Now showing items 1-20 of 3803

    • Barriers to HIV and HCV Screening in the TRUST Buprenorphine Clinic

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      As the opioid epidemic continues in Philadelphia, buprenorphine clinics are becoming a necessary mainstay in treatment of these patients. HIV and HCV rates are rising throughout the city due to injection drug use, and buprenorphine clinics could be a bridge to therapy for these conditions as well. This thesis explores the current data about HIV and HCV rates, their connection to injection drug use, and how these overlapping epidemics might be addressed in a comprehensive manner. Historical data, current trends, and first person reflections from clinicians in the TRUST buprenorphine clinic are used to inform our understanding of barriers to integrated screening and treatment. The thesis concludes with a discussion of a better integrated model of care.

      Wadhwa, Monica; Mudambi, Susan; Wattal, Sunil; Hill, TL (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The rising cost of healthcare remains mystifying on a global scale. Some of the main factors contributing to the exorbitant costs in healthcare are doctors' visits and hospital readmissions, many of which result from preventable diseases, such as obesity. Adoption of simple health practices, such as reducing unhealthy food consumption, could help prevent these diseases. Despite this, a considerable number of adults fail to adopt preventive behaviors. In the current research, we explore how people can be nudged toward adopting healthy practices. Specifically, drawing upon implicit theory (Dweck, Chiu, & Hong1995), we argue and show that people who have a fixed mindset (also known as entity theorists) are likely to engage in more unhealthy consumption, compared with those who have a growth mindset (also known as growth theorists). Our findings show that priming people with a growth mindset, a mindset where people perceive that people and their behaviors can change, reduces unhealthy consumption. The research presented here has significant managerial implications because it could change how we encourage and approach individuals to adopt healthier behaviors through persuasive messaging, resulting in improved health outcomes. Finally, the study results add to the current literature on implicit beliefs can impact people’s behaviors, as well as to literature on persuasive messaging.
    • Design of Apparatus for a Sterile Neutrino Search Using 131-Cs: the HUNTER Experiment

      Martoff, Charles J; Metz, Andreas; Surrow, Bernd; Stanley, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The unveiling of neutrino oscillation from observing the change in solar neutrino flux triggered physicists’ interest in studying the nature of the neutrino mass. The prevailing theory of explaining the tiny neutrino mass is called the “see-saw” mechanism, which postulates that the neutrino flavor eigenstate is the mixing between mass eigenstate of active neutrinos of a small mass and (left-) right-handed “sterile” (anti-)neutrinos of a large mass. The sterile neutrino is believed to be a new physics beyond the Standard Model, which can explain many other outstanding physical problems, like warm dark matter, asymmetry of baryon, etc. The HUNTER (Heavy Unseen Neutrinos from the Total Energy-momentum Reconstruction) experiment is a collaboration for searching for keV-mass range sterile neutrinos, and brings together an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Temple University, UCLA, Princeton University and the University of Hustonto develop an apparatus capable of searching for sterile neutrinos with high precision. In the HUNTER proposal, the radiation source generating neutrinos will be a cloud of atoms laser cooled and suspended by laser beams, the decay products except neutrinos will be detected by corresponding detectors, and their initial vector momenta will be reconstructed from the data recorded by the corresponding detectors. The missing mass in the decay, taken away by the neutrino, can then be evaluated from the energy and momentum conservation. The radiation sources of electron-capture decay are preferred for laboratory neutrino experiments because of the absence of energetic electrons in the decay products. 131-Cs is chosen by HUNTER to study the sterile neutrino mass and the mixing between sterile neutrinos and active neutrinos because of its short lifetime, simply decay products, and its alkali element spectral structure which enhances laser cooling and trapping. The Phase 1 HUNTER experiment targeting sterile neutrinos in the range 20-300 keV/c^2 requires the design of spectrometers with momentum resolution of a part in a thousand or better. To detect a 131-Xe ion, a spectrometer consisting of numbers of annular electrodes has been designed. The potentials of the electrodes of the ion spectrometer were carefully optimized to form an electrostatic lens, with time focusing and spatial focusing to achieve a high momentum resolution for ions despite the extended source presented by the magneto-optical trap. The optimization algorithm presented in this dissertation achieves a momentum precision of ∼0.12% (∼0.03%) for the high acceptance (high resolution) tune. An electron spectrometer was designed without “double focusing” for detecting the electrons produced in 131 Cs decays. The electron trajectories are guided by a uniform electric and magnetic field. An octagonal shaped, magnetic shield was designed to diminish the influence of external magnetic fields on the electron trajectories. The achieved electron momentum resolution is ∼0.1 keV including extended source effects, sufficient for the desired missing mass resolution. Other issues like the systematic errors of the ion spectrometer and the eddy current induced in the electrodes by periodically switching on/off the anti-Helmholtz coils of the magneto-optical trap were studied. The deformation of the spectrometer under its gravity was simulated using Autodesk Inventor.
    • Growing Open Data: A Guide to Making Open Historic Data for Community Gardens

      Lowe, Hilary I; Bruggeman, Seth C (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Historic open data can be an asset to community gardens in land use disputes, the preservation and sharing of cultural traditions, and adaptation to climate change. Yet scholarship has not yet provided an accessible guide to the many issues of labor and technology involved in producing open data. This thesis addresses this gap by offering a guide to producing, preserving, and interpreting open data oriented toward community gardens from a public history perspective. This thesis examines the history of community gardens and related community data stretching to the Progressive Era, drawing comparisons to to that of historic open data in the gallery, library, archives, and museum (GLAM) world. The thesis also considers the worth of crowdsourcing and other volunteer labor models in data production, offers basic considerations for structuring and maintaining historic open datasets, and reviews the role of data visualization as a means of data communication and interpretation. Ultimately, I contend that open data is doable in public history and urgently worthy of consideration for gardens.

