Now showing items 4236-4255 of 4335

• #### Viral and Host Factor Interactions in the Regulation of JC Virus Reactivation

JC virus (JCV) is a human neurotropic polyomavirus and the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the white matter. PML is primarily observed in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and those prescribed immunomodulatory therapies. During JCV infection, the virus encodes multiple viral proteins including T-antigen and agnoprotein. Originally, we demonstrated that T-antigen expression rescued serine/arginine rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1)-mediated transcriptional suppression of JCV for both early and late promoter orientations. We demonstrated that T-antigen expression suppressed SRSF1 expression in glial cells through inhibition of SRSF1 transcription. We have recently shown that agnoprotein is secreted from transfected cells into the extracellular matrix, where it is internalized by neighboring uninfected astrocytes or microglia. The internalization of agnoprotein was found to impact astrocyte’s cytokine profile, with treatment of astrocytes with media containing agnoprotein resulting in a significant reduction in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secretion. Subsequent reporter gene analysis demonstrated that agnoprotein can suppress GM-CSF transcription, implicating a possible mechanism for the reduction of GM-CSF secretion. Likewise, the treatment of a human monocyte cell line, U-937, with agnoprotein resulted in decreased differentiation, dysregulated surface marker expression, and decreased phagocytic ability. Similarly, treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with agnoprotein decreased cellular migration through an in vitro blood brain barrier model. These findings have suggested that extracellular agnoprotein modulates aspects of the immune response to JCV, primarily through suppression of GM-CSF secretion and a subsequent dysregulation on monocyte/macrophage function.
• #### Virtual Reality and Higher Education: Presence and Motivation to Learn Via Immersive Media Experiences

Although many studies have pointed out the limitations of applying more advanced technology in educational settings (Collins & Halverson, 2018; Fedorov & Levitskaya, 2015; Kozma, 1994), some studies have shown media technology enhances essential educational outcomes (Gardner, 1993; Hew & Cheung, 2010; Jensen & Konradsen, 2018; McLellan, 1994; Merchant, Goetz, Cifuentes, Keeney-Kennicutt, & Davis, 2014) and that more immersive media technology can help people to perceive events through media technology better (Bracken & Lombard, 2004; Lombard, Biocca, Freeman, IJsselsteijn, & Schaevitz, 2015; Lombard, Ditton, Grabe, & Reich, 1997; Lombard, Lee, Sun, Xu, & Yang, 2017; Lombard, Reich, Grabe, Bracken, & Ditton, 2000). These current debates lead to a question of whether providing immersive experiences can help to achieve higher goals of education and what is the psychological processes behind it. The main purpose of this dissertation is to help people exploring these debates by providing more understanding of the psychological processes behind the motivation to learn in higher education when students have more immersive media experiences. Therefore, the role of presence and information processing in HMD VR (Head Mount Display Virtual Reality) on motivation to learn were tested and analyzed with a mixed-method study incorporating a lab experiment and in-depth interviews. Theoretic backgrounds and assumptions of Risk Information Seeking Processing (Kahlor, 2007; Stern & Fineberg, 1996) and Social Cognitive Theory (Ambrose, Bridges, DiPietro, Lovett, & Norman, 2010; Bandura, 1982) were deployed in the study design to see whether and how HMD VR can help transformative learning (Dewey, 1938; Mezirow, 1997; Middleton, 2014; Provident et al., 2015; Stipek, 2002; Taylor, 2007). Results revealed HMD VR increased students’ Motivation To Learn significantly. The increased level of Motivation To Learn in the HMD condition was also observed in the in-depth interviews. The results support these studies that suggested the association between interactive experiences and enhanced learning outcomes (Ang & Rao, 2008; Hew & Cheung, 2010; Kaufmann, Schmalstieg, & Wagner, 2000; Martín-Gutiérrez, Mora, Añorbe-Díaz, & González-Marrero, 2017; Moreno, Mayer, Spires, & Lester, 2001; Steinberg, 2000). The results also support the effectiveness of creating more immersive learning environments under the Social Cognitive Theory framework (Bandura, 1977; Miltiadou & Savenye, 2003; Rotter, 1990) but with limited support under the Risk Information Seeking and Processing framework (Kahlor, 2007; Stern & Fineberg, 1996). These results demonstrated the relationships between presence and MTL identifying how cultural experiences trigger social responses when people make associations in their higher-order cognitive processes, suggesting para-reality interaction. In addition to the theoretic contribution, the implications of this study provide helpful suggestions and insights to create and use HMD VR content to create transformative learning experiences for students.
• #### VISUAL AND SEMANTIC KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER FOR NOVEL TASKS

