Now showing items 21-40 of 4506

    • High Schoolers' Approaches to Learning Melodies by Ear

      Buonviri, Nathan O.; Confredo, Deborah A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Folio, Cynthia (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Aural learning, sometimes called “learning by ear,” is a fundamental mechanism of music, connected to musical perception, acquisition, and understanding. Researchers have primarily studied aural learning strategies through self-reported data or qualitative observations. Because the interaction between a learner and a recording offers a unique window into self-guided learning approaches and strategies, the aim of this study was to use participants’ interactions with the recordings as a data source. The purpose of this study was to investigate how high schoolers aurally learn unfamiliar melodies and identify trends that contribute to efficient learning.Twenty-nine high-school participants in individual sessions learned three different melodies by ear. As participants learned each melody, I used a modified, digital playback interface to collect interaction data on three learning constructs from the literature: (a) learning chunk length; (b) learning chunk order; and (c) synchronous versus turn-taking. Descriptive results showed that participants preferred to learn melodies in one-, two-, four-, or eight-measure chunks, and that their use of time learning either in a synchronously or turn-taking approach had no relationship to their total learning time. A Spearman Rank Order correlation revealed a moderate, inverse relationship between average chunk length and total learning time (Rho = -.506, p < .001) suggesting that participants who focused on learning larger chunks learned the whole melody faster. An analysis of participants’ choice of learning chunk order revealed three general approaches to the task. Participants used a “From the Beginning” approach approximately 14% of the time, characterized by repeatedly starting from the beginning and increasing the length of the learning chunk each repetition. Participants used a “Half to Whole” approach approximately 29% of the time, characterized by focusing on half of the melody at a time. Finally, participants most frequently used a “Bit by Bit” approach 57% of the time, characterized by learning short one- to three-measures chunks progressing from the beginning of the melody to the end. Most participants began and ended their learning session by listening to the entire melody. An ANOVA comparing approaches showed that the “Half to Whole” approach was significantly more effective than the “Bit-by-Bit” (F[2,66] = 10.25, p < .001), but showed no differences between other approaches. Some participants made notable changes in their approach between melodies showing some isolated examples of improvement when they chose longer chunks and switched to a “Half to Whole” approach. The approaches that emerged from this study provide a foundation for future experimental research on the way students best learn from recordings.
    • MEASUREMENT OF THE GENERALIZED POLARIZABILITIES OF THE PROTON IN VIRTUAL COMPTON SCATTERING

      Sparveris, Nikolaos; Constantinou, Martha; Lyyra, A. Marjatta; Camsonne, Alexandre (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Understanding how the visible matter in the universe arises from its elementary quark andgluon constituents is a central question for science. The visible world is founded on the proton, the only composite building block of matter that is stable in nature. Consequently, understanding the formation of matter relies on explaining the dynamics and the properties of the proton’s bound state. A fundamental property of the proton involves the system’s response to an external electromagnetic (EM) field. It is characterized by the EM polarizabilities that describe how easily the charge and magnetization distributions inside the system are distorted by the EM field. When the polarizabilities are generalized to finite momentum transfer, their Fourier transform can map out the spatial distribution of the polarization densities in a proton subject to an EM field. This thesis focuses on the measurement of the proton generalized polarizabilities (GPs) at low four-momentum transfer in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). Among the six independent GPs, we will focus on the electric (aE1) and the magnetic (bM1) scalar GPs. The GPs can be accessed through measurements of the Virtual Compton Scattering reaction, by replacing the incoming real photon of the Compton scattering process with a space-like virtual photon. The outgoing real photon provides the EM perturbation to the system. In addition, the Dispersion Relation Formalism is used for generalized polarizability extraction. In this work, the two scalar GPs measured with unprecedented precision, and the measurements help explore a momentum transfer region where an anomalous enhancement of the electric GP that contradicts the predictions of nuclear theory has been observed.
    • PurA sensitizes cells to toxicity induced by oxidative stress

      Amini, Shohreh; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Giordano, Antonio, MD; Khalili, Kamel, 1951-; Rom, Slava (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      PurA is an abundant and an evolutionary conserved protein that is known to bind to single stranded DNA or RNA and regulate both transcription and translation. PurA has been shown to be implicated in many neurological and neurodevelopmental deficits due to its multifunctional roles. In this study, we have studied the cells’ stress response in the presence and absence of PurA by introducing oxidative stress to the cells derived from wildtype (PurA+/+) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and (PurA -/-) knockout mice. Our observations indicated that the presence of PurA is making cells more sensitive to toxicity compared to those cells lacking PurA, emphasizing on the importance of PurA in cell survival and cell cycle regulation. Our MTT results and western blot analysis were in agreement with each other confirming PurA ‘s importance in normal cell response against stress, in particular oxidative stress induced by Paraquat. PurA+/+ wildtype MEFs showed more sensitivity and a decrease in relative cell viability after 24 Hrs. exposure to 1.5 mM paraquat while less sensitivity was observed in PurA -/- knockout MEFs under same conditions. Western blot analysis showed a significantly increased expression of the apoptotic marker cleaved caspase3 in PurA+/+ wildtype MEFs under oxidative stress induction compared to PurA -/- knockout MEFs. Also, autophagy activation was measured by checking the expression of LC3-I and LC3-II in both MEFs under control and stressed conditions and the results were confirming that autophagy induction under oxidative stress is greater in the presence of PurA. PurA appears to be very critical for cell survival, and any alteration in its expression may lead to undesired consequences.
    • FASHION FAIR IN A FENTY WORLD: INTERSECTIONALITY, WHITE PRIVILEGE, AND THE IMPORTANCE OF BLACK-OWNED BRANDS IN THE COSMETIC INDUSTRY THROUGH CRITICAL ETHNOGRAPHY

