• Bayesian Sparse Regression with Application to Data-driven Understanding of Climate

      Obradovic, Zoran; Ganguly, Auroop R.; Vucetic, Slobodan; Latecki, Longin (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Sparse regressions based on constraining the L1-norm of the coefficients became popular due to their ability to handle high dimensional data unlike the regular regressions which suffer from overfitting and model identifiability issues especially when sample size is small. They are often the method of choice in many fields of science and engineering for simultaneously selecting covariates and fitting parsimonious linear models that are better generalizable and easily interpretable. However, significant challenges may be posed by the need to accommodate extremes and other domain constraints such as dynamical relations among variables, spatial and temporal constraints, need to provide uncertainty estimates and feature correlations, among others. We adopted a hierarchical Bayesian version of the sparse regression framework and exploited its inherent flexibility to accommodate the constraints. We applied sparse regression for the feature selection problem of statistical downscaling of the climate variables with particular focus on their extremes. This is important for many impact studies where the climate change information is required at a spatial scale much finer than that provided by the global or regional climate models. Characterizing the dependence of extremes on covariates can help in identification of plausible causal drivers and inform extremes downscaling. We propose a general-purpose sparse Bayesian framework for covariate discovery that accommodates the non-Gaussian distribution of extremes within a hierarchical Bayesian sparse regression model. We obtain posteriors over regression coefficients, which indicate dependence of extremes on the corresponding covariates and provide uncertainty estimates, using a variational Bayes approximation. The method is applied for selecting informative atmospheric covariates at multiple spatial scales as well as indices of large scale circulation and global warming related to frequency of precipitation extremes over continental United States. Our results confirm the dependence relations that may be expected from known precipitation physics and generates novel insights which can inform physical understanding. We plan to extend our model to discover covariates for extreme intensity in future. We further extend our framework to handle the dynamic relationship among the climate variables using a nonparametric Bayesian mixture of sparse regression models based on Dirichlet Process (DP). The extended model can achieve simultaneous clustering and discovery of covariates within each cluster. Moreover, the a priori knowledge about association between pairs of data-points is incorporated in the model through must-link constraints on a Markov Random Field (MRF) prior. A scalable and efficient variational Bayes approach is developed to infer posteriors on regression coefficients and cluster variables.

      Iliadis, Andrew; Fernback, Jan, 1964-; Vacker, Barry (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Jackie Aina, a popular Nigerian American beauty vlogger and influencer-edutainer, has received attention for her candid stances on the beauty, fashion, and social media industries, along with her outspokenness about social justice issues. Notably, several of the videos on her YouTube channel contain “Unpopular Opinions” in their titles. In these videos, Aina conducts makeup tutorials while voicing viewpoints that she deems controversial. This thesis uses Aina’s “Unpopular Opinions” videos as a case study of Black women influencer-edutainers’ use of critical discourse in their content. It utilizes critical discourse analysis (CDA) with elements of multimodality and other critical disciplines such as critical race theory and feminist studies to examine how Black women vloggers and influencer-edutainers balance their dual responsibilities as influencers and educational entertainers.
    • Because They Need It: Teacher Motivations to do More for Students

      Jordan, Will J.; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Stephens, Barbara; Brandt, Carol B. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This study examines the experiences of teachers being motivated to do more for their students. While the lives and practices of teachers have received significant scholarly attention, to this point the extant literature on teacher motivation and expanded roles is limited. In response to that gap, this study uses a phenomenological design with semi-structure interviews and observations of classrooms to examine the motivations that inspire teachers to go beyond their prescribed roles in service of their students. Additional lines of inquiry examined how these motivations to embody expanded roles for students evolve from pre-service to actual classroom experience. The study also investigated teacher-reported possibilities and limitations of doing more in service of students. Self Determination Theory of Motivation was used as the theoretical framework to guide the methodological design of the study. Results from the study illuminate a symbiotic relationship in which teachers engage in role expansion in order to both meet the needs of their students as well as to have their basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy satisfied. Implications for further research highlight the need to understand how to support and sustain these practices as a mechanism to combat burnout and teacher attrition.
    • Becoming Catholic: Story, Sacrament, Conversion and the Emergence of Faith in Postconciliar Autobiographies