Data is a critical component in a supervised machine learning system. Many successful applications of learning systems on various tasks are based on a large amount of labeled data. For example, deep convolutional neural networks have surpassed human performance on ImageNet classification, which consists of millions of labeled images. However, one challenge in conventional supervised learning systems is their generalization ability. Once a model is trained on a specific dataset, it can only perform the task on those \emph{seen} classes and cannot be used for novel \emph{unseen} classes. In order to make the model work on new classes, one has to collect and label new data and then re-train the model. However, collecting data and labeling them is labor-intensive and costly, in some cases, it is even impossible. Also, there is an enormous amount of different tasks in the real world. It is not applicable to create a dataset for each of them. These problems raise the need for Transfer Learning, which is aimed at using data from the \emph{source} domain to improve the performance of a model on the \emph{target} domain, and these two domains have different data or different tasks. One specific case of transfer learning is Zero-Shot Learning. It deals with the situation where \emph{source} domain and \emph{target} domain have the same data distribution but do not have the same set of classes. For example, a model is given animal images of cat' and dog' for training and will be tested on classifying 'tiger' and 'wolf' images, which it has never seen. Different from conventional supervised learning, Zero-Shot Learning does not require training data in the \emph{target} domain to perform classification. This property gives ZSL the potential to be broadly applied in various applications where a system is expected to tackle unexpected situations. In this dissertation, we develop algorithms that can help a model effectively transfer visual and semantic knowledge learned from \emph{source} task to \emph{target} task. More specifically, first we develop a model that learns a uniform visual representation of semantic attributes, which help alleviate the domain shift problem in Zero-Shot Learning. Second, we develop an ensemble network architecture with a progressive training scheme, which transfers \emph{source} domain knowledge to the \emph{target} domain in an end-to-end manner. Lastly, we move a step beyond ZSL and explore Label-less Classification, which transfers knowledge from pre-trained object detectors into scene classification tasks. Our label-less classification takes advantage of word embeddings trained from unorganized online text, thus eliminating the need for expert-defined semantic attributes for each class. Through comprehensive experiments, we show that the proposed methods can effectively transfer visual and semantic knowledge between tasks, and achieve state-of-the-art performances on standard datasets.
• #### Visual familiarity as a factor of social presence represented via non-verbal communication in audio-mediated channel

Presence, as a perceptual illusion of non-mediation, is a phenomenon that is often vaguely conceptualized, measured via self-report and stimulated via technological factors. This study offers a more certain conceptual framework, behavioral measure, and a contextual factor that highlights the psychological nature of this psychological state. Specifically, a Zoom-based field experiment was conducted to test whether being visually familiarized with a person before describing spatial information (images of an old dress and maze) to another person would increase a sense of social presence, and therefore a higher rate of gestures used to describe images even though they won’t be seen by the other person. As results showed, being familiarized was enough to reduce uncertainty over the other person to feel social presence and gesture at a higher rate as if the communication was face-to-face.
• #### Visual Frames of War Photojournalism, Empathy, Compassion, and Information Seeking