      Vance, Anthony; Andersson, Lynne; Dawson, Maurice; Thatcher, Jason (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The banking industry faces an unprecedented number of phishing attacks as cybercriminals circumvent security and technical countermeasures to deceive banking employees. There is a lack of scholarly research on the causes of phishing susceptibility in the U.S. banking sector. The literature review analysis highlighted the following gaps: (a) studies on information security and organizational culture failed to link theoretical underpinnings to information security results, (b) the lack of scholarly studies on the banking sector impedes academic perspective on the business problem, and (c) there is a need to investigate banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. This study consists of two qualitative inquiries; the initial study was an interpretive inquiry that resulted in a conceptual framework and highlighted a need for theory on banking cybersecurity culture influence on phishing susceptibility. The qualitative interpretive study only included interviews from security and technology executives. This study yielded the following three major themes: (a) continuous security awareness, (b) executive-driven security climate, and (c) human-centered security operations. From the inductive analysis, a reducing phishing susceptibility through executive influence and culture conceptual framework emerged. From this study, the basis of a grounded theory study was necessary to develop theory to address phishing in the banking sector. The second inquiry was a grounded theory inquiry that expanded the initial study by interviewing (a) security and technology executives, (b) cybersecurity professionals, and (c) non-technical employees and executing a rigorous data analysis process. This study resulted in the following five major themes: (a) lack of executive coordination and support, (b) security awareness, (c) stronger security resiliency, (d) positive security behavior and environmentalignment, and (e) phishing strategy confusion. Theses findings derived from the data analysis resulted in the development of the Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory, an organizational approach for solidifying phishing countermeasures through banking cybersecurity culture. The Dynamic Phishing Susceptibility Reduction Theory reinforces phishing countermeasures with a robust approach due to the hyperactive threat environment and constant changing of tactics. Keywords: Banking, cybersecurity culture, phishing susceptibility, organizational culture
    • Using chemogenetics and novel tools to uncover neural circuit and behavioral changes after spinal cord injury

      Spence, Andrew J; Lemay, Michel A; Smith, George M; Hsieh, Tonia (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in persistent neurological deficits and significant long-term disability. Stimulation of peripheral afferents by epidural electrical stimulation (EES) has been reported to reduce spasticity by reorganizing spared and disrupted descending pathways and local circuits. However, a current barrier to the field is that the plasticity mechanisms that underly improved recovery is unknown. Using the power of hM3Dq Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), we aim to accelerate the dissection of the mechanisms underlying enhanced recovery. In these studies, we identified the effect of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) on the H-reflex of naïve animals; investigated the baseline influence of hM3Dq DREADDs in peripheral afferents in the intact animal using a novel behavioral tool, an addition of angled rungs to the horizontal ladder walking task; and began to uncover the neural and behavioral changes that accompany hM3Dq DREADDs activation in peripheral afferents after SCI. We observed no significant differences in the H-reflex with 4 mg/kg dosage of CNO administration (pre-CNO vs. CNO-active: p=0.82; CNO-active vs. CNO wash-out: p=0.98; n=6). On our novel ladder, we found significant differences in correct hind paw placement (p=0.0002, n=7) and incorrect placement (p=0.01) when DREADDs were activated with CNO (4 mg/kg). In our SCI study, we report that acute and chronic DREADDs activation may activate extensor muscles about the hip (32 cm/s: p=0.047; controls: n=6; DREADDs: n=8 and hereafter unless otherwise stated) as well as induce sprouting and synaptogenesis within motor pools and Clarke’s column in the lumbar spinal cord (motor pool: p=0.00053; Clarke’s column: p=0.021; controls: n=4; DREADDs: n=6). This muscle recruitment may have long-term effects such as increased hindquarter heights (e.g., 16 cm/s: p=0.017) and more frequent hindlimb coordination (p=0.002). Results from this study suggest hM3Dq DREADDs may have the potential to recapitulate EES-activation of afferents as well as provide a platform with which to functionally map changes that occur both within targeted afferents and second order neurons they effect. Future work, such as using C-Fos to examine and map changes in interneuronal networks, could seek to more directly tie changes in kinematics to observed changes in plasticity.
    • Bridging the Gap: The Practical Application of Post-Tonal Musical Analysis to Performance Practice Using George Crumb's Ancient Voices of Children

      Anderson, Dr. Christine; Gratis Harris, Dr. Lorie; Latham, Dr. Edward D; Abramovic, Dr. Charles (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Post-tonal repertoire can prove to be a challenging musical endeavor for performers and listeners alike. However, that does not mean that performers should avoid programming this music. If musicians undertake new repertoire with an open mind and a willingness to discover new avenues of musical expression, it creates a fulfilling experience for both the performers and the audience. Where performers are uncertain of how to proceed, musical and textual analysis can help them understand a piece’s structure and engage with audiences on a deeper level. Using George Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children, I will analyze elements of the cycle that are salient to performers with the goal of creating a compelling, cohesive narrative for audiences. For those who are new to post-tonal repertoire, Crumb’s compositions offer an ideal opportunity for musicians to employ analysis as a tool for guiding performance choices. The musical structure of Crumb’s compositions is easily discernible when analyzed and is often deeply symbolic and spiritual in nature. His music, while meticulously notated, presents ample opportunity for individual interpretation and expression. Since its premiere in 1970, Ancient Voices of Children has become one of Crumb’s most celebrated pieces, largely due to his incredibly expressive setting of the poetry of Federico García Lorca. After a brief overview of both the composer and poet, I will explore the textual content, pitch content, melodic contour, harmonic structure, ensemble, and rhythm to provide performers with a clearer understanding of the work. This paper further investigates the relationship between Federico García Lorca’s poetry and George Crumb’s music and offers performance suggestions to convey that narrative. In outlining this process through Crumb’s Ancient Voices of Children, this paper gives performers a guide to approaching post-tonal music and making it accessible to a broader audience.

      Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Shi, Xinghua (Mindy); Rubin, Daniel (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The primary goal of Machine learning (ML) models in the prediction of medical conditions is to accurately predict (classify) the occurrence of a disease, or therapy. Many ML models, traditional and deep, have been utilized for the prediction of disease diagnosis, or prediction of the most optimal therapeutic approach. Almost all categories of medical conditions were subject to ML analysis. When creating predictive ML algorithms in medicine, it is pivotal to consider what problems are intended to be solved and how much and what types of training data are available. For challenging prediction (classification) problems, the understanding of disease pathogenesis makes the selection of an adequate ML model and accurate prediction more likely. The hypothesis of the research was to demonstrate that the optimal and adequate selection of model inputs as well as the selection and design of adequate ML methods improves the prediction accuracy of occurrence of diseases and their outcomes. The effectiveness and accuracy of created deep learning and traditional methods have been analyzed and compared. The impact of different medical conditions and different medical domains on optimal selection and performance of ML models was also studied. The effectiveness of advanced ML models was tested on four different diseases: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2), Influenza, and Colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of the first part of the thesis (AD study) was to determine could prediction of AD from Electronic medical records (EMR) data alone be significantly improved by applying domain knowledge in positive dataset selection rather than setting naïve filters. Selected Clinically Relevant Positive (SCRP) datasets were used as inputs to a Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) deep learning model to predict will the patient develop AD. The LSTM RNN method performed significantly better when learning from the SCRP dataset than when datasets were selected naïvely. Accurate prediction of AD is significant in the identification of patients for clinical trials, and a better selection of patients who need imaging diagnostics. The objective of the DM2 research was to predict if patients with DM2 would develop any of ten selected complications. RNN LSTM and RNN Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) models were designed and compared to Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptron traditional models. The number of hospitalizations registered in the EMR data was an important factor for the prediction accuracy. The prediction accuracy of complications decreases over time. The RNN GRU model was the best choice for EMR type of data, followed by the RNN LSTM model. An accurate prediction of the occurrence of complications of DM2 is important in the planning of targeted measures aimed to slow down or prevent their development. The objective of the third part of the thesis was to improve the understanding of spatial spreading of complicated cases of influenza that required hospitalizations, by constructing social network models. A novel approach was designed, which included the construction of heatmaps for geographic regions in New York state and power-law networks, to analyze the distribution of hospitalized flu cases. The methodology constructed in the study allowed to identify critical hubs and routes of spreading of Influenza, in specific geographic locations. Obtained results could enable better prediction of the distribution of complicated flu cases in specific geographic regions and better prediction of required resources for prevention and treatment of hospitalized patients with Influenza. The fourth part of the thesis proposes approaches to discover risk factors (comorbidities and genes) associated with the development of CRC, which can be used for future ML models to predict the influence of risk factors on prognosis and outcomes of cancer and other chronic diseases. A novel social network and text mining model was developed to study specific risk factors of CRC. Identified associations between comorbidities, CRC, and shared genes can have important implications on early discovery, and prognosis of CRC, which can be subject to predictive ML models in the future. Prediction ML models could help physicians to select the most effective diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic choices available. These ML models can provide recommendations to select suitable patients for clinical trials, which is very important in searching for medical solutions in health emergencies. Successful ML models can make medicine more efficient, improve outcomes, and decreases medical errors.
    • Teachers' Choices to Use Movement in Elementary General Music Class: Examining Influencers

