• ATTENDING TO LEARN WHILE LEARNING TO ATTEND: RECIPROCAL RELATIONS BETWEEN INFANT ATTENTION AND CONTINGENT CONTINGENT INTERACTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

      Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Weinraub, Marsha; Marshall, Peter J.; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Bahrick, Lorraine E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Social contingency, or prompt and meaningful back-and-forth exchanges between infant and caregiver, is a powerful feature of the early language environment. Research suggests that infants with better attentional skills engage in more social contingency during interactions with adults and that adult contingent responding influences infant attention during the interaction. This dissertation examines reciprocal relations between infant attention and social contingency as well as the associations each have with infant language. This study utilizes secondary data from 106 participants collected as part of a longitudinal study of attention development run at Florida International University. Sustained attention (duration of looking) and attention shifting (speed of gaze-shifting) were assessed at 6 months and 12 months in social and nonsocial contexts with varying levels of distraction. Social contingency was assessed during toy play with a caregiver at 6 months and 12 months using fluency and connectedness. Child language was measured via caregiver-report and direct assessment at 18 months. Results indicated that attention shifting related more strongly to contingency at 6 months and sustained attention related more strongly at 12 months. Sustained attention to nonsocial stimuli and attention shifting towards social stimuli related most strongly to contingency. Attention and contingency each related to language independently. These findings suggest that attentional skills relate to both contingency and language. These relations shift over the first year of life, and the attentional skills that relate to contingency may not be the same as those that relate to language development broadly.
    • Attention Bias and Attentional Control in the Development of Social Anxiety Disorder

      Heimberg, Richard G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Chein, Jason M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Kendall, Philip C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Although several efficacious treatments exist for social anxiety disorder (SAD), less research has been devoted to identifying specific mechanisms involved in the etiology of SAD using high-risk, longitudinal designs. Given the high prevalence and personal and societal burden associated with a diagnosis of SAD, research is needed to elucidate causal factors at play in the development of SAD to inform innovative prevention programs for at-risk individuals. Theoretical models and empirical research suggest that biased attention toward threat-relevant information is an important factor in the maintenance of SAD. However, relatively little is known about the role of attention bias to threat in the development of SAD, and evidence is inconclusive with regard to whether attention biases lead to increases in anxiety over time. Also, only one study has examined attentional control as a potential factor moderating this relationship despite long-held assertions that "control over cognitive processes" may be an important individual difference factor determining the strength of the relationship between attention bias and development of excessive anxiety. Finally, a few studies have shown that attention bias to threat predicts stress reactivity, but these studies have only been conducted in unselected samples rather than with individuals at risk for developing SAD. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the moderating effects of risk for SAD and attentional control on the relationships between attention bias to threat and (1) psychological and biological social stress reactivity and (2) development of SAD. The primary aim of the study was to examine the aforementioned relationships using attention bias to threat as assessed using the modified probe detection task (MPDT). In an exploratory analysis, the relationships were examined using an index of attention disengagement bias assessed with the Posner spatial cueing task (PSCT). Attentional control was represented by four indices, analyzed in separate regression analyses given their weak bivariate associations (i.e., Antisaccade task reaction time and accuracy rate, Attention Network Test executive control score, and total score on the Attentional Control Scale). First-year college students at low or high risk for developing SAD completed assessments of attention bias, attentional control, and anxiety during their first month of college. Approximately four months later, they completed a social stressor task and the same self-report measures of social anxiety. At the end of their first year in college, they completed the self-report measures of social anxiety once more, as well as a diagnostic interview for SAD. Correlational analyses indicated that attention bias to threat on the MPDT was associated with concurrent self-reported social anxiety but did not prospectively predict psychological or biological social stress reactivity, self-reported social anxiety, or SAD diagnostic status at the end of the first year in college. Hierarchical regression analyses supported the hypothesized double moderation for concurrent social anxiety, such that high levels of attentional control weakened the association between attention bias toward threat and social anxiety, only among the individuals at high risk for SAD. However, analyses did not support this relationship in predicting prospective outcomes, and several unexpected patterns emerged in which interactions between attention bias and attentional control were observed to predict prospective outcomes, but only among individuals at low risk for developing SAD. Likewise, exploratory analyses using the PSCT index of attention bias revealed unexpected interactions between risk group, attention bias, and attentional control. Considered together, results of the current study highlight the importance of considering individual differences in attention bias and attentional control in the maintenance and development of SAD.
    • Attentional Bias for Affective Stimuli: Evaluation of Disengagement in Persons with and without Self-reported Generalized Anxiety Disorder