      Bregman, Lucy; Watt, David Harrington (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This thesis looks at the spiritual autobiographies of thirty contemporary young adult Catholic men and women in their early twenties through their early forties. It argues that their life writings, when taken together as a whole and read through the dual lens of Story and Sacrament, evidence an emergent process of conversion, of "becoming Catholic" in the modern American milieu.
    • Becoming God, Becoming the Buddha: The Relation of Identity and Praxis in the Thought of Maximus the Confessor and Kūkai

      Nagatomo, Shigenori; Limberis, Vasiliki, 1954-; Bregman, Lucy; Botwinick, Aryeh (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      My dissertation investigates the concept of ‘divinization’, or becoming like (or identical to) God or the Buddha in the thought of two early medieval monk-philosophers from radically different religious-philosophical traditions, Maximus the Confessor (580-662 CE) and Kukai (774-835 CE). I use this as a means of comparing the relationship between understandings of identity and praxis advocated by these two thinkers. Maximus was a Christian monk who lived during a period of great theological and political turmoil in the Byzantine Empire and participated in the theological debates of his day. Kukai was a Japanese monk who studied esoteric Buddhism in China and returned to establish an esoteric lineage in Japan, allowing it to survive after its demise in China. In the first half of my dissertation, I investigate their philosophical understandings of identity, what makes a thing what it is and not something else. I consider this their metaphysic (using the term in the broadest sense of an account of reality). I begin by looking at their religio-philosophical contexts which informed their thought and then on texts written by my principles themselves. Maximus’ understanding, shaped by Greek philosophy and early Christian theologians, is embodied in a triad of concepts – logoi, divine ideas and wills which bestow being on created things and hold them in existence; tropoi, the modes of existence of particular creatures and hypostasis, the individual existent or creature which exists in the tension between logoi and tropoi. The core of Kukai’s understanding is funi (不二) or non-duality, a doctrine that has both epistemic and ontological implications. It is grounded in the experience of meditation as well as the esoteric Buddhist teaching of muge (無礙), the mutual interpenetration and non-obstruction of all things. It is a doctrine central to esotericism but also has roots in prajnāpāramitā (“perfection of wisdom”) literature, important to many schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism. How they understand ‘identity’ is central to their philosophy and will reflect in both the practices they advocate and the rationale for them After establishing and explicating their understanding of identity, in consequent chapters I look at the praxes that they advocate and their metapraxis or reasoning behind these practices. I focus on regimes of self-cultivation, such as meditation, prayer, virtuous behavior, various ritual activities and how they lead to the ultimate goal of divinization. In Maximus, this process of divinization is called theosis (θέωσις), ‘deification’. He follows in a long line of Christian thinkers who hold that God created human beings in order to make them like himself, to become by grace what God is by nature. In Kūkai, this process is known as sokushin jōbutsu (即身成仏), ‘becoming a Buddha in this very existence’. He is the heir to an esoteric tradition that holds that all sentient beings are originally enlightened, they have Buddha-mind or already are the Buddha, but this reality is obscured by a profound miscognition of the reality which gives rise to egoistic craving. In the final section, I look more closely at these respective accounts of divinization, to show the profound parallels and divergences found in their thought and elucidate the source of these differences in their respective metaphysic, their accounts of identity; how does identity shape practice? What informs this understanding of identity? This is the larger question I am seeking to address. In doing so, even though my research is limited in focus to two particular thinkers, they do act as representatives of two larger traditions, Early/Eastern Christianity and Japanese Buddhism. The answers they give to this question reflect the insights and positions offered by these larger traditions.
    • Becoming Nothing to Become Something: Methods of Performer Training in Hijikata Tatsumi's Buto Dance