      Reynolds, Alison M.; Parker, Elizabeth C.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Bond, Karen E.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Harris, Jillian (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Because no government body has mandated a national or state curriculum for music education in the United States, elementary general music teachers can vary widely in their curricular choices about whether and how to include movement. To contribute to an understanding of children’s experiences engaging in movement during their elementary music education, the purpose of this research was to examine influencers on pre-Kindergarten through 8th grade general music teachers’ choices to use movement in elementary general music classes. With a pragmatic worldview, I approached the study through a lens of embodied teaching and learning, acknowledging a person’s bodily movements as connected ways of musical knowing. I used a mixed methods, explanatory sequential design in two phases of the research. In Phase I, I posed four research questions. Research questions one through three: For two types of movement (i.e., non-locomotor, locomotor), to what extent does variance in (a) school socioeconomic status (i.e., Title I, Non-Title I), (b) physical classroom space, and (c) class size significantly relate to the use of movement by type in elementary general music classes? Research question four: (d) To what extent do school socioeconomic status, physical classroom space, and class size in combination explain the variance in the use of movement in elementary general music classes? In Phase II, I posed four additional research questions to explain the results of Phase I. Research questions five through seven: How do music teachers describe the (e) purpose, (f) benefits, and (g) challenges in their use of different movement types in elementary general music classes? Research question eight: (h) What results emerge from comparing the quantitative data on influencers to the use of movement by type with the qualitative data that describes teachers’ choices in movement instruction? For that question, I examined the results from Phase I and Phase II to complete the mixed methods design of this study. In Phase I, pre-Kindergarten through 8th grade general music teachers (N = 251) teaching in the United States voluntarily completed a researcher-designed web-based survey. For research questions one through three, I conducted independent t-tests on the survey data for each of the related variables. For research question one, participants in Title I schools (n = 163) used non-locomotor steady beat gestures (t = 1.99) and locomotor choreography (t = 2.37) statistically significantly more than participants in non-Title I schools (n = 88). For research question two, participants without a dedicated physical music classroom space (n = 30) used non-locomotor movement for showing pitch relations and melodic contour with hands (t = 2.21) statistically significantly more than participants with a dedicated music classroom (n = 221). Participants with a dedicated music classroom (n = 221) used locomotor choreography (t = 3.87) statistically significantly more than participants without dedicated music classroom (n = 30). For research question three, participants with large class sizes (n = 107) used non-locomotor dramatizing (p = -.132) and locomotor creative/exploratory movement (p = -.198) statistically significantly more than participants with medium (n = 108) or small (n = 36) class sizes. For research question four, I conducted a multiple regression on the survey data to examine the influence of school socioeconomic status, physical space, and class size on use of movement by type. Results indicated one statistically significant correlation for the variables in combination: participants in Title I schools with dedicated music rooms statistically significantly used non-locomotor moving with flow (t = 2.303). In Phase II, I purposefully sampled 17 of 106 interested Phase I survey participants based on their responses to demographic information in relation to five conditions established a priori: Self-Reported Frequency of Movement Use, School Socioeconomic Status, Class Size, Physical Classroom Space, and Professional Development Experience. To answer research questions five through seven, I conducted a thematic analysis of those 17 Phase II participants’ transcribed and member-checked individual, semi-structured interviews. From their interview data, I identified 31 representative meaning units, 10 lower order themes, and four higher order themes (i.e., Who I Am, Who My Students Are, Where We Are Together, and What We Do Together). For research question eight, I compared the quantitative data on influencers to the use of movement by type with qualitative data that describes participants’ choices in type of movement. Participants’ choices to use locomotor movement were constrained by their physical classroom space and large class sizes but not by school socioeconomic status. Teachers’ choices to use movement in general music settings are also influenced by teacher identity and body image. Since participants volunteered for this study, results need to be applied with caution. By examining the results of Phase I and Phase II, I concluded that teachers in this study connected their choices of whether and how to use movement in elementary general music to their own identity, understandings of students’ identities, school context, and students’ musical engagement. Teachers desire students’ engaging movement experiences that lead to students’ empowerment through embodied learning. Teachers’ choices to use movement potentially connect teachers’ and students’ embodied experiences with teachers’ personally formational instruction, regardless of their school socioeconomic status, physical classroom space, or class size. Implications for the field of music education include widening our understanding of the role of identity at various junctures of a music teacher’s career. Because administrators assign physical teaching spaces and determine maximum class sizes, they play an important role ensuring general music teachers can teach in a dedicated space that is physically and socioemotionally safe for students and their teacher. By contemplating ways to engage in personal movement experiences beyond their practice in their classrooms, teachers may boost their self-confidence, and expand possibilities for using movement instruction in less-than-ideal teaching spaces. Future researchers might investigate the (a) role music-teacher body image plays as it influences teachers’ choices to use movement, (b) ways teachers connect students’ dance cultures to music learning, (c) use of movement in remote, cyber, or virtual general music classes. Depending on the status of the COVID-19 pandemic, future researchers may explore general music teachers’ choices to use movement relative to social distancing practices.