      Heimberg, Richard G.; Giovannetti, Tania; Fauber, Robert L.; Ellman, Lauren M.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Johnson, Kareem (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      A core feature of GAD, excessive and uncontrollable worry, may be indicative of poor attentional control and difficulty disengaging attention from threatening or emotional information (e.g., Fox, 2004; Mathews, Fox, Yiend, & Calder, 2003; Yiend & Mathews 2001). The current study examined the performance of college students with and without self-reported GAD (N = 63) on measures of attentional control and a spatial cueing task designed to assess engagement-disengagement processes from emotionally valenced (aversive, pleasant) and neutral picture stimuli. Attentional control abilities were examined using the Stroop Color-Word Association Test (SCW Test) and Trail-Making Test (TMT). Separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) demonstrated that GAD participants performed more poorly on the Stroop Color subtest and the TMT: Part B than non-GAD participants. Mixed ANOVAs of response times measured during the spatial cueing task revealed significant main effects for Cue Valence and Cue Validity, as well as several significant interactions of these variables with GAD status. The significant Cue Valence x Cue Validity x GAD status interaction indicated that GAD participants were slower to disengage their attention from aversive stimuli, relative to pleasant or neutral stimuli, than non-GAD participants who did not exhibit this bias. This interaction effect, however, did not remain significant upon covarying for depression. Together, these findings suggest that individuals with GAD evidence poorer attentional control and demonstrate difficulties disengaging from threatening stimuli compared to persons without the disorder. Impairment in these attentional processes may, therefore, contribute to the etiology and maintenance of GAD.
    • Attentional Processes in Youth with ASD and Co-Occurring Anxiety

      Kendall, Philip C.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Chein, Jason M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Weisberg, Robert W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Prior research suggested that attentional control plays a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in youth. Research also suggests that youth on the autism spectrum suffer from difficulties in executive functioning, including attentional control. The current study investigated the relationship between attentional control and autism spectrum symptoms. The relationship between attentional control, anxiety, and emotion regulation skills was also explored. Participants were 76 treatment seeking youth between the ages of 7 and 17 (Mage = 11.05, SD = 2.99) who met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder and had either minimal symptoms of autism spectrum disorder or severe levels of autism symptoms. Results failed to find evidence that those with severe autism symptoms had more attentional control difficulties than those with minimal autism symptoms. The results also failed to show a link between anxiety levels and attentional control variables, as well as a link between emotion regulation and attentional control. Consistent with previous research, poor emotion regulation skills were correlated with higher levels of anxiety. Potential reasons for lack of significant findings are discussed, as well as implications for the present data on current research.
    • Attitudes, Identification, Decisions to Report, and Bystander Factors Among College Freshman Regarding Sexual Assault

      Farley, Frank; DuCette, Joseph P.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Sexual assault has increasingly become a large problem on college and university campuses in the United States. Not only is the frequency of the occurrences problematic, but the lack of reporting, the mishandling of cases, and efforts to stop campus sexual assaults have also garnered a large amount of attention. While many research studies have focused on the effectiveness of educational programs aimed to increase awareness, reporting, and prevention of sexual assault among college students, not many studies have examined if students’ abilities to identify sexual assaults in contextual situations and their attitudes regarding sexual assault are affected by these programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate if students entered college with attitudes that are supportive of sexual assault, the ability of first-semester college freshman to identify sexual assault within contexts, students’ decision to report a perceived sexual assault, the likelihood that students would intervene as a bystander, and demographics related to student attitudes toward, identification of, and decisions to report sexual assaults. Participants in this study were 551 freshmen in their first-semester at Temple University, who were 18 or 19 years of age. Participants completed a survey which consisted of demographic questions, 11 original vignettes depicting potential sexual assault scenarios, the updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale, and the Type T personality questionnaire. Results revealed that about one-third of students surveyed did not completely disagree with sexual assault-supportive statements on the updated IRMA scale, with the He Didn’t Mean To and She Lied attitudes being the most popularly endorsed. Students who endorsed sexual assault-supportive attitudes were significantly more likely to misidentify an instance of sexual assault and to not report a perceived sexual assault in some scenarios. In regards to demographics, males were more likely than females to endorse sexual assault-supportive attitudes, to misidentify sexual assaults, to not report a perceived sexual assault in some scenarios, and they were less likely than females to intervene as a bystander in a sexual assault scenario. Sexuality and ethnic identification had some effect on attitudes endorsed and ethnic identity had an effect on the decision to report a sexual assault in two specific scenarios. In addition, the type of high school students attended and the types of sexual education topics they were educated on prior to college were significantly linked to attitudes endorsed, and the type of high school students attended was significantly linked to identifying instances of sexual assault. The growing issue of campus sexual assault is represented by the amount of students in this study who cannot correctly identify sexual assault situations, by the attitudes that contribute to the occurrences of sexual assault, and by the reasons why students feel sexual assault scenarios should not be reported. The significant relationship between endorsing attitudes and incorrectly identifying sexual assaults, as well as the decision to not report perceived sexual assaults, supports the potentially harmful effects having an attitude that essentially supports sexual assault can have in society. Prevention efforts need to address the root of a problem, which in this case is a culture where sexual assault, largely against women, is excused, dismissed, and subsequently deemed acceptable. Thus, adolescents should be educated and provided with appropriate messaging on topics related to sexual assault well before they enter college.
    • ATTRIBUTIONS, INFLUENCES AND OUTCOMES FOR UNDERREPRESENTED AND DISADVANTAGED PARTICIPANTS OF A MEDICAL SCIENCES ENRICHMENT PIPELINE PROGRAM