      Alleyne, Osei; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Ball, Jennifer Gerard (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This thesis argues that through an examination of the variable market successes of Fashion Fair Cosmetics and Fenty Beauty, racial and gender intersectionality continues to negatively impact the experience of black beauty consumers in the US today. Through influential black feminists, including media theorist bell hooks, and critical race and gender theorists Kimberlee Crenshaw, and Patricia Hill Collins, this paper will discuss how black women historically and presently have been marginalized in relation to the needs and interests of white women. Drawing on the notable anthropologist Soyini Madison’s Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance (2022), I utilize a critical ethnography to analyze how one’s racial and gendered background can affect the relationship between beauty brands and consumers and how this impacts the experience of black and brown women as beauty consumers. This paper will also engage with the rise of historic and contemporary social justice activism and current Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion programs in the wake of Black Lives Matter Movement and the impact that this has had not only on industries but on the experience of black and brown cosmetics consumers. In addition, this paper will note how a speedy and superficial increase in DEI programs across service industries and cosmetics has led to a shallow understanding of the importance of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in all spaces. Lastly, I will deploy an autoethnographic approach to discuss how social media has strongly impacted and influenced the industry Fashion Fair is relaunching in. The autoethnography will discuss the social media strategies that drive a successful makeup brand in the contemporary beauty industry and, importantly, how contemporary consumers of color experience the beauty industry. This paper will close by speculating on the manner in which the legacy brand Fashion Fair, might in the current practice of Fenty, sharpen its appeal and engage the kind of social media strategies that will successfully reintroduce the brand to a new generation—and thereby more successfully resume its mission to deliver care to long-alienated beauty consumers in the US.
    • TRAJECTORIES OF MATERNAL DEPRESSION AND THE IMPACT ON CHILD COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: LONGITUDINAL DATA ANALYSIS WITH INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPANTS FROM THE MAL-ED STUDY

      Pendergast, Laura L.; Jones, Paul C.; Sandilos, Lia; Austin, Crystal (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Depression is recognized as a disabling and impairing condition, impacting mood, cognitions, and daily functioning (APA, 2013; WHO, 2017). Women are more likely to develop depression than men (Gutierrez-Lobos et al., 2002; Noble, 2005). The perinatal period is a sensitive time when mothers are vulnerable to developing depression (Noble, 2005; Schiller et al., 2015). Further, postpartum depression is a risk factor for negative outcomes for both mother and child (Goodman & Gotlib, 1999), including child cognitive development (Grace et al., 2003). The onset and course of depression involves a variety of biopsychosocial components that are often accounted for in research on maternal depression (Billings & Moos, 1993; Cummings & Davies, 1994; Nobel, 2005). Examining the severity, chronicity, and time of onset of maternal depression reveals specific patterns or trajectories for the mother’s experience; these trajectories can provide better understanding of maternal depression and its impact on child development (Brennan et al., 2000). Maternal depression is prevalent yet under-studied and under-identified in low-middle income countries (LMICs), with most research of postpartum depression centering Western and English-speaking families (Gelaye et al.,2016; Halbreich &Karkun, 2006). To better understand and treat maternal depression across cultures, research is needed in diverse locations with culturally sensitive methods. The purpose of the present study is to identify trajectories of maternal depression in diverse, international locations including LMICs. The MAL-ED Study involves eight study sites (Dhaka, Bangladesh (BGD); Fortaleza, Brazil (BRF); Vellore, India; (INV), Bhaktapur, Nepal (NEB); Loreto, Peru (PEL); Naushahro Feroze, Pakistan (PKN); Venda, South Africa (Dzimauli Community, SAV); and Haydom, Tanzania (TZH)) and incorporates several health-related factors pertaining to mothers and children (Murray-Kolb et al., 2014). The present study included five of the eight international sites. Maternal depression, as measured by the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ; Beusenberg & Orley, 1994), was assessed across the first two years postpartum, allowing for longitudinal analysis of trajectory using latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Maternal depression trajectories differed across the five sites, but demonstrated a general pattern of high, moderate, and low symptoms for the total sample. Path models were used to determine if there was a relationship between maternal depression trajectories and child cognitive development as measured by the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (BSID-III, Bayley, 2009) for the total sample. To address the influence of contextual factors, the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME; Caldwell & Bradley, 1984, 2003) was incorporated in analysis as a mediator. However, the mediation analysis was not statistically significant and maternal depression trajectory was not a strong predictor of child cognitive development with the total sample. The results indicated that better home environment predicted improved cognitive scores, regardless of maternal depression trajectories. The present study provided evidence that maternal depression trajectories varied based on cultural group. Although maternal depression trajectories did not predict child cognitive development with the total sample, future research can explore trajectories in each location and relationships with other variables. Additionally, further investigation of how the home environment impacts child cognitive development in the five different locations can be informative for providing services to children and their families.
    • Cross-Linguistic Influences on English Loanword Learnability in the Japanese Context