      Borguet, Eric; Strongin, Daniel; Sun, Yugang; Smeu, Manuel (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The incorporation of molecules as low-cost and stable structures in electronic circuits is a promising strategy to miniaturize electronic components. Although single-molecule electronics is still at an early phase, the investigation of charge transport through single molecules is fundamentally important to understand the relevant scientific concepts and technological applications. In this dissertation, we measured and modulated the charge transport perpendicular to the plane of small benzene derivatives. In contrast to the conventional strategy to link molecules to electrodes via anchoring groups, we used the electrode potential to control the geometry of molecules and to form the junctions through π-system-metal electrode interactions. Using a combination of electrochemical STM (EC-STM) imaging and STM-BJ methods, the measurement of charge transport through single, flat oriented tetrafluoroterephthalic acid (TFTPA) molecules on an electrified Au (111) electrode showed that, at potentials below the potential of zero-charge (pzc) of Au(111), the molecules lie flat on the electrode and form highly ordered structures. The conductance of TFTPA, along the axis perpendicular to the benzene plane, is 0.24 ± 0.04 G0, consistent with reports for other molecules oriented flat in the junction. The configuration dependent conductivity has been confirmed by first-principles non-equilibrium Green’s function computation performed by Professor John Perdew and Dr. Haowei Peng at Temple University. Hence, the electrochemical surface potential can be employed to control the orientation of molecules to access a new charge transport measurement axis. Building on our previous results (Chapter 3), we studied charge transport through two fundamentally important molecules, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) to determine the effect of molecule-electrode binding while maintaining the same core molecular structure. The findings show that on the negatively charged Au(111), the flat-oriented TCNQ and F4TCNQ molecules exhibit similar but high conductance of ~ 0.22 ± 0.01 G0 and 0.24 ± 0.01 G0, respectively. In addition to the high conductance, two peaks at 0.02 G0, and 0.05 G0 were detected for both molecules, assigned to the bidentate-bidentate and monodentate-bidentate configurations. Density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) calculations were performed by Professor Manuel Smeu and Dr. Stuart Shepard at Binghamton University to determine the conductance of four distinct molecular configurations. The results show how the orientation of molecules in the junction and the molecule-electrode denticity influence the molecular orbital offsets relative to the Fermi level and the consequent charge transport. The electronic structure and charge transport through single molecules can be modulated using various functional groups. Interestingly, our previous findings (Chapters 3, and 4) showed that the conductance perpendicular to the plane of TFTPA and TCNQ/F4TCNQ was similar to the parent molecules (TPA and TCNQ). Thus, it appeared that fluorination did not significantly change charge transport properties perpendicular to the molecular plane. Building on our previous studies, we measured the conductance through mesitylene substituted with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., NO2, Br) or with electron-donating groups (e.g., CH3) to determine if other groups might impact conductance. Our results showed that the conductance perpendicular to the molecular plane increases by introducing electron-withdrawing groups and decreases as electron-donating groups are introduced to the mesitylene molecule. Density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) calculations were performed to rationalize our experimental findings (By Professor Smeu and Dr. Stuart Shepard). We demonstrated that the changes in the conductance perpendicular to the molecular plane correlate well with the Hammett constant of the corresponding functional groups, indicating the importance of the nature and strength of chemical substituents on the degree of conductance modulations at least for mesitylene derivatives. Following up on the modulation of charge transport through the intrinsic properties of molecules, we investigated the effect of solvent polarity on conductance of single molecules. Particularly, we focused on charge transport through dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN), a molecule that shows unique behavior, such as noticeable bulk electronic modulations in response to the physical properties of the solvents in which the molecule is immersed, e.g., dual fluorescence in polar environment, due to the stabilized intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Our charge transport results show that the conductance of DMABN in a polar solvent (acidified water) is ~ten times higher than the value observed in toluene (nonpolar solvent). The conductance of a molecule with no TICT properties shows no solvent polarity-dependent conductance, indicating that the intrinsic properties of DMABN (i.e., the TICT effect) play a critical role in the enhanced conductivity in the polar solvent. Molecular dynamics calculations (performed by Professor Manuel Smeu, and Dr. Stuart Shepard) suggest that the DMABN molecule can undergo internal rotation in the junction in polar solvents, result in a higher conductance compare to the planar geometry. Our results demonstrate that molecules exhibiting TICT properties can be promising candidates to design molecular devices with sensing and switching functionalities. The findings of this dissertation, in combination with the calculations (via collaboration with computational experts), show that the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of junctions, e.g., the geometry of molecule within the junction, the charge transport axis, the molecule-electrode binding, the characteristics and electronic structure of the molecules investigated, and the physical properties of the environment, influence charge transport through single molecules. This fundamental understanding and the ability to control charge transport through single molecules may allow the design of practical devices, e.g., large-scale molecular architectures and circuits, molecular switches, and sensors.

      Rosenthal, Dr. Edward C.; Blessley, Dr. Misty P.; Andersson, Dr. Lynne M.; Blau, Dr. Gary J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This research is intended to examine transportation suppliers coming up short due to participation in and response to bidding procedures. A mixed-methods approach is utilized to investigate the bid process and related outcomes for the transportation supplier. This study explores the bid process from the perspective of the transportation supplier. The first study is based on a quantitative approach, utilizing the Analytical Hierarchy Process methodology (AHP). The second study uses qualitative methodology, specifically utilizing semi-structured interview protocol. For the quantitative analysis, key factors related to the bidding process were studied, as the basis of the review. These factors were found through a systematic review of the literature, and are internal and external in nature. The results are that, of the factors studied, the Firm Related Internal Factor of Need for Work and Tender Related External Factor of Type of Bid are of the greatest significance when determining to bid. Key themes emerge from the semi-structured interviews, leading to the Assertation of Bid Submission Assessment, including a systematic review of relationships, current market conditions, and risk appraisal for the transportation supplier. This research explores economic, relational and strategic impacts on supplier performance aligned with the bid process, and how supply chain companies can build effective bid responses to enable practitioners to improve stability and financial performance, while avoiding supply chain disruptions. To better understand proposal response will aid the transportation supplier with restoring profitability levels lost, due to the bidding process (buyer to transportation supplier).
    • Strategies in Acting for Operatic Performance: Empowering the Powerful

      Giamatti, Marcus; Reynolds, Peter; McShaffrey, Brandon (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This thesis intends to explore the strategies, consequences and goals of acting in one of the most celebrated western artforms: opera. Told primarily through a first person narrative, and project based, the research of this piece culminated in three semesters teaching Oprea Workshop through Boyer School of Music at Temple University. Research methods included: Directing work before graduate school; Interviews and surveys with collaborators;Personal observation; and Scholastic work surrounding historic acting teachers. The main finding: My goals as a director and educator mimic many of the acting teachers before me: to connect gestures to the internal life of the performer and to strive towards a more perfect amalgamation of music text and stagecraft in presenting both new work and inherited repertoire for opera. I found disparities not in the goals, but in the “how”. My findings through my work are that the “how” is in bravery, kindness, and empowerment of the singer. Through scaffolded and varied techniques, each performer can cultivate their own collaborative strategies when developing characters and integrating movement into their vocal performances and storytelling. An empowered singer is an effective singer that can live and advocate for better art holistically in this world.
    • The Origin, Present, and Future of Regional Art Museums — Using the Woodmere Art Museum as a Case Study

      Earle, Linda LE; Thomas, James JT (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This paper uses the Woodmere Art Museum in Philadelphia as a case study to examine the origins and institutional evolution of American regional art museums, identify some of the challenges they currently face, and the important civic and cultural roles they play in their communities. The chapter “Origins” provides a basic overview of Woodmere’s founding and history and considers how, within an American context, such museums eventually evolved from private galleries to publicly engaged nonprofit organizations over the course of the twentieth century as their missions, stakeholders, and audiences evolved. Like other regional art museums that demonstrate the same model, Woodmere’s regional identity and its focus on local art deepen the ties between itself and the community it serves and creates cultural resonances that make regional art museums an irreplaceable part of the American museum industry. However, small regional art museums face important challenges as their finances are more vulnerable, and they must deal with some of the same social, institutional, and ethical issues faced by larger public-facing institutions with a smaller pool of resources. The chapter “Present Challenges” looks at the need to develop sustainable management and financial structures and inclusive strategies to understand and build on audience relationships as a way to survive and grow. The final chapter of the paper “Imagined Futures” concludes and specifically addresses the challenges and possibilities presented by the pandemic, various social justice movements, and the call for institutions to reckon with their own histories in order to form a clear path for the future of regional art museums.