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Ikpa, Vivian W.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Hunt, Portia L.; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin, 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The current study was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the Rowan University-School of Osteopathic Medicine - Summer Pre-Medical Research and Education Program (Summer PREP), a postsecondary medical sciences enrichment pipeline program for under-represented and disadvantaged students. Thirty-four former program participants were surveyed (Male=11; Female=23) regarding their current vocational status, undergraduate experience, attributions of success, aspirations for advancement and satisfaction with their professional outcomes and Summer PREP experience. The 5-year undergraduate graduation rate and post-baccalaureate enrollment rate was higher than a national reference population of young adults. The group's average GPA and average MCAT score were comparable to those of other minority applicants and matriculants to osteopathic medical schools nationally. Female respondents reported lower levels of satisfaction with the program and their current academic and professional attainments (p<.05) relative to male participants. They also reported much lower expectations for remaining or advancing in their chosen fields (p<.003). Students rated the contribution of medical specialty area seminars, interactions with interns, residents, medical and graduate students, and faculty mentoring highest among the program's components. The study demonstrated that Summer PREP had a significant impact at the student level and was valued by former participants. The results were similar to other successful models of undergraduate pipeline programs designed to help prepare minority and disadvantaged students for entry into medical and graduate school. Implications for policy, future research, and program practice and administration at the postsecondary and professional school level are addressed. The value of the discourse is rooted in the need for supplemental education and training programs designed to improve postsecondary success among minority and disadvantaged students, their representation among healthcare professionals, and the expected increase in healthcare demands within minority, rural and underserved areas resulting from implementation of the Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act.
    • Audit Pricing and Strategic Group Analysis in the Public Accounting Industry

      Banker, Rajiv D.; Press, Eric; Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Mudambi, Ram, 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Empirical analysis of the public accounting industry has been considerably limited due to lack of data availability. This dissertation proposal leverages a unique dataset of public accounting firms in Korea ranging from 1997 to 2011 to examine the industry's strategic groups and pricing decisions in light of considerable economic forces in a changing environment. I draw upon the theory of strategic groups (Hunt 1972; Caves and Porter 1977; Porter 1980) to distinctly identify strategic groups within the public accounting industry and how group membership explains performance differences. Further, I augment traditional audit fee models (Ferguson et al. 2003, Chaney et al. 2004, and Francis et al. 2005) by incorporating strategic group analysis to show that the relationships between audit fee determinants and audit fees are moderated by auditor strategic group membership.
    • Auditors' Reactions to and Companies' Control of Classification Shifting

      Krishnan, Jagan; Basu, Sudipta, 1965-; Gordon, Elizabeth A. (Associate professor); Mao, Connie X. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Classification shifting is an earnings management tool that managers use to misclassify items within the income statement to inflate core earnings (McVay 2006). This study investigates how high-quality auditors (i.e., Big Four auditors, auditors with long tenure, and industry-specialist auditors) respond to managers' usage of classification shifting and also how the existence of internal control deficiencies affect the incidence of classification shifting. I adopt the models of Fan, Barua, Cready and Thomas (2010). My empirical analyses are based on quarterly financial data during the sample period of 1988-2007. I find that before the passage of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), industry specialist auditors are able to curb the incidence of classification shifting. This is consistent with the findings of previous studies that high-quality auditors are capable of preventing managers from manipulating earnings. Furthermore, I document that before the passage of SOX, a high-quality auditor (i.e., a Big Four auditor) at a local audit office is likely to mitigate the classification shifting behavior of an economically important client. However, after the passage of SOX, a high-quality auditor (i.e., a Big Four auditor, an auditor with long tenure, or an industry-specialist auditor) is inclined to allow the classification shifting behavior if the client brings large revenues to the local office. This supports the "substitution effect", which suggests that companies replace the accrual-based management with the usage of other earnings management methods in the post-SOX period. Finally, I find that there is no relationship between the existence of material internal control weakness and the incidence of classification shifting. While there are ample studies about the reaction of high-quality auditors to the usage of accrual-based management and real activities management, my study provides empirical evidence about how high-quality auditors deal with the incidence of classification shifting. My study also provides an understanding about how an internal control system can influence managers' decision of choosing earnings management methods.
    • AUGMENTED REALITY AND PRESENCE IN HEALTH COMMUNICATION AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE EMPATHY OF HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS

      Lombard, Matthew; Murphy, Patrick D.; Ball, Jennifer Gerard; Sterling, Gerald H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      When healthcare professionals perceive patients’ symptoms through media or media technologies, how do they respond to them? Many studies have explored the effects of the film, novels, music on empathy and recently a few studies started focusing on the virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) that visualize patients’ invisible symptoms and their effects on the empathy of medical students as future healthcare professionals; however, their psychological processes are not fully elaborated yet. This dissertation was designed to detail the psychological processes evoked by AR that visually mimics migraine symptoms and uses presence and narrative transportation to increase empathy. A mixed-method study was conducted to untangle the psychological processes of presence, narrative transportation, and empathy by exploring their existence, nature, strength, and meanings. Two treatment conditions were created: a head-mounted display (HMD) as a high immersive condition and a handheld display as a low immersive condition with a focus on media immersiveness as the degree to which AR submerges its users’ perceptual system. The study participants were a small (n=27), but motivated group of medical student learners. In the quantitative results, AR was not visually immersive enough to evoke presence as a perceptual illusion of non-mediation directly since there were systematic effects of media immersiveness of AR on presence, but there were no significant effects of media immersiveness on presence when controlling for medical students’ tendencies and abilities. It was assumed that presence occurred as a constructive perceptual process indirectly mediated through medical students’ tendencies and abilities. In a canonical correlation and stepwise regression, the maximal correlation among immediate sense of presence and narrative transportation and situational empathy revealed an optimal degree of perceptual involvement that leads to sympathy as a positive state of situational empathy. Another canonical correlation and stepwise regression among the traits of immersive tendency and physician empathy and situational empathy showed that there is also an optimal degree of medical students’ sensitivity trait that leads to sympathy as a relatively stable situational empathy. Since, as interview results showed, medical students’ motives were prosocial, it is possible to interpret distress or sadness as another type of situational empathy entailing caring about others. In the qualitative results, there were close relationships between media environment and presence. An immersive virtual environment (IVE) via AR, which affords users the perceptual or embodied feeling of physically being surrounded by its represented environment, was closely related to sensorimotor perceptual processing of presence. A continuous immersive mixed environment (IME) via AR, which affords users the imaginatively situated feeling by mixed reality, extended presence in the actual environment through the process of narrative transportation and affect. The contributions of the findings to the theory and research literature regarding presence are discussed along with recommendations regarding practical contributions to ongoing efforts to enhance healthcare professionals’ empathy and thereby effectiveness in treating patients with migraines and other conditions and illnesses.
    • AURAL SUBSTANCE: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC EXPLORATION OF REGIONAL BURN SOUNDSCAPES

      Goldin-Perschbacher, Shana (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Once a year over the week leading up to and including Labor Day, tens of thousands of people drive hours into Nevada’s barren Black Rock Desert to build an ephemeral city equal to “the size of downtown San Francisco.” This place, Black Rock City, home of the annual Burning Man event, only exists for a fraction of the year. For one week, participants gather together at Burning Man and operate under its ten guiding principles, including “radical self-reliance,” “communal effort,” “radical self-expression,” and “participation.” Everything, with the exception of porta-potties and ice, must be brought in and packed out by individuals. The decommodified, volunteer-run city is what its inhabitants make of it. At Burning Man, attendants are their own event planners, food providers, structure builders, gift givers, and activity coordinators. On the penultimate night of the event, an effigy of a forty-foot man is set aflame, a ritual left open for interpretation by participants. Two days later, the entirety of Black Rock City is torn down, leaving scarcely any trace that it ever even existed. Burning Man has gained social traction exponentially since its launch in 1986, leading to the formation of dozens of individually organized regional burns across the United States of America and internationally. Scholars from many disciplines have flocked to the event attempting to unpack its distinct subculture. While publications have analyzed Burning Man’s ethos, logistics, business organization, community, art, rituals, fire, and performances, only two have considered sound worthy of focus and few have addressed the regional burn network. “Aural Substance: An Ethnographic Exploration of Regional Burn Soundscapes” analyzes Burning Man’s regional network, expanding on sound artists Stephan Moore and Scott Smallwood’s brief initial study of the national event's sound by way of ethnography and field recording. From June 2016 through February 2017, I conducted fieldwork and collected fifty-five hours of field recordings at seven different regional burns. I employ ethnomusicologist Steven Feld’s concept of “acoustemology,” or “sound as a way of knowing.” Through my observation, analysis of recordings, and interviews, I consider how the sounds at regional burns can signify the time, date, and location to burn participants. Sound-studies scholar David Novak writes that “noise is a crucial element of communicational and cultural networks.” In this study, I analyze how noise at a burn is not solely a by-product of participants’ “anarchistic freedom,” but a key part of the burn that relays information about regional burn values, public and private spaces, and burners’ lived experience.
    • Austria-Hungary and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: The Quest for Bread and the Fundamental Reordering of Europe

      Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Krueger, Rita (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      This thesis analyzes how the Habsburg state tried to preserve itself late in the First World War by cooperating with German plans to create a powerful Central European economic block. While Habsburg leaders initially aimed to preserve a conservative monarchical order in the Austro-Hungarian sphere of influence, this paper argues that the Dual Monarchy's response to the increasingly serious shortage of food and its economic negotiations with Germany, which culminated at the peace conference in Brest-Litovsk, show how by late 1917 the Habsburg state was willing to participate in a fundamental reordering of Europe in a final attempt to save itself.
    • Authenticity, Citizenship and Accommodation: LGBT Rights in a Red State

      Jhala, Jayasinhji; Melzer, Patricia, 1970-; Sanders, Rickie; White, Sydney Davant (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      "Authenticity, Citizenship and Accommodation: LGBT Rights in a Red State" examines the discourse around volunteerism, exceptionalism, and queer citizenship that emerged within the context of a statewide (anti-gay) ballot initiative campaign in the American Southwest. I argue that the ways in which local volunteers and activists define themselves and their attempts to defeat the ballot initiative is tied to the struggle over the authority to represent local LGBT organizational culture and an emergent New West identity. In such a way, local debates over authentic western lifestyles that divide regional communities intertwine with intergenerational debates over gay liberation and rights frameworks, and the polarized discourse on blue and red states which have dominated the U.S. political climate of the past decade. While statewide campaign leaders with a base in Phoenix (the state capital) focused on polling data and messaging in order to stop the passage of the amendment, many Tucson activists and organizational leaders tied to the LGBT community center sought to strategize a long-term grassroots approach to change hearts and minds. Within this debate over campaign strategy and internal decision-making, both groups drew attention to the differences between the metropolitan areas. This regional example speaks to the ways in which established theoretical frameworks anthropologists utilize to understand social movements may prove insufficient for understanding the diversity that exists within the everyday processes of collective action. The internal messaging war that spilled outside of the confines of the campaign steering committee meetings into the pages of the statewide gossip and newspaper editorial sections also speaks to the ways in which official declarations of ideological stance should not be taken as the actual intent of those seeking change. One may shape one's personal story to be on message, choose to defy those constraints, or use the rhetorical strategy of the message without actually committing to the underlying premise. The broader national concerns are localized symbolically in the notion of blue and red counties, but also take on a regional flavor in the satirical call to statehood for the Southern Arizona. Here issues of authenticity emerge not only within the context of the campaign disputes around messaging, and by extension, who has the right to speak for and about the LGBT organizational community, but also in the realm of derisive banter that travels back and forth between the two major metropolitan areas over what it means to live an authentic western lifestyle. Within the southern metropolis, this discourse is framed by the notion that the western desert is a different sort of place, with a different sort of people and way of life that is threatened by snowbirds, retirees, Midwestern lifestyles and corporate interests. Often Phoenix to the north is seen as a representation of all these negative influences. In addition, Center-based activists and volunteers, describe their southern city in idealistic terms as an oasis for LGBT community, artists, activists, migrants, refugees, and all manner of progressive politics. Memory enacted through the telling of one's story at a Coming Out Day testimonial, political rallies and in dialogue with an anthropologist are shaped by these notions of difference. These notions of difference also emerge as a pattern in the narrative construction of space, violence and memory within activist life histories. These life histories in turn reveal a fragment of local LGBT organizational culture, in which the process of professionalization transforms the meaning of community, and the act of representation transforms the role of activist into that of the citizen volunteer. The community center in this sense is a memorialization of community and movement culture, and by idealizing what came before it masks material conditions at the same time that it offers up the potential of a more radical present/future. While the community center, Tucson and Pima County are coded as oases of safety, this image is continually disrupted by counter narratives, including the state-wide campaign to stop the marriage amendment; local support for the Protect Marriage and anti-immigrant amendments; and evidence of on-going violence directed against racial, ethnic and religious minorities and those who transgress hetero and gender normative expectations. These disruptions however appear to be cyclical in that they allow both professionals and concerned community members (citizen volunteers) to rally together in a show of strength and solidarity and in so doing represent the authentic, legitimate community. However, these disruptions may also allow for counter narratives to enter into public discourse, thereby offering up a more radical envisioning of community beyond the limits of LGBT organizational culture.
    • AUTHORITATIVE LETTERS JEANNE DE CHANTAL AND FEMININE AUTHORITY IN THE EARLY MODERN CATHOLIC CHURCH