      Kahlich, Luke C.; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Williams-Witherspoon, Kimmika (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      ABSTRACT This study investigates performer training in ankoku buto dance, focusing specifically on the methods of Japanese avant-garde artist Hijikata Tatsumi, who is considered the co-founder and intellectual force behind this form. The goal of this study is to articulate the buto dancers preparation and practice under his direction. Clarifying Hijikata's embodied philosophy offers valuable scholarship to the ongoing buto studies dialogue, and further, will be useful in applying buto methods to other modes of performer training. Ultimately, my plan is to use the findings of this study in combination with research in other body-based performance training techniques to articulate the pathway by which a performer becomes empty, or nothing, and what that state makes possible in performance. In an effort to investigate the historically-situated and culturally-specific perspective of the body that informed the development of ankoku buto dance, I am employing frameworks provided by Japanese scholars who figure prominently in the zeitgeist of 1950s and 1960s Japan. Among them are Nishida Kitaro, founder of the Kyoto School, noted for introducing and developing phenomenology in Japan, and Yuasa Yasuo, noted particularly for his study of ki energy. Both thinkers address the body from an experiential perspective, and explore the development of consciousness through bodily sensation. My research draws from personal interviews I conducted with Hijikatas dancers, as well as essays, performance videos and films, and Hijikata's choreographic notebooks. I also track my own embodied understanding of buto, through practicing with these various teachers and using buto methods to teach and create performance work.
    • Becoming Undisciplined: Interdisciplinary Issues and Methods in Dance Studies Dissertations from 2007-2009

      Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Hilsendager, Sarah Chapman; Kahlich, Luke C.; Levitt, Laura, 1960-; Melzer, Patricia, 1970- (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      The purpose of this study is to begin to articulate the theoretical identity of the field of dance studies as an academic discipline and to produce a feminist intervention into the phenomena of disembodied scholarship, while asking questions about disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity within dance studies historically and today. My primary research questions are: What are dance studies research methods? And, which research methods, if any, are inherent to dance as an academic discipline? In order to answer these seemingly direct and simple questions, I also question the assumption that we know what dance studies research methods are. In Chapter 1 I first introduce and qualify myself as a dance artist and scholar, connecting my own experiences to my research; I narrate my research questions in detail and describe the significance, limitations, and scope of this project. In Chapters 2 and 3 I provide a history of the disciplinary and interdisciplinary origins of dance studies in higher education and situate that history within contemporary conversations in dance studies on disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity. In Chapter 4 I offer an analysis of the National Dance Education Organization's (NDEO) Research Priorities for Dance Education: A Report to the Nation and The Dance Education Literature and Research descriptive index (DELRdi), an online searchable database that aims to document all literature and research in dance education (not dance studies) from 1926 to the present, as it relates to issues and methods in my own research. In Chapter 5 I identify and describe current research methods found in all dance studies dissertations granted from the 4 doctoral programs in Dance in the United States over a three-year period. This chapter begins to articulate the current theoretical identity of the field. I examine and report on current trends in dance studies research methods and draw comparisons across dance studies doctoral programs, setting the foundation for future discussion of dance studies research methods. In Chapter 6 I summarize the project and make suggestions for the future. A feminist lens is used throughout as a way of providing a feminist intervention into the phenomena of disembodied scholarship by asking questions about research methods (particularly the use of critical theory as a method for research and writing about dance) and if or how particular research methods lead to the production of embodied or disembodied scholarship.
    • Beginning Band Students' Familiarity with Method Book Repertoire as Predictor of Music Achievement

      Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.); Buonviri, Nathan O.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Folio, Cynthia; Hattikudur, Shanta (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The purpose of this research was to examine the potential relationship between students’ degree of familiarity with repertoire common to beginning band method books and aural-based music achievement after one year of study. Three research questions guided this study: (1) Which songs from the Familiar Repertoire Survey (FRS) are reported as being the most and least familiar to the sample? (2) For a familiar song, “Lightly Row,” can FRS scores predict (a) Familiar Music Achievement Singing Test (FMAST) scores, (b) Familiar Music Achievement Playing Test (FMAPT) scores, (c) Familiar Music Achievement Improvisation Singing Test (FMAIST) scores, and (d) Familiar Music Achievement Improvisation Playing Test (FMAIPT) scores? (3) For an unfamiliar song, “Finish Line,” can FRS scores predict (a) Unfamiliar Music Achievement Singing Test (UMAST) scores, (b) Unfamiliar Music Achievement Playing Test (UMAPT) scores, (c) Unfamiliar Music Achievement Improvisation Singing Test (UMAIST) scores, and (d) Unfamiliar Music Achievement Improvisation Playing Test (UMAIPT) scores? Participants (N = 17) were fifth and sixth grade students enrolled in their second year of beginning band in a New Jersey elementary school. I created two measurement instruments: FRS, designed to gauge the breadth and depth of students’ familiarity with songs common to beginning band method books, and the Music Achievement Test (MAT) designed to measure aural-based music achievement in singing, playing by ear, and improvising on a familiar and unfamiliar song. In the first session, participants completed FRS by listening to songs common to beginning band books and completing a Likert-type survey on their familiarity with each song. Later, participants watched MAT through an interactive video which prompted them to complete eight musical subtests. I recorded all performances. Judges rated each performance with two rating scales. I analyzed the frequency of responses for each song and found “Hot Cross Buns,” “Jingle Bells,” “Pierrot,” “Lightly Row,” and “London Bridge” to be the most familiar songs. Through linear regressions, I analyzed the ability of FRS to predict MAT scores. I found a significant regression equation between FRS and its ability to predict FMAST scores and UMAIST scores. The current exploratory study contained many limitations which restricts its generalizability to other beginning band populations; however, six conclusions can be made. Familiarity with common beginning band repertoire as represented by a selection of 24 songs common to beginning band method books does not predict students’ achievement (a) singing an unfamiliar song, (b) demonstrating through singing improvisation based on a familiar song, (c) playing by ear a familiar or unfamiliar song, and (d) improvising on an instrument, whether improvising within the context of a familiar or unfamiliar song. Familiarity with common beginning band repertoire does predict students’ achievement (a) singing a familiar song and (b) demonstrating through singing improvisation based on an unfamiliar song.
    • Behind 'The Veil of Race-Neutrality': Sharing Responsibility for Racial Justice and Cultivating Democratic Equality of Difference