      Beglar, David; Beglar, David; Nemoto, Tomoko; Schaefer, Edward; McLean, Stuart (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This study was an investigation into the aural and written receptive knowledge of the English semantics of English lexis that is loanwords in the Japanese language and the predictive strength of the variables of semantic distance, concreteness/abstractness, polysemy, phonological distance, number of syllables, number of phonemes, number of letters, part of speech (POS), English Frequency, and frequency in Japanese in relation to accurate semantic knowledge. The participants (N = 215) were first- and second-year, non-English majors at a large university in Western Japan. The participants were from 10 intact English classes focused on reading, writing, and communication skills. Data were collected using eight instruments: the Listening Vocabulary Levels Test, Aural Loanword Test, Aural Non-Loanword Test, New Vocabulary Levels Test, Written Loanword Test, Written Non-Loanword Test, and Japanese Loanword Frequency Rating Task. Additionally, data were collected from five Japanese L1 speakers highly proficient at English on the Semantic Distance Rating Task. The data were first analyzed using the Rasch dichotomous model to examine instrument reliability and validity as well as to transform the data into Rasch person ability estimates and Rasch item ability estimates. Pearson correlations were used to determine the strength of the relationship between loanwords and non-loanwords. Repeated-measures ANOVA—with follow up t-tests were used to determine the differences between the four semantic tests: the Aural Loanword Test, the Aural Non-Loanword Test, the Written Loanword Test, and the Written Non-Loanword Test. Four multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using the predictor variables semantic distance, concreteness/abstractness, phonological distance, number of syllables, number of phonemes, number of letters, part of speech, English Frequency, and frequency in Japanese. The results of the Pearson analyses showed strong correlations between the aural and written loanword and non-loanword measures. This finding indicated that the participants’ knowledge of loanwords was relatively equivalent to their knowledge of non-loanwords. The results of the comparison between aural and written loanword knowledge showed that written knowledge of loanwords was greater than aural knowledge of loanwords. Further comparisons between the loanword and non-loanword tests showed that receptive aural non-loanword knowledge was greater than aural loanword knowledge, and that written non-loanword knowledge was greater than written loanword knowledge. These comparisons showed that English semantic knowledge of loanwords was less accurate than that of non-loanwords, which implied that the accurate acquisition of English semantic knowledge of loanwords was impeded by Japanese L1 lexical knowledge. The results of the multiple regressions indicated that the only substantial predictor of lexical acquisition for both loanwords and non-loanwords in both modalities (aural and written) was English Frequency. Although the effect size of English frequency was substantial, it was less so on the aural and written loanword measures. This finding implied that English linguistic gains of repeated exposure were most likely muted by entrenched L1 semantic knowledge. Overall, the results showed that loanwords are generally acquired with greater difficulty than non-loanwords and that they should not always be considered a form of receptive knowledge of English lexis.
    • Sustainable Nutrient Recovery Through Integrating Electricity-Assisted Membrane Processes

      Yuan, Heyang (Harry); Yuan, Heyang (Harry); Suri, Rominder P. S.; Andaluri, Gangadhar; Ravi, Sujith (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      The rising use of mineral-based fertilizer and water for agricultural operations to feed a growing population has polluted water bodies and depleted resources. In addition, nutrient contamination has caused eutrophication and wastewater concerns that conventional wastewater treatment cannot solve. Thus, meeting new water treatment regulations and procuring more value-added products from these procedures is crucial. Conductive ultrafiltration membranes precipitate and extract struvite, an ecologically good fertilizer, from synthetic livestock effluent. This technique produces solid fertilizer and irrigation-quality water. Since the recovery process relies on electrochemical hydrolysis and local pH modulation along the membrane surface, pH correction does not need chemical additions. The system was tested using cow effluent with up to 1,000 mg/L of nitrogen and phosphorus. Analytical tests showed that the precipitates were struvite and that up to 65% of the phosphorus and nitrogen were removed in the first 30 minutes of electrochemical filtration. Low membrane fouling and flux drop made the recovery technique successful. A mathematical model of N, P, and Mg ions in an external electric field explained the fouling and precipitation tests. Thus, precipitation happens near the membrane but not on it. This reduces surface fouling. Forward osmosis was used to make struvite with less energy. A voltage near the FO membrane enabled magnesium to migrate opposite into the feed chamber, where it reacted with ammonium and phosphate in the feed solution to form struvite. Electrical charging increased struvite recovery by 77% and water recovery by 39%. Ion migration may have reduced dilutive and concentrative polarization on the draw and feed sides of the FO membrane, causing the rise. High external voltage, draw concentration, and draw pH made water recovery and struvite precipitation simpler. This study suggests that reverse salt flow might improve FO systems' nutrition and water recovery. These devices were combined with microbial electrolytic cells to generate electricity and prevent biofouling. FO treatment was investigated using vacuum membrane distillation for sustainability and zero discharge. Constant draw solution reconcentration yields more steady flux values than the typical lowering flux. The research will increase knowledge of treatment system synergy in water reclamation and nutrient recovery. It also identifies possible obstacles to development.
    • FACTORS INFLUENCING JAPANESE UNIVERSITY LEARNERS’ INFERENCES OF UNFAMILIAR IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS IN LISTENING

      Beglar, David; Ross, Steven, 1951-; Sick, James; Siyanova, Anna; Jackson, Daniel O. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Lexical inferencing is considered a listening strategy that is commonly employed by advanced EFL (English as a Foreign Language) listeners and a factor that contributes to successful listening comprehension. However, investigations of the factors that influence inferencing success in listening as well as how much each factor contributes to success are scant, as more studies have been conducted exploring lexical inferencing in reading. In addition, even though idiomatic expressions such as smell a rat, jump the gun, and go cold turkey are ubiquitous in the English language, especially in oral communication, and they are considered crucial in both first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition, little is known about the effectiveness of inferencing strategies where idiomatic expressions are concerned.Three goals motivated the current study. The first goal was to investigate whether inferencing is an effective strategy in the case where the target item is an idiomatic expression. The second goal was to investigate how four person-level factors, familiarity, listening proficiency, listening vocabulary size and working memory, two sentence-level factors, lexical density and sentence length, and two lexical-level factors, L1–L2 congruency and semantic transparency, influence the inferencing success of English idiomatic expressions in listening. The third goal, related to the second goal, was to determine which of the two lexical component factors, L1–L2 congruency and semantic transparency, is more important to inferencing success. A mixed methods design, the explanatory sequential design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018), was employed in this study. Quantitative data were collected from 89 EFL Japanese university students using a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test, a Listening Span Test, and an Idiom Inferencing Elicitation Task. The collected data were examined using mixed-effects logistic regression. Twelve participants were invited to participate in follow-up interviews based on their response patterns on the Idiom Inferencing Elicitation Task. The quantitative results indicated that familiarity, listening comprehension skills, working memory, and L1–L2 congruency were significant factors influencing inferencing success and the qualitative results supported these findings. In addition, the qualitative analyses suggested that depth of vocabulary is another potentially important factor. Furthermore, listening comprehension moderated the L1–L2 congruency effect. The finding that semantic transparency is not an influential factor in successful inferencing of unfamiliar idiomatic expressions provides evidence that the semantic transparency of known idiomatic expressions formed after learners acquire the meaning of the expression is a different construct from the perceived semantic transparency of unfamiliar idiomatic expressions. In addition, even though the sentence-level factors were not statistically significant in successful idiom inferencing in this study, further studies are required in order to see if this result holds true when the characteristics of the listening tasks differ from those of the task used in this study. It is hoped that the findings provide insights into how to help Japanese university EFL learners improve their listening skills, especially in tasks that include unfamiliar idiomatic expressions.
    • THE POWER OF LOSING CONTROL: DECONSTRUCTING ELFRETH’S ALLEY DOCUMENTARY ARCHIVE-BASED AESTHETICS USING IMAGE-MAKING EXPERIMENTATIONS