      Krueger, Rita; Levitt, Laura, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The early modern period of a time of religious renewal and upheaval that resulted in a wealth of new religious orders, particularly those for women. During this period of change, Catholic women responded to the threat of Protestantism by adapting the convent to their own needs. One of the most successful orders for women was the Congregation of the Visitation, founded by Jeanne de Chantal and François de Sales. The history of the Visitation tends to focus on de Sales rather than its cofounder de Chantal. This thesis attempts to reconcile this omission, detailing de Chantal's ability to demonstrate and enact her authority through the mode of letters. In doing so, this paper enters into a conversation on religious revival in the early modern period by illustrating the porous nature of the early modern convent and the role women had in shaping early modern religiosity.
    • AUTLER-TOWNES SPECTROSCOPY OF THE LITHIUM DIMER MOLECULE

      Lyyra, A. Marjatta; Riseborough, Peter; Tao, R. (Rongjia); Burkhardt, T. W. (Theodore W.), 1940-; Borguet, Eric (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This thesis consists of two experimental applications of the Autler-Townes (AT) spectroscopy. In the first experiment, we have determined the electronic transition dipole moment for the 7Li2 A1Σu+ - X1Σg+ system experimentally by using a 4-level continuous wave extended Λ excitation scheme and compared our results with theoretical predictions. 7Li2 is a good test case for the accuracy of the AT splitting based technique to determine the transition dipole moment and its internuclear distance R dependence. The molecule has only 3 electrons per atom. The A1Σu+ - X1Σg+ potential energy curves were well known and thus, one could calculate accurate rovibrational wavefunctions for the simulations. In addition two different quantum mechanical models were available for the comparison: an all-electron valence bond self-consistent-field method and a pseudo-potential molecular orbital method. Our experimental results for the absolute magnitude of the transition dipole matrix elements for rovibronic transitions for different R-centroid values are in excellent agreement with ab initio theoretical calculations of the transition dipole moment. We believe that this technique will become an important method for accurate measurement of the absolute value and R-dependence of electronic transition dipole moments in molecules. The comparison with theory reinforces this view on the accuracy and universality of the AT method. The focus of the second part of this thesis is on experimentally controlling the singlet-triplet character of the 7Li2 molecule by using an external coupling laser field. We have demonstrated experimentally for the first time that the frequency domain quantum control scheme developed by T.Kirova and F. C. Spano (Physical Review A, 71, 063816, 2005) can be used to control the mixing coefficients of a weakly perturbed pair of singlet and triplet rovibrational levels. The coupling field, when tuned to resonance with the rovibronic transition involving the singlet component, causes it to AT split, leading to enhanced mixing of the pair of levels, as predicted by theory.
    • Automated BESS Test for Diagnosis of Post- Concussive Symptoms using Microsoft Kinect

      Obeid, Iyad, 1975-; Obeid, Iyad, 1975-; Tucker, Carole A.; Won, Chang-Hee, 1967- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test is a commonly used tool for assessing static postural stability after concussion that quantifies compensatory arm, eye and trunk movements. However, since it is scored by clinician observation, it is potentially susceptible to biased and inaccurate test scores. It is further limited by the need for properly trained clinicians to simultaneously administer, score and interpret the test. Such personnel may not always be available when concussion testing is needed such as at amateur sporting events or in military field situations. In response, we are creating a system to automatically administer and score the BESS in field conditions. The system is based on the Microsoft Kinect, which is an inexpensive commodity motion capture system originally developed for gaming applications. The Kinect can be interfaced to a custom-programmed laptop computer in order to quantitatively measure patient posture compensations for preventing balance loss such as degree of hip abduction/flexion, heel lift, and hand movement. By (a) removing the need for an adequately trained clinician, and (b) using rugged off-the-shelf system components, it will be possible to administer concussion assessments outside of standard clinical settings. Future work will determine whether the system can reduce score variability between clinicians.
    • Automated Interpretation of Abnormal Adult Electroencephalograms