      Byrnes, James P.; Schifter, Catherine C.; Laurence, Janice H.; Hattikudur, Shanta (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Mobile polling is a widely used classroom response system at the university level. The current study examines the predictors and outcomes of mobile polling including self-regulation and academic achievement. Furthermore, this study explores whether or not mobile polling benefits some students more than others, specifically those with higher levels of self-regulation. The data was collected from two separate University classrooms taught by the same teacher (n = 66). The first section of students were to use mobile polling software after taking their midterm exam and use the software for the remainder of the semester. The other section of students served as the control group and received the same instruction, Powerpoints, and assignments minus the usage of mobile polling. All students from both classes were given an 89 question survey known as the Barkley Deficits in Executive Function Scale (BDEFS) which measured their ability to self-regulate their behavior. A hierarchical regression model was used to find that mobile polling had no statistical significance on academic achievement at the end of the semester. The only significant predictor throughout the entire study was the initial achievement variable, which was the scores from the midterm exam. Another hierarchical regression model found that self-regulation, measured with the use of the BDEFS system, was not a significant predictor of academic achievement. When initial achievement was controlled for, the Overall EF score from the BDEFS system revealed that self-regulation had zero effect on the variance as denoted by R Square and the R Square change in the regression model. Supplemental analysis revealed that Overall EF is a significant predictor of academic achievement when a Repeated Measures ANOVA was used, though the R Square change was still low. Factor analysis was used to find which questions loaded together under five subscales, truncating the BDEFS system and revealing that Self-Restraint/Inhibition traits were a better predictor than the overall score from the BDEFS questionnaire yet was not a significant predictor of achievement. Finally, a 2 x 2 ANCOVA that investigated the interaction between high/low levels of Self-Regulation and usage of Mobile Polling and found that it did not significantly affect academic achievement. In fact, the highest mean came from the completely opposite group as expected, which was students in the control group with lower levels of self-regulation.

      Jones, Nora (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Studies have shown that the rates of incarceration in the United States of America have skyrocketed over the course of the last several decades. Furthermore, the extremely high rate of incarceration in the United States has become a destructive force on children, families and entire communities and has disproportionately affected and targeted young men from low-income communities of color. Studies have also shown that mass incarceration is generally harmful to the health of the individuals that are imprisoned, the health of formerly incarcerated individuals, and harmful to the health of families and communities. The true cost of mass incarceration on society is estimated to be as high as over $1 trillion per year and studies indicates that more than half of those costs are ultimately levied upon families, children, and community members that are not incarcerated. This paper discusses policy reforms that have been implemented in recent years and that are currently being implemented to help mitigate the harmful impacts of mass incarceration, prevent recidivism, and reduce the population of incarcerated individuals. It also outlines higher education and positive development programs as effective strategies to further achieve these goals, lists current programs and interventions that have been effective, and discusses policies that would improve access to education for justice-involved populations as an effective tool to combat mass incarceration.
    • PP2A/B55α Substrate Recruitment As Defined By The Retinoblastoma-Related Protein p107