      Coover, Roderick; Cagle, Paul Chris; Coover, Roderick; Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Pauwels, Erin Kristl; Orvell, Miles (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      The power of losing control: Deconstructing Elfreth’s Alley documentary archive-based aesthetics using image-making experimentation is an interdisciplinary and multimodal media dissertation based on the experience of collecting, transforming, and validating archival information that is the foundation of history: its creation, interpretation, and recording. This research includes a manuscript or monograph, a series of lectures about the investigation, a physical multimedia exhibit of modified archival material from the Alley, and the publication of a creative journal that involves the processes and results of the exhibit in Elfreth’s Alley Museum. Observers have built most public records based on what is present and absent in the assemblage of documents, images, and found objects in particular settings. An example of these processes is the record of traditional and historical sites like Elfreth's Alley in Philadelphia, PA. This Alley is a traditional historical residential street considered a National Historic Landmark for its structures built between 1720 and 1830. This street has been home to everyday Philadelphians for three centuries, and its museum celebrates the working class of America who helped build the country through sweat and commerce. The Alley is still a thriving residential community that is home to artists and artisans, educators, entrepreneurs, and everything in between. While this research starts in this neighborhood, it explores connections that can take us across the city, the nation, and around the globe. In this dissertation, the record of the Alley life has been deconstructed to expose the understanding and perception of personal narratives that offer alternative views of collective memory and public history. The processes and results that deconstruct Elfreth’s Alley archival documentation have been used to analyze and question ideas of presence and absence of ethnic groups, the exercise of power and control, patterns of privilege assigned to race, gender and ethnicity, as well as concerns of domestic and child labor, environment, gentrification, and social networks, offering a rich description of the Alley. The methodology of this work, through its five chapters, is based on the study of analog experimental photographic processes and digital Artificial Intelligence (AI) new media creations with uncontrolled and unpredictable results, their relationship with archival studies from the Alley, and the impact of new contemporary archival creations in the construction of public history and collective memory. These mechanisms were applied to documents, archival and found materials (taken from different sources around the city and the nation) in various experimental artworks. The objects created for the exhibit and the analysis of these archives use pinhole cameras, expired paper, lumen prints and cyanolumens, panoramas with polaroids and chemigrams, stereoscopes and anaglyphs, augmented reality, and AI-algorithmic editions, as well as the existent sources and interdisciplinary collaborative work of the historians and museum professionals of the Alley. The multiple intellectual, theoretical, and creative layers involved in this work build a different record of the Alley. The artworks prepared in this study are a contemporary archival record of the interaction with the community and scholars of this historical place. This interaction, collaborative work, open access to the public, and reflections —consequences from this experimental artistic-creative process— constitute an academic record that expands the studies of historians, ethnographers, and academics, and contribute to an exhaustive analysis in the construction of public history and the collective memory of the city.
    • OXAZOLIDINONES AS A PRIVILEGED SCAFFOLD AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