Although it has long been assumed that pictures depicting the human suffering of war evoke empathy and compassion, which leads to social action, there is little empirical evidence of that claim. This study aimed to fill the gap in visual communication theory about the effects of war photojournalism on media consumers' emotional and behavioral responses. This mixed methods design included a between-subjects experimental design tested whether photos (from conflicts in Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo) with a human-cost-of-war visual frame had significantly different effects on participants' levels of empathy, compassion, personal distress, other-oriented distress, and information seeking than pictures with a militarism visual frame. A second study used series of focus group discussions, to investigate how media consumers make meaning out of images of conflict. The findings expand our understanding about the way audiences react to conflict photos, and they have implications for how photo editors might present audiences with images of war that will engage audiences.
• #### VISUAL RECOGNITION OF THE STATIONARY ENVIRONMENT IN LEOPARD FROGS

Leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) rely on vision to recognize behaviorally meaningful aspects of their environment. The optic tectum has been shown to mediate the frog's ability to recognize and respond to moving prey and looming objects. Nonetheless, atectal frogs are still able to appropriately respond to non-moving aspects of their environment. There appears to be independent visual systems operating in the frog: one system for recognizing moving objects; and another system for recognizing stationary objects. Little is known about the neural mechanisms mediating the recognition of stationary objects in frogs. Our laboratory showed that a retino-recipient area in the anterior lateral thalamus--the NB/CG zone--is involved in processing visual information concerning stationary aspects of the environment. This thesis aims to characterize the frog's responses to a range of stationary stimuli, and to elucidate the thalamic visual system that mediates those responses. I tested leopard frogs' responses to different stationary stimuli and found they respond in stereotypical ways. I discovered that leopard frogs are attracted to dark, stationary, opaque objects; and tested the extent of this attraction under different conditions. I found that frogs' preference to move toward a dark area versus a light source depends on the intensity of the light source relative to the intensity of ambient light. Unilateral lesions applied to the NB/CG zone of the anterior lateral thalamus resulted in temporary deficits in frogs' responses to stationary stimuli presented in the contralateral visual field. Deficits were observed in response to: dark objects, entrances to dark areas, light sources, and gaps between stationary barriers. However, responses to moving prey and looming stimuli were unaffected. Interestingly, these deficits tended to recover after about 6 days in most cases. Recovery time ranged from 2 - 28 days. The NB/CG zone is anatomically and functionally connected to a structure in the posterior thalamus called the "PMDT." The PMDT has no other connections in the brain. Thus, I have discovered a "satellite" of the NB/CG zone. Preliminary evidence suggests that the PMDT is another component of the visual system mediating stationary object recognition in the frog.
• #### VISUAL WORKING MEMORY AND MOTOR PROCESSING CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH EXPERTISE IN VISUAL ART

The concept of novelty has important implications for theories of cognition, as familiar objects are categorically distinct from novel ones; accessing a stored representation of a known stimulus influences perception in a way that is precluded for a novel stimulus. The experiments that constitute this dissertation shed light on the perception-action cycle, as it is a persistent feature of human life; we see things and we act upon them. When those things are novel, how does cognitive processing change? Specifically, how do people who deliberately practice seeing things act upon them, and are there observable differences between trained and "casual" perceivers' perceptual processing? Some argue that any processing advantages possessed by experts are limited to objects or relations among objects within an expert's particular domain of expertise. However, a central point of contention revolves around what exactly constitutes a domain in the first place. Expertise may boil down to a long-term memory advantage for deliberately-practiced categories of stimuli, or to a heuristic that is only applicable to one trained goal or category of goals, or to a heuristic independent of task that can be applied to any novel situation. The present set of experiments examined visual cognition with the perceptual goal of fine-motor output (i.e., accurate sketching) as a candidate for a domain of expertise that confers advantages in visual perception in general. The extent to which visual processing is altered in expert visual artists was examined; whether they are more efficient only at sketching images of familiar stimuli, or whether their advantage extends to other visual cognition tasks. Familiarity and complexity of stimuli were manipulated, as were the goals of perception, including sketching and recognition. Finally, retention durations were manipulated before responses or sketches were made in order to examine the limits on experts' advantage on tasks that are known to tax the perceptual system. Results suggest that expertise in visual art confers a robust visual cognition advantage that generalizes beyond a narrowly-defined domain of expertise.
• #### VISUALIZING MASCULINITY: MEN, FAMILY, AND COUNTRY IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY FRENCH PRINT CULTURE