      Graña, Xavier; Shore, Scott K; Rothberg, Brad; Dunbrack, Roland L (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translation modification that is essential in cell signaling. It is estimated that a third of all cellular proteins are phosphorylated (reviewed in Ficarro et al., 2002), with more than 98% of those phosphorylation events occurring on serine and threonine residues (Olsen et al., 2006). Kinases are the necessary enzymes for phosphorylation and protein phosphatases dynamically reverse this action. While the mechanisms of substrate recognition for kinases have been well-characterized to date, the same is not true for phosphatases that play an equally important role in opposing kinase function and determining global phosphorylation levels in cells. This dichotomy has also translated into the clinic, where there has been a persistently narrow research focus on the development of small-molecule kinase inhibitors for use as chemotherapeutic agents, without an equal effort being placed into the generation of the analogous phosphatase activators (reviewed in Westermarck, 2018). Members of the phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPP) family of serine/threonine phosphatases are responsible for the majority of dephosphorylation in eukaryotic cells, with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) accounting for more than 90% of the total phosphatase activity (Moorhead et al., 2007; Virshup and Shenolikar, 2009). Structurally, PP2A is a trimeric holoenzyme consisting of a scaffold (A) subunit, a regulatory (B) subunit, and a catalytic (C) subunit. B55α is a ubiquitous regulatory subunit that is reported to target many substrates with critical functions in processes including cell division. A long-standing question that has persisted in the field of cellular signaling is as to how the most abundant serine/threonine PP2A holoenzyme, PP2A/B55α, specifically recognizes substrates and presents them to the enzyme active site for subsequent dephosphorylation. Such critical data have only recently become well understood for the B56 family of ‘B’ regulatory subunits, where an LxxIxE short linear motif (or SLiM) has been identified in a subset of protein targets and shown via crystal structure analysis to dock into a 100% conserved binding pocket on the B56 surface (Hertz et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2016a; Wang et al., 2016b; Wu et al., 2017). Here, we show how B55α recruits p107, a pRB-related tumor suppressor and B55α substrate. Using molecular and cellular approaches, we identified a conserved region 1 (R1, residues 615-626) encompassing the strongest p107 binding site. This enabled us to identify an “HxRVxxV619-625” SLiM in p107 as necessary for B55α binding and dephosphorylation of the proximal pSer-615 in vitro and in cells. Numerous additional PP2A/B55α substrates, including TAU, contain a related SLiM C-terminal from a proximal phosphosite, allowing us to propose a consensus SLiM sequence, “p[ST]-P-x(5-10)-[RK]-V-x-x-[VI]-R”. In support of this, mutation of conserved SLiM residues in TAU dramatically inhibits dephosphorylation by PP2A/B55α, validating its generality. Moreover, a data-guided computational model details the interaction of residues from the conserved p107 SLiM, the B55α groove, and phosphosite presentation to the PP2A/C active site. Altogether, these data provide key insights into PP2A/B55α mechanisms of substrate recruitment and active site engagement, and also facilitate identification and validation of new substrates, a key step towards understanding the role of PP2A/B55α in many key cellular processes. As a parallel continuation of our efforts to identify novel B55α substrates/regulators, we generated mutant B55α constructs that occlude PP2A/A-C dimer engagement but retain substrate binding to the β-propeller structure (allowing us to interrogate direct interactors). Our preliminary AP-MS data led to the identification of several proteins that bound better to our “monomeric B55α” mutant compared to wild-type B55α in the context of the PP2A/B55α heterotrimer, including the centrosomal proteins HAUS6 and CEP170 (two substrates previously validated in a phosphoproteomic screen by our lab), suggesting that these mutants trap substrates as they cannot be dephosphorylated by PP2A/C. These analyses also identified an enrichment of T-complex protein 1 subunits in the “monomeric B55α” mutant elutions, further supporting the notion that these mutants may function as dominant negatives. Several additional proteins of interest were identified in the two independent rounds of mass spectrometry, including subunits of the DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and IV, as well as the double-strand break repair protein MRE11, which can be followed up as potential novel B55α substrates. These studies can contribute to significant advances in our understanding of the network of proteins that B55α interacts with, and thus the signaling pathways that can be modulated by PP2A/B55α complexes in cells. Moreover, these advances can also provide translational benefits as has been demonstrated through the study of PP2A activators termed SMAPs, which demonstrate selective stabilization of PP2A/B56α complexes in cells that result in selective dephosphorylation of substrates including the oncogenic target c-MYC.

      Rey, Terry; Levitt, Laura; White, Sydney; Hey-Colón, Rebeca L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This dissertation critically examines both the discursive and empirical significances of recent newcomers in the Haitian religious field, namely Korean and Korean American Protestant women missionaries. This confluence of Korean and Haitian Protestantism, which first emerged in the early 1990s, is a compelling case of the diversification of contemporary transnational and even global Christianity. Protestant Christianity was implanted in Haiti and Korea at around the very same time, in the nineteenth century, by North American missionaries who were inspired to work in new national religious fields by the Second Great Awakening (1790-1840) and its evangelical fervor. In the eyes of North American missionaries, both countries were religious wildernesses waiting to truly receive and understand the Good Word. Since then, in both Korea and Haiti, westernization, Western hegemony, and Western neo-colonialization have featured strong undercurrents of North-American-derived Protestantism. However, the respective lots and religious fields of each country have been dramatically different overall largely because of national and global economic and political forces. South Korea enjoyed formidable growth both in its economy and its evangelical Christian population after the Korean War (1950-1953), resulting in Korean Christianity’s zealous participation in evangelical Protestant mission overseas, following the models of North American mission enterprises, especially toward the end of the century. Meanwhile, Haiti continued to suffer from natural disasters, political turmoil, and widespread abject poverty. Thus, overseas Haitian Protestant mission work is altogether non-existent, though internally evangelical prosetalization efforts are legion and often aggressive. Vodou and Catholicism, meanwhile, continue to captivate the majority of the Haitian masses, but Protestantism is clearly on the rise across the nation. In is into this socio-religious context that Korean Protestant missions expanded in the Caribbean nation, an expansion that has amplified especially since the tragic 2010 earthquake. Toward understanding these developments, this project investigates the influx of Korean and Korean American Protestant missionaries in contemporary Haiti and the reverberations of North American evangelicalism as channeled through and adapted by Korean missionaries. With all of these historical and contemporary contexts in mind, this dissertation more sharply focuses on a specific group of actors in the Haitian religious field, namely contemporary Korean American Protestant women missionaries. I argue that their activity suggests a new type of examples for current scholarly discourses about the relationship between gender and evangelical missions. By way of historical analyses of both Korean and Haitian Protestant Christianity and oral histories based on interviews with Korean missionaries in Haiti, this study argues that Korean evangelicalism has developed a distinctive gendered praxis that claims both continuity with and divergence from North American evangelicalism. It also shows that in both South Korea and Haiti, twentieth-century U.S. hegemony and military occupation were significant factors in propelling Protestant Christianity.
    • When Work Comes Home: Parental Time Allocated to Unpaid Household Labor