      Canney, Daniel J.; Blass, Benjamin E.; Nagar, Swati (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Drug discovery contains many strategies, one of which is the privileged scaffold strategy. This strategy incorporates a similar molecular framework within a collection of drug-like compounds in order to target various receptors. These scaffolds are useful to drug discovery scientists since they assist in developing libraries as well as demonstrating selectivity to a target. Oxazolidinones are 5-membered heterocyclic compound containing an oxygen, a nitrogen, and a carbonyl within the ring system. In this present study, the oxazolidinone structure was utilized as a privileged scaffold to target serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7), mutated BRAF kinase (BRAFV6000E), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), and Cyclin-dependent protein kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6). Aryl piperazines and piperidines were integrated as another privileged scaffold to support the selectivity towards 5-HT7, while aminopyrimidines were employed to increase binding against the kinases. The 5-HT7 oxazolidinone series was successfully synthesized and analyzed against 5-HT7; however, the three kinase oxazolidinone series were not successfully synthesized.Candidemia is the most common bloodstream infection in the U.S. and is associated with high patient mortality rates. Due to prolonged and/or repeated clinical use of current antifungal agents, drug-resistant fungi have become an emerging problem. There is a need for new antifungals to assist in overcoming drug resistant fungi. In the second project outlined in this work, a series of ketoconazole analogs were designed and successfully synthesized. The ketoconazole analogs exhibited antifungal activity; however, no clear trends were observed in this series. Overall, the series exhibited less CYP3A4 inhibition than the parent compound, ketoconazole.
    • EXAMINING THE UNIQUE AND INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED GENDER AND RACE BASED DISCRIMINATION ON EXECUTIVE FUNCTION AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Olino, Thomas; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Depression is a significant public health concern characterized by pronounced gender and racial and ethnic differences. One potential mechanism underlying these differences is the role of discrimination. Yet, our understanding of how experiences of race- and gender-based discrimination impact depression is limited by the slow acceptance of intersectional theory into psychological research. Further, models overlook the role of executive function in the discrimination – depression association, despite growing evidence that executive dysfunction is associated with both experiences of discrimination and depression. The current study sought to address these gaps in the literature by examining the independent and interactive effects of race-based and gender-based experiences of discrimination on executive function and depression separately, and to fully elucidate the direct and indirect pathways among discrimination, executive function, and depressive symptoms. Results suggested that lifetime, but not recent experiences of racial discrimination were significantly associated with current depressive symptoms. Further, results indicated that among White, but not Black participants, lifetime experiences of racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of current depressive symptoms. There was no significant association between experiences of gender discrimination and current depressive symptoms, experiences of either racial or gender discrimination and executive functioning, or combined experiences of racial and gender discrimination on either depressive symptoms or executive functioning. Exploratory analyses suggested that there was not a significant indirect effect between experiences of discrimination and current depressive symptoms via executive dysfunction. Although results did not fully support study hypotheses, they do suggest that among emerging adults’ experiences of racial discrimination constitute a salient risk factor for depressive symptoms, as opposed to experiences of discrimination more broadly. Further, day to day executive functioning may be more resilient to experiences of discrimination than previously suggested by the literature. An extensive systematic literature review also was conducted to examine the association between sociocultural stress broadly (i.e., experiences of stereotypes, prejudice, and/or discrimination) and executive functioning. Sociocultural stressors including stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination have been shown to have detrimental effects on the executive functioning of stigmatized individuals. One potential explanation for this association can be found in the allostatic load model. Following this model, experiences of stress contribute to physiological changes in one’s body in an effort to maintain homeostasis. Although these changes may be beneficial in the short-term, chronic exposure to stress can result in lasting changes to one’s physiological and, as a result, one’s cognitive functioning. Yet, our understanding of allostatic load as it pertains to culturally derived, social stressors may be limited due to the examination of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination as disparate processes in the literature. The current systematic review aimed to 1) systematically review empirical studies regarding the impact of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination on executive function, 2) synthesize findings as they pertain to allostatic load within and across these sociocultural stress categories, 3) synthesize findings across different domains of oppression, and 4) identify current methodological weaknesses in the literature that warrant further study. Thirty-seven empirical studies met inclusion criteria. Support for allostatic load was found across all three sources of stress and in the context of several different domains of oppression, particularly gender, age, race, and ethnicity-based stressors. Further research is needed to more comprehensively evaluate this model longitudinally and across additional domains of oppression.
    • The Impact of Attentional Focus on Sensory Reweighting for Postural Control in the Aging Adult

      Wright, William Geoffrey; Marshall, Peter J.; Thompson, Christopher K.; Jacobs, Daniel A.; Reimann, Hendrik (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This dissertation aims to understand how attention can be used to improve sensory integration for postural control. Decades of research have been done using visual manipulations to study how healthy and clinical populations resolve multisensory (vision, vestibular, and somatosensory) mismatches to maintain postural stability. Postural control is a complex motor skill that requires accurate integration of multiple senses to maintain body alignment and orientation with respect to the environment. Age-related decline in visual, vestibular, and somatosensory acuity increases the risk for falls, and these sensory declines can be identified by assessing sensory reweighting. Sensory reweighting is the process in which the nervous redistributes the reliance, or "weight," on the sensory inputs to achieve postural stability. While the literature on sensory manipulation on postural control and fall risk has uncovered a wealth of knowledge on sensory reweighting for balance, it has neglected to identify how sensory reweighting can be improved. At the same time, motor learning literature has demonstrated the importance of focus attention during balance training to improve postural control. However, rudimentary analyses such as duration of balance and sway variability in this literature have limited deeper examination of the underlying neural mechanisms affected by focus of attention. This dissertation aims to bridge the gap between the two works of literature by implementing sensory manipulation techniques on posture using the latest technologies in virtual reality (VR) head-mount display (HMD) with motion capture and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to study how different focuses of attention help resolve multisensory conflicts. In aim one, forty-two healthy adults participated in the study that used VR manipulation to induce a multisensory conflict. Participants were tasked to maintain upright stability on a rocker board while given different instructions on where to focus their attention. Instructions included focusing on keeping the rocker board leveled (external focus), focusing on keeping feet leveled to each other (internal focus), and focusing on staying as still as possible (control). This study revealed an immediate improvement in postural stability when instructed with external focus compared to control. This improvement was also associated with a significant decrease in visual weighting. Additionally, this aim revealed an immediate change in cortical activity within the frontal and occipital regions of the brain as identified by EEG recordings when participants are instructed to use external focus and internal focus. In aim two, twenty-eight healthy adults participated in the crossover study that demonstrated order effects when multiple instructions of attentional focus were given to the same participant for postural stability and visual reweighting. This study showed that the effects of external focus on postural stability and visual reweighting are greater when external focus is used before internal focus. However, the effects of external focus were nullified when used after using internal focus. Furthermore, the order of the instructions may have corresponded with a recency bias regarding how the participant perceived the effectiveness depending on when they received the attentional focus instruction. Guided by the findings from aims one and two, aim three recruited twenty-seven older adults to participate in a single-session balance training using repeated exposure to VR manipulation that challenged their balance on a rocker board. The older adults were randomized into one of the three groups: external focus, internal focus, and control group. The external focus group did not demonstrate an immediate reduction in visual weighting as found in aim 1. However, the external focus group did demonstrate better immediate postural stability when compared to the internal focus groups. Both external and internal focus groups revealed a significant improvement in visual weighting and postural stability across training blocks, suggesting a potential role of attentional focus on postural control adaption to repeated VR exposure. This dissertation was one of the first studies to investigate how the attentional focus impacts sensory reweighting and postural control in young and older adults using VR HMD. This project also established a VR experimental paradigm that can be used to study the focus of attention and the resolution of multisensory mismatch. With the increased use of VR for balance training and rehabilitation, this project is at the forefront of utilizing VR HMD technology to expose underlying sensory mechanisms for postural control. Results from this study can guide future rehabilitation and balance training interventions by identifying how attention should be directed during training.
    • Multimodal Wireless Implantable Medical Device (MW-IMD) Platform