      Hammer, Espen; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Solomon, Miriam; Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      This dissertation adopts a ‘social criticism’ model in order to analyze racism in our contemporary world – particularly the United States. This analysis offers a detailed account of racism as rooted in social structural processes, and prioritizes oppression and domination as the chief wrongs resulting from racism. To do so, said analysis highlights norms, ideals, policies, and actions, that are often assumed to be ‘race neutral’ (e.g., impartiality, merit, ‘natural rights’, and autonomy), and the role they play in the production of racial injustice. More specifically, it exposes how these norms function to undermine human agency by restricting means for self-development and self-determination. As such, the role that inclusive and democratic deliberation can play in combating racial oppression and domination is developed. In light of this analysis, a defense of a ‘concrete morality’ which prioritizes the fight against oppression and domination, is made against an ‘abstract morality’ that adheres to ‘ideally just’ principles regardless of the injustice that results from doing so. Moreover, this project develops a ‘shared responsibility model’ for racial injustice, articulating varying degrees and kinds of responsibility we have for correcting it. It concludes by offering ‘democratic equality of difference’ as a normative ideal for cultivating racial justice. Generally, said ideal aims to: create basic conditions for the self-development and collective self-determination of all; cultivate a universally inclusive and ongoing process of democratic deliberation for solving collective problems; and attend to difference when deliberating about matters of justice.
    • Behind the Scenes and Across Screens: Michael Jackson, His Dancing Chorus, and the Commercial Dance Industry

      Dodds, Sherril, 1967-; Franko, Mark; Welsh-Asante, Kariamu; Goldin-Perschbacher, Shana; Powers, Devon (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Behind the Scenes and Across Screens: Michael Jackson, His Dancing Chorus, and the Commercial Dance Industry examines the history, ideologies, and production culture of the Los Angeles commercial dance industry. Michael Jackson was the best-selling crossover pop star of the 1980s, and a recognized vanguard of music video dance who worked with many dancers and choreographers from both “studio” and “street” dance backgrounds. My focus on Jackson, his choreographic and dancing collaborators, the different styles of dance incorporated into their works, and the dynamics and aims of the conglomerate entertainment/advertising industry in which these works were produced contributes to a critical examination of commercial dance more broadly. I argue that during the critical juncture of the 1980s, the works of Jackson and his dancing chorus illuminate both the enduring paradigms and shifting dynamics of the commercial dance industry regarding practices of attribution and recognition, commodity culture and commercialism, and racial politics and ideology. My dual analytic framework of behind the scenes and across screens recognizes commercial dance works as both creative processes and commercial products. Behind the scenes examines creative labor and production practices, shedding light on how the industry functions in social, political, and economic terms. The original intention of the producers frequently differs from how consumers interpret the mass-produced artifacts. Therefore, across screens explores how divergent dance aesthetics, cultural trends, and semiotic tropes circulate via various screen technology, are re-circulated as cultural commodities, and might be received by different audiences. Together, both analytic perspectives reveal commercial dance’s complicated, sometimes contradictory, multivalence, especially regarding race. Methodologically, Behind the Scenes and Across Screens is rooted in dance studies, but draws upon the disciplinary lenses of historiography, production studies, African American cultural studies, racial theory, media studies, and screendance studies. Through archival research, interviews, and screendance analyses, I examine the entangled themes of attribution, commercialism, and race as they manifest in some of Jackson’s most iconic commercial dance works from the 1980s. The focus on Jackson and his chorus illuminates the historically vexed status of dance as labor and divergent practices of credit-giving, how commodity culture and crossover marketing shape the dancing, and how commercial dance variously redresses or reifies past racial politics and contemporary racial ideologies. While I highlight the ways in which commercial dance workers assert their agency and attempt to make dances that offer positive social messages, ultimately the paradigms regarding labor, commercialism, and race in which the commercial dance industry is imbricated curtails progressive political critique.
    • Behind the Visor: A Qualitative Exploration of the Psychological Skills of Formula One Race Car Drivers

      Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Schifter, Catherine (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This qualitative study examined the psychological demands of Formula One Racing, and the psychological skills former Formula One drivers utilized to meet those demands. The participants were nine former drivers, from six different countries, who have competed in at least one Formula One World Drivers Championship grand prix. The qualitative data were gathered using a semi-structured interview framework, developed by the researcher, to explore the psychological skills established from other validated psychological skills questionnaires, such as the Test of Performance Strategies, (Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999). Eight of the interviews were done via Skype, and one interview was performed in person. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then sent to the participants to make any edits or corrections. Once the transcriptions were approved, the data were coded by the researcher using constant comparative methods as described in Charmaz (2006). Three phases of coding resulted in four themes and 14 sub-themes. The themes that emerged include: (1) Applied Sport Psychology in Formula One, (2) Psychological Skills, (3) Uncontrollable Aspects of Competition, (4) Career Components. Drivers used various psychological skills in a focused effort to aid their performance. Drivers discussed the important role psychology plays in their sport, and the psychological resources available to them during their career. Drivers discussed the danger element of their competition, and how they and their competitors managed the fear associated with racing. The drivers in this study competed in an era that was much more dangerous than the current era of Formula One racing (Barnes, 2013). The drivers' use of psychological skills, and perceptions of sport psychology, may guide consultants working with race car drivers and those working with other populations that have similar psychological and physical demands.

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Many community-based organizations in urban areas of the United States exist to address the needs of their neighborhood and bridge the gap between the healthcare system and their community. In the Primary Care setting, healthcare providers have the opportunity to address those needs, either through their own expertise or through connecting patients with other resources. Despite this unique role of Primary Care Providers (PCPs), many of them are unaware of the resources that exist in their very own community. PCPs need awareness of, as well as partnership with, these community-based organizations. Integrating these resources into patient care will allow providers to improve health on a population level through a more robust response to patient and community needs. This will ultimately lead to a reduction of health disparities and improved quality of life in the community. This thesis seeks to explore strategies and resources that PCPs can use to better address patient and community needs.
    • Being Thought and Thinking Being in Hegel's Science of Logic