      Picone, Joseph; Obeid, Iyad, 1975-; Chitturi, Pallavi (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Interpretation of electroencephalograms (EEGs) is a process that is still dependent on the subjective analysis of the examiner. The interrater agreement, even for relevant clinical events such as seizures, can be low. For instance, the differences between interictal, ictal, and post-ictal EEGs can be quite subtle. Before making such low-level interpretations of the signals, neurologists often classify EEG signals as either normal or abnormal. Even though the characteristics of a normal EEG are well defined, there are some factors, such as benign variants, that complicate this decision. However, neurologists can make this classification accurately by only examining the initial portion of the signal. Therefore, in this thesis, we explore the hypothesis that high performance machine classification of an EEG signal as abnormal can approach human performance using only the first few minutes of an EEG recording. The goal of this thesis is to establish a baseline for automated classification of abnormal adult EEGs using state of the art machine learning algorithms and a big data resource – The TUH EEG Corpus. A demographically balanced subset of the corpus was used to evaluate performance of the systems. The data was partitioned into a training set (1,387 normal and 1,398 abnormal files), and an evaluation set (150 normal and 130 abnormal files). A system based on hidden Markov Models (HMMs) achieved an error rate of 26.1%. The addition of a Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SdA) post-processing step (HMM-SdA) further decreased the error rate to 24.6%. The overall best result (21.2% error rate) was achieved by a deep learning system that combined a Convolutional Neural Network and a Multilayer Perceptron (CNN-MLP). Even though the performance of our algorithm still lags human performance, which approaches a 1% error rate for this task, we have established an experimental paradigm that can be used to explore this application and have demonstrated a promising baseline using state of the art deep learning technology.
    • Autonomic Nervous System Functioning and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Childhood-Onset Conduct Disorder

      Drabick, Deborah A.; Marshall, Peter J.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Xie, Hongling; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Giovannetti, Tania (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Although the current literature demonstrates relations between autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning and conduct disorder (CD), there are inconsistencies across studies in the magnitude and direction of these associations, some of which may stem from heterogeneity within the CD diagnostic category. Considering callous-unemotional (CU) traits in research examining ANS functioning and CD relations could help to clarify these inconsistencies, given that CU traits identify a subgroup of youth with CD who exhibit a more severe and persistent course, as well as more negative correlates and sequelae than youth with CD without CU traits. However, there is a dearth of literature considering ANS processes among youth with CD with and without CU traits. Examining these relations, particularly during middle childhood when these processes may be amenable to intervention, has important implications for etiological, prevention, and intervention models. The present study examined relations among CD, CU, and ANS functioning among a sample of ethnic minority, urban children (N= 99, M= 9.87± 1.19 years old; 48.5% male; 94.9% African-American, 3% Latino/a). Specifically, I examined whether CU traits moderated the relations between CD and (a) parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) functioning and (b) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) functioning. In addition, I examined whether parenting behaviors (i.e., harsh parental discipline and parental warmth/involvement) influenced the relations between (a) CD and ANS functioning, and (b) CU and ANS functioning. Findings demonstrated that PNS functioning differed among children with high and low levels of CD symptoms depending on levels of CU traits. Within the current sample, among children with higher levels of CD symptoms, those with (a) higher CU symptom severity exhibited lower baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and lower RSA reactivity (PNS withdrawal), compared to those with (b) lower CU symptom severity who demonstrated higher baseline RSA and higher RSA reactivity (PNS activation). Among children with lower CD symptom severity, those with (a) higher CU symptom severity exhibited higher baseline RSA and higher RSA reactivity, compared to those with (b) lower CU symptom severity who evidenced lower baseline RSA and lower RSA reactivity. Neither harsh parental discipline nor parental warmth/involvement moderated the relations between (a) CD and ANS functioning and (b) CU and ANS functioning. However, there were marginally significant associations between baseline RSA and (a) harsh parental discipline and (b) parental warmth/involvement, as well as between RSA reactivity and parental warmth/involvement in analyses examining CD, parenting, and ANS functioning. Furthermore, parental warmth/involvement tended to be associated with RSA reactivity in the analyses examining CU, parenting, and ANS functioning. Results have implications for facilitating the identification of children at risk for developing more pernicious subtypes of behavior problems, and contribute important information for the development of more individualized and potentially effective interventions for youth behavior problems, particularly among high-risk youth.
    • Autonomy through real-time learning and OpenNARS for Applications