Focusing on satirical prints from illustrated newspapers, this thesis examines nineteenth-century French notions of masculinity in a culture that linked its reputation for success to the productivity of its male citizens. I will focus on man’s connection to marriage and family life, as these institutions were so closely connected to perceptions of masculinity. Specifically, I look at portrayals of the cuckold and the bachelor—tropes of male identity that deviated from the ideal notions of the French man—and how printed images reflected, commented on, and shaped the ways in which conventional French masculinity was imagined. Examining these lithographs in light of specific social and political shifts, including changing marriage and divorce laws, the rising feminist movement, and the loss of the Franco-Prussian war, will ground my project historically. Popular lithographic prints, from the 1840s to the early 1900s, remarked not only on masculinity itself—the ways in which men should act and look—but also on the ways in which any departures from the norm threatened the French family and nation. Although medical journals and etiquette manuals expounded on the ‘natural’ qualities of men, satirical cartoons that were most often published weekly, were immediately pertinent in their commentary. Using prints to decode these ever-prevalent issues of masculinity, my project makes clear why representations and notions of certain types of masculinity were so alarming to French audiences. Although much of the scholarship around nineteenth-century French lithography deals with the censorship issues and political implications of the illustrated newspapers, I focus instead on the social ramifications of such images. I emphasize the distinctive nature of such prints—the audience, the circulation, and the cultural impact of printed images themselves. Looking to both art and social historical texts, I concentrate on the everyday realm of printed images, and what it meant for Parisian men and women to be surrounded by such tropes. My thesis connects the growing concerns over family and marriage to issues of failed masculinity and the ways in which they were addressed in the print culture across the century. It explores how these satirical cartoons provided a humorous, yet urgent, visual attempt to illuminate the tricky and conflicting expectations of French men in the nineteenth century.
• #### Vitamin D and Chronic Pain: A Comprehensive Review

In recent years vitamin D has gained popularity in the media, on the internet, and throughout alternative treatment practitioners as a cheap and effective option to treat many diseases. Research showing that vitamin D receptors are present in virtually all cells of the body, and the increasing data demonstrating a relationship of vitamin D metabolites to chronic diseases, have led to widespread treatment of medical conditions with vitamin D supplementation. Chronic pain and inflammatory conditions are increasingly linked to vitamin D deficiency. The question posed in this review is whether there is significant, quality research to recommend vitamin D supplementation for patients with chronic pain conditions. Utilizing publications from PubMed for the review, various search terms were entered for vitamin D (vitamin D; vitamin D2; vitamin D3; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol; 25 hydroxycholecalciferol; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; alfacalcidol; calcidiol; calcitriol; calcifediol; calciferol; ergocalciferal; cholecalciferol); and "pain." The search was continued from the last day of the Straub et. al. review, September 8th, 2008. The last search was conducted on December 5, 2012. The search protocol from Straub et. al was followed as well. Also, added to this search protocol were the terms: vitamin D receptor; VDR and "pain." These terms enabled a search for genetic links between vitamin D and pain. The search criteria resulted in nine relevant articles (from the original 1,069 studies) with varying treatment protocols in each article making any statistical representation impossible. Results on the effectiveness of vitamin D correlation with chronic pain were extremely variable, with most papers drawing the conclusion that more quality research needs to be implemented on the subject. Due to the variability and lack of quality randomized controlled trials, the current literature can only suggest a possible link between vitamin D levels and pain. Also, recent research into Vitamin D Receptors (VDR) has opened up a possible connection between VDR polymorphisms and pain. So, after a comprehensive review of vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptors, and pain, there is still not enough evidence to recommend supplementation to treat chronic pain conditions. However, enough evidence is available to recommend future high quality, randomized controlled trials to help determine the influence vitamin D and VDRs have on pain issues.