      Hammer, Espen; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Botwinick, Aryeh; Hebbeler, James (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      My aim in this dissertation is to explain Hegel’s motivation for, and the doctrine of, the identity of the identity and difference of thought and being and argue that while thought and being differ, their nature is identical. This identity is used to explain Hegel’s claim that what is real is rational and what is rational is real. The aim of this dissertation is squarely placed within ontology, and my interest is in the structure of being as opposed to metaphysical contents. Within this structure, I argue, Hegel shows us the irreversible method of that which comes to be and ceases to be. This method (or nature) is a rational process of being itself, which, while its contents are forever changing, they do so from the same invariant identity of thought and being. As a matter of method, there is an increasing difficulty in assessing the merit of Hegel’s account of thought and being – obscuring what merit my interpretation may offer. The difficulty is a growing trend in combining Hegel’s work with specific Kantian ambitions where Hegel is forced into cognitive restrictions he does not have. As indebted as Hegel is to Kant, I argue that Hegel’s value lies in his break with Kant’s critical program. This break affords a new understanding of category theory apart from our subjective acts of understanding. With this new understanding, we can grasp the identity of thought and being through what I take to be a more promising account of cognition than what much of contemporary Hegel scholarship has offered by interpreting Hegel’s work as a completion of Kant’s. I sequence the chapters of this dissertation to trace Hegel’s increasing philosophic distance from Kant on those issues that interfere with understanding Hegel’s identity of thought and being. However, to demonstrate this distance and still progress to Hegel’s position apart from Kant, I limit my discussion of Kant to Hegel’s interpretation of Kant’s work and motivation. This limitation comes with the weakness that Kantian responses to Hegel exist but are not presented. However, this dissertation does not aim at defending Hegel’s interpretation of Kant but explains what Hegel has made of Kant’s texts to further Hegel’s arguments. Lastly, for what philosophic utility may be gained from this dissertation, Hegel offers the freedom for critical investigation regarding ontological and metaphysical matters without the presupposition of metaphysical commitments. This topic is treated at length in the last chapter of this dissertation. What is presented in this dissertation is a method by which no more is assumed than the inability to deny that thought exists, as such a denial presupposes thought, and then to trace the implications of the existence of thought according to what its occurrence signifies. Employing this method allows us to be metaphysically neutral and approach being as philosophically accessible.
    • "Being Vietnamese": The Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the United States during the Early Cold War

      Immerman, Richard H.; Farber, David R.; Simon, Bryant; Quinn-Judge, Sophie; Buzzanco, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This dissertation examines the early U.S.-D.R.V. relationship by analyzing related myths and exploring Viet Minh policies. I go beyond the previous literature to examine the Viet Minh government's modernization and anti-imperialist projects, both of which proved critical to D.R.V. policy evolution and the evolution of a new national identity. During the French era, as Vietnamese thinkers rethought the meaning of "being Vietnamese," groups like the Viet Minh determined that modernization was the essential to Vietnam's independence and that imperialist states like the U.S. posed a serious threat to their revolution and their independence. I argue that D.R.V. officials dismissed all possibility of a real alliance with the U.S. long before 1950. Soviet and Chinese mentors later provided development aid to Hanoi, while the D.R.V. maintained its autonomy and avoided becoming a client state by seeking alliances with other decolonizing countries. In doing so, Vietnamese leaders gained their own chances to mentor others and improve their status on the world stage. After Geneva, Hanoi continued to advance modernization in the North using a variety of methods, but its officials also heightened their complaints against the U.S. In particular, the D.R.V. denounced America's invasion of South Vietnam and its "puppet" government in Saigon as evidence of an imperialist plot. In advocating an anti-imperialist line and modernized future, D.R.V. leaders elaborated a new national identity, tying modernization and anti-imperialism inextricably to "being Vietnamese." Yet modernization presented serious challenges and Hanoi's faith in anti-imperialism had its drawbacks, limiting their ability to critique and evaluate the U.S. threat fully.
    • Belief, Affect, and Cognitive Dissonance During Repeated Information Exposure: Testing the Sequential Information Integration Model

      Cai, Deborah A.; Fink, Edward L.; LaMarre, Heather; Chung, Sungeun (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Cognitive dissonance is one of the most frequently cited theories in social psychology (Cooper, 2007) and has been studied in many communication contexts. Although there are many situations in which people need to repeatedly reduce dissonance concerning the same focal belief or behavior, the vast majority of dissonance studies have focused on single instances of dissonance (McGrath, 2017). This dissertation addresses the question of how beliefs and affect change in response to sequentially induced cognitive dissonance. Belief change is frequently studied as a mode of dissonance reduction (Vaidis & Bran, 2018). Information integration theory states that belief change is a function of the scale value (valence) and weight of each piece of information in a message, and that belief change in response to multiple pieces of information is a weighted sum of the valence of the pieces of information (Anderson, 1971; Anderson & Farkas, 1973). Using the sequential information integration model (SIIM; Chung & Fink, 2016; Chung, Fink, Waks, Meffert, & Xie, 2012), this 2 (statement type: justification vs. vote recall) x 2 (evaluation order: evaluation/affect vs. affect/evaluation) within- and between-subjects online experiment tested the effect of sequential induction of dissonance, via repeated exposure to incongruent information, on evaluations of candidates in a hypothetical congressional election. This study, which included 227 participants based in the U.S., replicated key findings from previous studies on belief trajectories, lending further support to the SIIM and illustrating the strength of decision justification as a mechanism for resisting belief change over time. It also found that people respond to negatively valenced messages, compared to positively valenced messages, with greater psychological discomfort and less positive affect even when both types of messages are counterattitudinal. Finally, this research found that people may continue to experience psychological discomfort until finding an effective way to reduce their dissonance. This dissertation replicates, in part, previous SIIM studies and offers insight into the question of how beliefs and affect change in response to sequentially induced cognitive dissonance.
    • Below The Depths With USS Becuna: Reinterpreting Cold War History Through Submarines and Cartoons

      Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Lowe, Hilary Iris; Brady, John (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Connecting people to the past through thought-provoking interpretations is one of the chief aims of history museums. The submarine USS Becuna at the Independence Seaport Museum (ISM), however, has been without critical interpretation since its opening as a museum in 1976. In order to better fulfill its mission, the museum must interpret Becuna’s Cold War history. This project explores the Cold War though the history of the submarine’s service and the lives of the submariners. First by examining submarines during the early decades of the Cold War, this paper fills in the gaps in the historiography of this overlooked part of naval history and reveals the major transitions that the submarine fleet underwent during the 1940s and 1950s. Then, by studying cartoons drawn by the submariners and other naval personal, this paper showcases their unfiltered attitudes about Cold War Era military life. Analyzing the naval cartoons reveals a number of themes, including tensions between enlisted crew and officers, hyper-sexualization of women, and underlying racism. These themes allow us to understand the Navy’s culture during those years since they reflect accepted social norms. Finally, this thesis details how the interpretation of the cartoons along with the submarine’s Cold War history can be integrated into a new app-based tour on the USS Becuna so that visitors can explore and interact with this socially important and forgotten history.

      Hill, Theodore L.; Chitturi, Pallavi; Harold, Crystal M.; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This dissertation investigates the role of organizational purpose as a driver in attracting employees to employers. The dissertation consists of two related studies both anchored in the literature on employer attraction, defined as the favorable interaction between potential applicants and the images, values, and information about an organization (Coldwell et al., 2008), and perceived fit, defined as the employee’s suitability with the culture and values of the organization (Hinkle, R. K., & Choi, N., 2009). In the first study, semi-structured interviews were performed on 23 prospective job seekers to explore the alignment between personal and organizational purpose in making an employer more attractive. The participants identified the opportunity for professional growth and development, the people with whom one works, and alignment with organizational purpose as key drivers of employer attraction over and above the usual concerns of compensation and job requirements. Interviewees invested in organizational purpose alignment with more emotional intensity; noted that alignment with organizational purpose was sometimes more important than compensation and stability; and suggested that the “pursuit of purpose is privilege” and, as such, influenced by an individual’s economic security. Reconciling these findings with extant theory, a new concept of Purpose-fit is proposed as an additional and important driver of employer attraction. Purpose-fit is defined as the perceived alignment of individual and organizational purpose assessed by job seekers through evaluation of image and reputation, mission and values, social contribution, and meaningful work. The second study utilized a choice-based conjoint survey to investigate the importance and tradeoffs between key drivers of employer attraction, including Purpose-fit, basic salary, opportunities for professional growth and development, and opportunities to work with similar people. The conjoint survey explored the effects of an employee’s generation, individual economic security, and reaction to respondent’s employer response to the social crisis of COVID-19 and the Black Lives Matter movement on the relative importance of Purpose-fit. There were four important findings: 1) Opportunity for professional growth and development was the dominant driver of employer attraction across all demographic segments; 2) Job seekers will trade off some level of salary for Purpose-fit, even if they experience economic insecurity; 3) Contrary to the extant literature, older generations placed more relative importance on Purpose-fit than younger generations; and 4) Prospective job seekers with positive employer experience in response to COVID-19 or Black Lives Matter placed higher relative importance of Purpose-fit, were more willingness to accept less pay, and reported lower levels of active job search. In summary, Purpose-fit emerged as an important driver of employer attraction among prospective job seekers, differentiated by generation, economic security, and positive experience of employers’ response to social crisis, resulting in reported willingness to accept less pay.
    • Benevolent Design and the Beloved Community: Legacies of Technological Discourse, Progress, Sanctuary, and Support in and around Historically Black Colleges and Universities