      Wang, Pei, 1958-; Vucetic, Slobodan; Payton, Jamie; Strannegård, Claes (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This work includes an attempt to enhance the autonomy of intelligent agents via real-time learning.In nature, the ability to learn at runtime gives species which can do so key advantages over others. While most AI systems do not need to have this ability but can be trained before deployment, it allows agents to adapt, at runtime, to changing and generally unknown circumstances, and then to exploit their environment for their own purposes. To reach this goal, in this thesis a pragmatic design (ONA) for a general-purpose reasoner incorporating Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System (NARS) theory is explored. The design and implementation is presented in detail, in addition to the theoretical foundation. Then, experiments related to various system capabilities are carried out and summarized, together with application projects where ONA is utilized: a traffic surveillance application in the Smart City domain to identify traffic anomalies through real-time reasoning and learning, and a system to help first responders by providing driving assistance and presenting of mission-critical information. Also it is shown how reliable real-time learning can help to increase autonomy of intelligent agents beyond the current state-of-the-art. Here, theoretical and practical comparisons with established frameworks and specific techniques such as Q-Learning are made, and it is shown that ONA does also work in non-Markovian environments where Q-Learning cannot be applied. Some of the reasoner's capabilities are also demonstrated on real robotic hardware. The experiments there show combining learning knowledge at runtime with the utilization of only partly complete mission-related background knowledge given by the designer, allowing the agent to perform a complex task from an only minimal mission specification which does not include learnable details. Overall, ONA is suitable for autonomous agents as it combines, in a single technique, the strengths of behavior learning, which is usually captured by Reinforcement Learning, and means-end reasoning (such as Belief-Desire-Intention models with planner) to effectively utilize knowledge expressed by a designer.
    • AZITHROMYCIN IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST SELECTED PERIODONTAL BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

      Rams, Thomas E.; Page, Lawrence; Whitaker, Eugene J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Objectives: Azithromycin is a second-generation macrolide active against a wide range of bacteria, including obligate anaerobes implicated as bacterial pathogens in human periodontitis. Clinical studies indicate short-term systemic azithromycin therapy to be beneficial in the treatment of acute periodontal abscesses and as an adjunct to mechanical periodontal therapy of periodontitis patients. Only sparse recent data is available on the susceptibility or resistance of putative periodontal bacterial pathogens to azithromycin, particularly among subgingival isolates from periodontitis patients residing in the United States. Thus, the present degree to which major periodontal bacterial pathogens in United States periodontitis patients exhibit resistance to azithromycin is not known. As a result, the purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of in vitro resistance to azithromycin, as compared to metronidazole, among selected red/orange complex periodontal pathogens isolated from severe periodontitis patients in the United States.
    • AZЕR RZАYEV: TRAITS OF AZERBAIJANI FOLK MUSIC AND DANCE IN HIS SONATA FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO

      Latham, Edward David; Schmieder, Eduard, 1948-; Weightman, Lindsay; Klein, Michael Leslie (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      After 1950, a few Azerbaijani composers began to pay attention to the sonata, as an important genre of instrumental chamber music. Sonatas contain contrasting motifs among the separate movements constituting the whole composition providing the opportunity for including Azerbaijani folk music inspired motifs. This monograph will demonstrate the impact of folk music on Azerbaijani classical music, specifically in the Violin Sonata in E minor of Azer Rzayev, whose work significantly influenced further composition. This analysis of the folk music aspects of Rzayev’s musical thinking, as expressed in his violin sonata, will provide insight into Azerbaijani music, guidance for appreciating Rzayev’s work, and perhaps most significantly, as a basis for future composition in the genre. Rzayev is the author of many notable compositions in a few related genres. Rzayev’s unique contribution was his signature approach to the folk music of Azerbaijan, the elements of which he skillfully merged with the traditions of classical music. This approach resulted in Rzayev’s independent style, which played a significant role in the development of Azerbaijani classical instrumental music. This monograph briefly touches on the Azerbaijani mugham, as it plays a decisive role in the development of Azerbaijani classical music. The people of Azerbaijan over the centuries have created an ancient, rich and distinctive culture. In various fields of art, including music, they created priceless masterpieces of art. One such masterpiece is the pearl of the world musical treasury—mugham. It is no coincidence that the art of mugham deeply influences Azerbaijani composers because it is perceived by Azerbaijanis as a cultural asset that forms the basis of national identity. The study of mugham is reflected in the works of Soviet and especially Azerbaijani musicologists. Among these works, the treatise of Hajibeyov, The Principles of Azerbaijani Folk Music, is fundamentally important. The methodological basis of the monograph is to draw on Uzeyir Hajibeyov’s monumental work The Principles of Azerbaijani Folk Music. Other sources include the works of musicologists Shanubar Bagirova and Mammed Ismayilov, which focus on issues of Azerbaijani folk music.