typodont tooth root surfaces, as compared to non-proximal tooth sites, and exhibited only a fair level of reproducibility in duplicate assessments. The overall performance of the DetecTar differential reflectometry device appears to be inferior to similar assessments of typodont tooth root surfaces conducted by other investigators with more conventional tactile-based, manual instrumentation. Based on these in vitro findings, routine clinical utilization of the DetecTar differential reflectometry device in dental practice is not recommended.
IN VITRO VALIDATION OF LASER FLUORESCENCE-BASED SUBGINGIVAL CALCULUS DETECTION INSTRUMENTRams, Thomas E.; Suzuki, Jon, 1947-; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)Objectives: Because subgingival dental calculus in periodontal pockets is associated in the etiopathogenesis of progressive human periodontitis, and is difficult to accurately detect with conventional manual explorers and probing instruments, there is an urgent clinical need for more reliable diagnostic methods for the detection and localization of subgingival dental calculus. A low-power ( 40). Results: A total of 50 root surfaces exhibited a modified SCI score = 0 (no root surface dental calculus detected), whereas 19 root surfaces revealed modified SCI scores = 1 (root surface dental calculus detected in thin deposits, but not in a markedly-raised ledge), and 31 root surfaces had modified SCI scores = 2 (root surface dental calculus detected in a markedly-raised ledge). A high level of both intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of visible red laser fluorescence intensity readings was found with both tooth root evaluation protocols, despite the marked differences between the two dentist examiners in their educational backgrounds and length of clinical dental care experience, with correlation coefficient values ranging from r = 0.948 to r = 0.999 for duplicate assessments made by the two independent examiners themselves and between them. Mean visible red laser fluorescence intensity values recorded by the two independent examiners with the instrument perpendicularly directed along tooth root surfaces (first evaluation protocol) were 98.9 (standard deviation ± 0.4) and 99.0 (standard deviation ± 0.0), respectively, on dental calculus-positive root surfaces, which were significantly greater than mean values of 10.9 (standard deviation ± 6.0) and 12.3 (standard deviation ± 8.1), respectively, recorded on dental calculus-negative root surfaces (P 40 for visible red laser fluorescence intensity values offered 90% sensitivity, 100% specificity, a 100% positive predictive value, a 90.9% negative predictive value, and an odds ratio relationship of 36.6 [95% confidence interval = 16.7, 80.2] for the presence of dental calculus on tooth root surfaces. Conclusions: These in vitro findings document, for the first time, a high level of intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility of visible red laser fluorescence intensity measurements on human tooth root surfaces, regardless of the whether the instrument is directed either perpendicular or parallel to extracted tooth root surfaces. Dental calculus- positive root surfaces on extracted teeth exhibited significantly higher visible red laser fluorescence intensity scores than dental calculus-negative root surfaces, particularly when dental calculus deposits were present in markedly-raised ledges. In addition, a threshold level of > 40 for visible red laser fluorescence intensity readings offered greater diagnostic accuracy than a threshold level of ≥ 5 for identification of dental calculus on root surfaces of extracted teeth. These findings provide further in vitro validation for use of the visible red laser fluorescence-emitting instrument for detection of dental calculus on root surfaces of human teeth. Additional validation studies, conducted clinically in vivo, on the visible red laser fluorescence-emitting instrument are warranted.