      Klugman, Joshua; Kaufman, Robert; Levine, Judith; Gonalons-Pons, Pilar (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      I examined how dual-earner households manage the often-competing demands of work and family life through an in-depth analysis of time allocated to housework and child care while testing the theories of gender display and economic dependency. I developed new measures for occupational nurturance and authority and applied these measures to the housework and child care literature by conducting a series of replication studies. My work supports the relationship between employment characteristics and remaining gender inequalities in unpaid household labor. I was able to shed light on how dual-earner households attempt to manage the complicated work-family time bind, while adding to the field of replication studies in quantitative sociology. I constructed new measures for occupational nurturance and authority to offer alternative ways to assess occupational traits that were not mutually exclusive or dichotomous. I conducted year fixed effects multilevel models of General Social Survey (GSS) respondents nested within occupations. Using these models, I constructed empirical Bayes (EB) estimates of the occupational effects and aggregated the data set at the occupation-level for easy merging to any data set using Census occupation codes. I showed the utility of my new measures by merging them to the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) and American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for further analysis. I found overwhelming support for gender conventionality for married men and women working in gender atypical occupations who displayed less stereotypical gendered behavior at home. However, separate from occupational sex composition, my findings also provided support for the influence of gender ideology on married men and women’s gendered display of housework at home. For child care, I found consistent and overwhelming support for fathers’ and mothers’ time spent with children and economic dependency’s time availability perspective. These results illuminated the “time crunch” that dual-earners face as they juggle work and family obligations. Across both studies of unpaid household labor, the overall findings suggest a gendered picture. Married women completed more housework than married men, and mothers completed more child care than fathers. The housework findings were further supported by gender ideology, or that those with more traditional views on housework and family life completed more traditionally gendered housework tasks. Although, my findings also suggested more nuanced housework for those in gender atypical workplaces in support of gender conventionality. Finally, even though I found strong support for economic dependency’s time availability perspective for time spent with children in dual-earner households, mothers still completed more child care than fathers regardless of all other factors further highlighting a stalled revolution for working mothers. Women made strides in the workplace, but still faced gendered unpaid household labor at home. Throughout my studies, I added new measures to the field and I built on the great work of leaders in the field of housework and child care through replication. I conducted robustness and generalizability checks of prior work and made a case for replication studies in quantitative sociology.
    • Culturally Relevant Teaching Remix: A Study of Middle School Teachers' Development of Youth Cultural Competence Through Technology Integration and Application

      Smith, Michael W; Brandt, Carol; Hall, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The purpose of this study was to examine technology integration and the application of Culturally Relevant Teaching (CRT). This inquiry evolved as a result of trying to understand the unique intersectionality of student identity, which is inclusive of youth culture, and whether teachers understood this dynamic and hence leveraged it in the classrooms and school communities they taught. Given that youth culture is a “mash-up of cultures and the membership transcends ethnic and racial lines,” there was evident value in exploring how youth cultural competence is unpacked and applied by educators to both deliver content and build relationships (Keuss, 2012), Understanding that a major youth cultural referent is technology, the study observed how teacher’s Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge manifested itself in the classroom and the types of technology students shared they were exposed to, in addition to their perceptions of teacher competence of technology and/or youth culture. This exploration was further framed by using a Culturally Relevant Teaching framework to analyze teacher-student interactions, based on the principles, behaviors and mindsets outlined by Ladson-Billings in her construction of defining the characteristics of a CRT educator (2009). This was a qualitative study that included 10 teachers and 20 student participants that were members of a technology-rich middle school in an urban environment. Teachers participated in classroom observations, interviews, and CRT reflective tasks. Students participated in grade-level focus groups that leveraged interactive and reflective tasks. As a result of the data analysis, implications from the study presents school leaders with practical insights on how technology integration can be woven into the fabric of the school to strengthen teacher development, support content delivery and enhance the quality of student learning experiences. Additionally, there is evidence of a need for commitment by schools to train teachers in Culturally Relevant Teaching practices in order to attend to the whole child, operate with a more student-centered approach, and adequately prepare scholars for the digital world.
    • Applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain clinicians’ intention to screen men who have sex with men for syphilis infection

      Bass, Sarah B; Dumenci, Levent; Rutledge, Scott E; Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Koenig, Helen (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Syphilis prevention in the United States continues to be an enduring public health challenge. Although syphilis is a curable infection, if left untreated it can result in severe, debilitating and potentially life-threatening complications. Routine screening for syphilis in high-risk populations remains an important prevention and control measure. Research consistently demonstrates the relative advantage of greater testing frequency in at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) using both cost-effectiveness analyses and mathematical modeling. Despite this, frequency of screening for syphilis among MSM remains sub-optimal, and failure to screen MSM at recommended intervals may be attributable to clinicians’ perceptions related to syphilis screening in this population. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) may help to elucidate the attitudes, social and professional norms, and perceived behavioral control that providers experience towards syphilis screening. The extent to which these cognitive-behavioral factors facilitate clinicians’ intentions to screening MSM for syphilis has not been previously evaluated. Using the constructs of the TPB, this study developed and validated a new survey tool with a national sample of physicians (n=123) who treat MSM and recruited through a proprietary email list and through passive recruitment on social media and provider Listservs. Results of the survey revealed variability in providers’ attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioral control, and these differed in association with self-reported syphilis screening intention and behavior. The survey was also used to validate a measurement model based on the TPB. This measurement model consisted of four factors: attitudes, social norms, perceived behavioral control and intention. This model was then used in structural equation modeling analysis to simultaneously test the strength of associations between these factors and a self-reported behavioral outcome. Results indicate that attitudes have a significant indirect effect on self-reported screening behavior mediated though intention. Perceived behavioral control was also strongly associated with self-reported behavior, as was intention to screen. By incorporating the TPB into a model of physician behavior, this study provides a framework for interventions targeted at increasing syphilis testing frequency in clinical practice.