      Goldblatt, Eli; Williams, Roland Leander; Walters, Shannon; Hill, Marc Lamont (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      This dissertation is an interdisciplinary rhetorical project that explores the discourse of race and technology in the African-American experience, particularly at HBCUs. It examines HBCUs as a site that historically and actively embodies the African-American rhetorical tradition, resists American racial animus, and works as a conduit and a corrective for the discourse of race and technology in America. The first argument this dissertation makes is that there has been an ongoing discursive tradition of technology within the institutional framework of HBCUs that long prefigures “the digital divide” debate. These conversations not only envision how best technology can be used, but also how HBCU leaders envisioned an approach to technology in order to accomplish community goals. The second argument that this dissertation attempts to make is that this persistent discourse within HBCUs is embedded with an ethos of community well-being and support. I am referring to this notion of support as a “techno-ethos”: something hardwired into the DNA of HBCUs since its inception, and, when ignored, can have disastrous, embarrassing, or counterproductive results. Finally, this dissertation is designed to acknowledge the value of applying theories of technological discourse to the study of HBCUs and to offer avenues of practical application for the successful use of a techno-ethos of support for HBCUs on a programmatic and institutional level.

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; Stull, Judith C., 1944-; Farley, Frank; Hindman, Annemarie H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Students with an educational classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) make up 1.1% of the total enrollment in public schools and 8.3% of the total number of students receiving special education services and is the fastest growing disability classification (U.S. Department of Education, 2016). As more students with these unique needs begin to age out of the educational system, the demand for quality transition planning services that address the spectrum of ability in this population increases. While IDEA (2018) provides some basic guidelines, there is significant room for interpretation and individualization within these mandates. As such, practitioners are often left searching the available literature to determine the best way to provide students, families, and school personnel with some guidance in interpreting and implementing federal law. Furthermore, the best practices literature is limited and often does not address some of the unique needs of students with ASD, given the core features of the classification (Wehman, 2013). The current study evaluates school program variables that predict postsecondary outcomes in education/training and employment for students with ASD and considers the individual student and family variables that vary with this relationship. Consistent with the literature (Kohler & Fields, 2003), results suggest that student focused-planning, student development, and interagency collaboration correlate with postsecondary education/training and employment outcomes. In addition, consistent with what we know about the broader population of students receiving special education services (Landmark, et al., 2010) and the theoretical work (Wehman, et al., 2014), the current study demonstrates that inclusion in the general education setting in an academically rigorous content area is also related to postsecondary success in education/training and employment. These findings not only highlight the importance of including students with ASD in the general education classroom as part of their transition programming, but it also speaks to the need for additional research about inclusion practices as part of the child’s transition plan for students with ASD.
    • Better Selection of Virtual Machines for a MapReduce Environment

      Wu, Jie, 1961-; Tan, Chiu C.; Shi, Yuan (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      With the increase in the availability of large sets of data, comes the need for better and more sophisticated methods of handling and processing these sets. Due to the size and complexity of theses data sets, many users have moved to using distributed systems for storage and processing. With a distributed system, there are many different things that become much more complex and many more opportunities present themselves for issues. Out of this rose the paradigm of MapReduce. The basic idea of MapReduce is to minimize the work of the programmer and remove a lot of the chances of creating an error because of the distributed computation. To do this all the work is either done in the Map Phase by the Map Tasks or in the Reduce Phase in the Reduce tasks. Communication and synchronization is taken care of by Map Reduce so that users are protected from misusing them. Users may also want to use map reduce along with cloud computing. The most common resource that is rented from Amazon EC2 is virtual machines. Amazon offers many different sizes with different types of configuration. Some machines may be more specialized to handle CPU based jobs, while others might be optimized for memory or disk based jobs. Each of these different VM's comes with varying levels of CPU cores, RAM, and Storage capacity to match it's use. Each of theses virtual machines also has its own cost per hour. This means that simply selecting the largest or strongest machine may not be the best option if one is trying to get the most for their money. The other resource that amazon offers is called elastic storage blocks. The basic idea of the the elastic storage blocks, is to offer a users more storage capacity to add to their virtual machine. Like the virtual machines, storage space is has a per hour cost that depends on the amount of space used, as well as type of storage requested. These storage volumes, once purchased, can be attached to a virtual machine and used as extended storage capacity. For this thesis, we will look at how users can best select they type of virtual machine to fit some MapReduce job.