      Kim, Albert; Kim, Albert; Biswas, Saroj K.; Helferty, John J.; Hwang, Geelsu (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Implantable medical devices (IMDs) have advanced significantly in the last few decades due to innovations in microelectronics and power sources. Today, IMDs can perform various vital functions such as stimulating muscular organs (e.g., heart, bladder, neurons) to maintain the body mechanics and regulating physiological fluid (e.g., blood, hormone, urine, etc.). All of these effectively improve the quality of life and prolong life expectancy. However, many existing IMDs often blindly deliver therapeutic means without knowing the state of the disease. Since IMDs are usually surgically introduced to the human body, post-operation adjustments are difficult, resulting in chronic stimulation. As such, the long-term operation of IMDs shall be precisely regulated based on the current state of the body, i.e., closing the loop, especially with unprecedented communication and powering techniques. The goal of this research is to develop an implantable medical device (IMD) platform that can close the loop not only between sensing and stimulation within the IMD itself but also between other IMDs and the outside world. Thus, we first demonstrate a standalone closed-looped IMD that regulates oxygen generation based on physiological levels. Second, the IMD platform can also bridge other passive implantable sensors to the outside world. To this end, this report discusses a passive sensor in the form of a Smart Stent that senses and transmits arterial blood pressure information to the IMD platform via magnetic resonance (MR) coupling. Therefore, such MR coupling intrabody communication in the body is rigorously investigated. Lastly, we report an effective and efficient powering technique for the IMD platform. Ultrasonic waves in the human body can travel long distances with relatively low attenuation, reaching deep tissue. In this thesis, we enhance the ultrasonic powering method for IMDs with a novel receiver design for omnidirectional powering. Overall, the proposed multifunctional, multimodal, wireless IMD platform can operate reliably for the long term due to novel MR coupling communication and omnidirectional ultrasonic powering.
    • OUTSIDERS IN FAMILY FIRMS: A PERSPECTIVE FROM FINANCING DECISION

      Rytchkov, Oleg; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Li, Yan; Kumar, Subodha (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      I investigate how the presence of outsiders in the senior management team is related to the financing decision of Chinese listed family firms. For a sample of listed family firms from 2008 to 2017, I find that family firms with more outsiders in their senior management team (including the CEO, vice general manager, CFO, secretary of the board of directors, and other persons specified in the articles of Association) have higher leverage and take on more debt. Further, from the aspect of different financing choices, my empirical analysis shows that family firms with a higher proportion of outsiders take on fewer bank loans but issue more bonds. I use the proportion of outsiders in the firm's senior management team to measure the presence of outsiders in family firms. Besides, for the robustness test, I also use two dummy variables to measure the presence of outsiders in family firms. One indicates whether the family members fully exit from the senior executive team (including board chair, CEO, and CFO), and the other indicates whether the family members fully exit from the senior management team (including CEO, vice general manager, CFO, secretary of the board of directors, and other persons specified in the articles of Association). The results are consistent. To deal with the potential endogeneity issues, I use the outsiders’ full control of the senior executive team of the family firms as an exogenous shock to conduct PSM-DID analysis, and the results still hold. To conduct a heterogeneity analysis, I investigate factors that could moderate the relation between the presence of outsiders and financing policy in family firms from the perspective of family firms’ expropriation risks. The results show that the positive relationship between the presence of outsiders and the issue of bonds are both more pronounced for family firms with a higher amount of related party transactions, and for family firms with higher other receivables. My study shows that the presence of outsiders in family firms has a significant impact on firms’ financing decisions. In specific, the presence of outsiders leads to significantly higher leverage in family firms, fewer bank loans, and a larger amount of bond issuance. Considering the superiority of bonds to bank loans in the issuance procedure, amount, maturity, and cost, the positive impact of the presence of outsiders on bond issuance indicates that outsiders help to alleviate family firms’ financing constraints and improve financing structure. In addition, the strengthening role of expropriation risks in the positive relation of the presence of outsiders and bonds issuance also provides some implication that the introduction of outsiders in family firms helps to improve family firms’ governance structure, alleviate the concerns of creditors, and thus reduce agency conflicts between family shareholders and creditors.
    • THE EFFECT OF INTERDEPENDENT RELATIONSHIP ON NEW INVESTOR'S INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE

      Bakshi, Gurdip; Li, Yan; Mao, Connie X.; Collier, Benjamin (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This thesis examines the effect of interdependent relationship on new investor’s investment performance. Based on the ecological theory, this study argues that the interdependent relationship of new investors and syndicates’ incumbent members can have two kinds of effects on new investors: mutualistic effect and competitive effect simultaneously. While mutualistic effect will have a positive effect on new investors’ investment performance, competitive effect will have a negative effect on new investors’ investment performance. There are four different kinds of interdependent relationship: investment domain overlap; geographic proximity; complementarity human capital; supplementary human capital. These four kinds of interdependent relationship can bring about competitive effect as well as mutualistic effect. Although competitive effect and mutualistic effect can affect new investors’ performance, they grow at different rates with interdependent relationship increase. Based on the logic of ecological theory, this study augers that when the level of interdependent relationship is low, mutualistic effect plays the dominated effect on the investors’ performance as interdependent relationship increases. However, because of the restriction of environmental capacity, the mutualistic effect on new investors’ performance will increase at decreasing rate as interdependent relationship increases, in other words, the marginal increase of mutualistic effect on new investors’ investment decreases with interdependent relationship increase. When interdependent relationship increases to a certain point, further increase in interdependent relationship will lead to competition effect which will play the dominated effect on new investors’ performance. Meanwhile, the marginal effect of interdependent relationship can lead to lower level of new investors’ performance. Taking all these mutualistic effect and competitive effect on new investors’ performance into consideration, this study develops the hypotheses of the Inverted U-sharped relationship between the four dimensions of interdependent relationship on new investors’ performance. In addition, using the concept of network faultline and organizational embeddedness, this study argues that network fautline and organizational embeddedness can moderate the Inverted U-sharped relationship of interdependent relationship and new investors’ performance. High level of network Faultline will amplify the inverted U-sharped relationship between interdependent relationship and new investors’ performance, in other words, the positive effect of mutualistic effect on new investors’ performance at low level of interdependent relationship and the negative effect of competitive effect on new investors’ performance at high level of interdependent relationship will be both stronger in syndicates with high level of Faultline than in those with low level of Faultline. Furthermore, high level of organizational embeddedness of width will amplify the inverted U-sharped relationship between interdependent relationship and new investors’ performance, in other words, the positive effect of mutualistic effect on new investors’ performance at low level of interdependent relationship and the negative effect of competitive effect on new investors’ performance at high level of interdependent relationship will be both stronger in syndicates with high level of organizational embeddedness of width than in those with low level of organizational embeddedness of width. In addition, high level of organizational embeddedness of breadth will amplify the inverted U-sharped relationship between interdependent relationship and new investors’ performance, in other words, the positive effect of mutualistic effect on new investors’ performance at low level of interdependent relationship and the negative effect of competitive effect on new investors’ performance at high level of interdependent relationship will be both stronger in syndicates with high level of organizational embeddedness of breadth than in those with low level of organizational embeddedness of breadth. Based on longitudinal data, the hypotheses of this thesis are supported by the longitudinal data. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed at the end of this thesis.
    • Rupturas transgresoras en narrativas fantásticas de escritoras del Cono Sur en los siglos XIX y XX (1852-1950)

      Aldarondo, Hiram; Pueyo Zoco, Víctor; Shellhorse, Adam Joseph; Casanova-Vizcaíno, Sandra (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Mi disertación se centra en la literatura fantástica latinoamericana escrita por mujeres en el siglo XIX y principios del XX. En ella examino los cuentos y novelas de tres escritoras latinoamericanas del Cono Sur: los cuentos “El guante negro” (1852), “El lucero del manantial (Episodio de la dictadura de Don Juan Manuel Rosas)” (1860), y “La novia del muerto (A mi querido amigo Vicente G. Quesada)” (1861), de la argentina Juana Manuela Gorriti (1818-92); la novela La última niebla (1934), de la chilena María Luisa Bombal (1910-80); y la novela La mujer desnuda (1950), de la uruguaya Armonía Somers (1914-94).Sostengo que los efectos sobrenaturales de estos relatos confrontan no solo la idea de nación y género sino también la de tiempo como una categoría política y arbitraria. También destaco cómo las protagonistas de estas historias muestran la posición conflictiva de la figura de la mujer escritora en el contexto social en el que fueron escritas. En tal sentido, sostengo que las regulaciones sexuales y políticas son cuestionadas por sus autoras a través de lo fantástico. Mi enfoque teórico y metodológico agrupa distintas perspectivas, incluyendo teorías del género fantástico, teoría feminista y teoría queer. Apoyándome tanto en las discusiones recientes en torno a las temporalidades queer, así como en las estrategias narrativas típicas de la literatura fantástica que usan estas historias, argumento que los tropos y motivos fantásticos −como fantasmas, dobles y mundos distópicos, entre otros elementos− funcionan como dispositivos que problematizan elementos relacionados con el género, como la división sexual del trabajo, la institucionalización de la familia, la imposición del trabajo reproductivo y la exclusión de la mujer de la esfera pública. Finalmente, mi disertación no solo busca revisar el canon de la literatura fantástica, que sigue estando dominado por un canon eminentemente masculino, sino que también desafía la visión actual de lo fantástico como literatura escapista, argumentando en cambio que este modo narrativo siempre incluye ansiedades sociales y políticas, sea para apoyar o cambiar el statu quo, y un marco ideológico que no puede ser eludido. Por último, mi tesis destaca la importancia de incluir una perspectiva latinoamericana en los debates actuales sobre literatura fantástica y de género, así como en las discusiones recientes en torno a las temporalidades queer.
    • THE PERFORMANCE OF ESG THEMATIC FUND IN CHINA AND ESG RATINGS

      Scott, Jonathan A.; Bakshi, Xiaohui Gao; Naveen, Lalitha; Mudambi, Ram, 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      We uses ESG thematic funds to conduct a detailed statistical profile of their operating status in the Chinese market, including the size, the proportion of different investment types, and the characteristics of return and risk. The OLS model is used to empirically analyze the applicability of the Fama-French five-factor model in the Chinese mutual fund market. Based on the a ESG rating as a starting point, we study the profit improvement mechanism and risk-return characteristics of the ESG portfolios. The main findings are that the five-factor model better explained the excess returns of ESG thematic funds during the entire sample period of the study and can be used for attribution analysis of the performance. It shows that, despite the poor performance of ESG thematic funds in the market during certain periods, there is no significant difference between the performance of ESG thematic funds and the market during the economic crisis. The ROEs and dividend rates of the ESG high-scoring groups are both higher than those of the ESG low-scoring groups. This shows that companies with higher ESG scores have higher and more sustainable profitability and greater willingness to pay dividends. Furthermore, the ESG high-scoring group has better returns and lower risks.
    • THE EFFECT OF COMPETITIVE STRATEGY AND PORTFOLIO THEORY ON ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE ─ A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHINESE MAINLAND-BASED AND TAIWAN-BASED COMPANIES IN CHINA’S DOMESTIC MARKET

      Bakshi, Gurdip; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Mao, Connie X.; Collier, Benjamin (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Since I came to Chinese mainland from Taiwan region for Investment in 1995, I found out different corporate behaviors between Chinese mainland-based and Taiwan-based enterprises in China’s domestic market. As a result, they may show different enterprise performance, which arouses my great research motivation. Through the analysis of the changes in global political, economic and financial environment, we compare the Chinese mainland-based enterprises and Taiwan-based enterprises in China’s domestic market, and find out the organizational differences between these two kinds of enterprises. These enterprises adopt different “competitive strategy” and “portfolio” based on their understanding of the exogenous variables, i.e., “external environment changes” and “international resource strengths” to maximize their “enterprise performance”. Mediator-based competitive strategies include cost position strategy, differentiation position strategy, resource leverage strategy and opportunity strategy; portfolio covers vertical-horizontal integration, equity ratio of direct investment, and number of direct investment projects; outcome variable-based enterprise performance includes profit rate, return on shareholders’ equity (ROE) and sales growth rate. Based on the corporate strategy, we distributed 60-question questionnaires to 14 industrial categories, 19 sample sub-groups, and collected 1,076 individuals of the sample, with a collection ratio of 32.75%, for 3,285 corporations by both paper and electronic, through a third party, of which 1,038 are valid, accounting for 96.47%. Among them, 445 were collected from Taiwan-based enterprises, accounting for 42.9%, and 593 were collected from Chinese mainland-based enterprises, accounting for 57.1%. Our analysis tool is SPSS, and analysis methods include descriptive statistical analysis, construct validity analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and cluster analysis. We set up 8 hypotheses and 56 sub-hypotheses, and draw the following conclusions through empirical analysis: H1: Changes in the external environment of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s competitive strategy →Are supported. H2: The internal advantages of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s competitive strategy →Are supported. H3: Changes in the external environment of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s portfolio strategy → Are supported partially. H4: The internal advantages of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s portfolio strategy →Are supported. H5: The competitive strategy of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s enterprise performance → Are supported partially. H6: The portfolio strategy of an enterprise will affect the enterprise’s enterprise performance → Are supported partially. H7: The essence of an enterprise will affect the relationship between its competitive strategy and enterprise performance → Are supported partially. H8: The essence of an enterprise will affect the relationship between its portfolio strategy and enterprise performance →Are supported partially. Through cluster analysis, we find that different enterprises have different competitive strategies and portfolio strategies. Cluster analysis can not only explain the differences among different groups, but also identify different business synergies corresponding to different strategic choices of enterprises. Based on the results of Enterprise Performance assessment, we name business synergies according to the business form of each type of enterprise, so as to provide guidance and reference for other enterprises. This research develop a competitive strategy and portfolio fitting model, so call Yen Mu Chen Integrated Strategy Matrix Model ( YMC Model ). It is found that in the YMC Model, the 3×3 matrix can produce 9 strategies, which can be divided into three groups “ 2 3 4 Integrated Strategy Groups ” according to their differences in profit rate, ROE and sales growth rate: 1. Low Enterprise Performance Group: Type 1: Resources Foundation Type Type 4: Steadily Root-Planting Type 2. Moderate Enterprise Performance Group: Type 2: Concentrated Advantage Type Type 5: Profitability Upgrade Type Type 7: Resources Advancing Type 3. High Enterprise Performance Group:Type 3: Aggressively-Jump Challenging Type Type 6: Boundary Spanning Type Type 8: Stable Promoting Type Type 9: Industry Leading Type The Industry Leading Type will present the best performance in YMC Model. It is suggested that enterprises can maintain their strategic advantages to hold the leading position. We suggest enterprises to evaluate their own resource advantages, find out their competitive advantages and choose their portfolio strategies according to the external environment and their own position, and build the best decision-making model. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are provided for Chinese mainland-based and Taiwan-based enterprises in YMC Model.
    • AFRICAN AGENCY WITHIN AND SURROUNDING CHESTER COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, 1850 TO 1865

      Anadolu-Okur, Nilgun, 1956-; Asante, Molefi Kete, 1942-; Flannery, Ifetayo M.; Poe, Zizwe (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This dissertation investigates African liberation agency in Chester County, Pennsylvania, from 1850 to 1865 and its impact within the county and surrounding area. The findings may help to better understand African agency in rural areas that are not always highlighted because of historical analysis mostly focusing on city populations when discussing African agency during the years 1850 to 1865. More specifically, the focus of this dissertation concerns the significant historical events within and near Chester County during that time period. These historical events include African liberation agency related to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, Christiana Resistance, Parker sisters’ kidnappings, founding of Hinsonville and its response to African enslavement, creation of Ashmun Institute, Civil War, and Thirteenth Amendment. Analyzing these historical events has immense implications to the role other rural African communities had in terms of liberation agency. This work serves as a scholarly source to help in the study of African communities in areas of Chester County, Pennsylvania, during the nineteenth century that have not been thoroughly researched. This study is conducted with the use of primary and secondary sources such as letters, newspapers, photographs, and literature related to the subject area. As a lifetime resident of Chester County, there has been continuous curiosity and questions towards understanding the extent of African agency in the area. The European and European America agency of Chester County has been thoroughly examined, but there still lacks critical examination of African agency even though the area has had residents of African descent for several hundred years. Furthermore, there is even less critical examination pertaining to African agency in Chester County from an Afrocentric analysis. Much of the scholarship produced on African agency in Chester County is a Eurocentric analysis that does not position African people as subjects but rather as objects in understanding phenomena. This dissertation uses an Afrocentric analysis that seeks to expand on existing literature as well as develop new knowledge that is unlike any previous work related to the subject. With this dissertation, the intent is to initiate new research on African agency in Chester County based upon the theories, methodologies, and traditions of Africology and African American Studies. This dissertation is committed to the purpose of African liberation and the production of knowledge that achieves victorious consciousness which is a key component of African agency.
    • Impact of A Company Location on Financing Efficiency

      Rytchkov, Oleg; Gao Bakshi, Xiaohui; Mao, Connie X.; Kumar, Subodha (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      From the perspective of information asymmetry, companies located in remote areas have more serious information asymmetry than companies located in central locations. They are more difficult to obtain loans or equity funds, and therefore have lower financing efficiency, resulting in underinvestment/overinvestment.