• #### VOCABULARY ACQUISITION THROUGH LISTENING AND ITS RELATION TO LEARNING CHANNEL PREFERENCES

The purposes of this study were to investigate the degree to which Japanese high school students acquire vocabulary from listening, what kind of explanation better promotes vocabulary acquisition, whether vocabulary acquisition through listening varies according to the participants' learning channel preferences, and what factors best predict vocabulary that is acquired through listening. The participants, 116 second-year Japanese high school students, were taught 45 vocabulary items embedded in nine listening passages. In the control condition, no vocabulary explanation was given. In the first treatment condition, the students were provided with a spoken Japanese translation for each target word. In the second treatment condition, the students were provided with a spoken English definition of each target word. Approximately 30 minutes after each listening session, an Immediate Recognition Posttest and a Multiple-choice Posttest were administered. Exactly the same tests were administered as Delayed Recognition and Multiple-choice Posttests 2 weeks after the instruction. Repeated-measures ANOVAs using the listening conditions as the independent variables and the results from the two tests as dependent variables showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the three conditions on the Immediate and Delayed Recognition Posttests. The L1 translation condition was more effective than the L2 definition condition, and the control condition was the least effective. However, for the Immediate and Delayed Multiple-choice Posttests, there was no statistically significant difference between the L1 and L2 conditions. Two three-way ANOVAs using the learning channel subgroups, time, and the listening conditions as independent variables, and the results from the Immediate and Delayed Recognition and Multiple-choice Posttests as dependent variables showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three learning channel subgroups. However, the auditory learners retained more in the L2 definition condition than the visual and haptic learning channel groups. The final major analysis, a hierarchical multiple regression, indicated that passage comprehension, vocabulary size, and grammatical competence were statistically significant predictors of vocabulary acquisition through listening.

• #### Voice Onset Time in Children With and Without Vocal Fold Nodules

Purpose: This study examined voice onset time (VOT) in children with and without vocal fold nodules (VFN). The purpose of this study was to provide further evidence regarding the need for individualized research and treatment dedicated to the pediatric population. The pediatric population has a distinctly different laryngeal mechanism than adults, as they are still developing. Although the pediatric system is anatomically different from that of a fully mature adult system, treatment for children with VFN is largely based on adult research. This study examined the VOTs of voiceless consonants, as the transition from the voiceless consonant to the subsequent vowel requires significant vocal and articulatory control and coordination. Measures of VOT change throughout the maturation as VOT follows a significant developmental pattern. Children with and without VFN were enlisted in order to examine the effects VFN have on VOT. Hypotheses: We hypothesize that children with VFN would have differences in 1) average VOT values compared to the control group, with no prediction for direction of difference (shorter and longer), and 2) between-word variability of VOT values compared to the control group, with no prediction for direction of difference (more variable and less variable). Methods: Participant data were retrospectively collected and included children between 6 and 12 years old with VFN and age- and sex-matched controls. Participants were recorded producing the six CAPE-V sentences. Four voiceless consonants were selected for VOT analysis. Praat was utilized to manually mark the vocal onset of the stop consonant by the current researcher. A previous researcher identified the vocal offset, and each placement was confirmed by the current researcher. VOT was calculated as the time between the stop consonant burst and the vocal onset of the vowel. Results: There was no significant difference between the VFN and the control groups in average VOT or VOT variability. Within the VFN group, participants who were more dysphonic (lower cepstral peak prominence (CPP) values) had more variable VOT values. Participants in the VFN group had lower CPP values than the control group, suggesting that CPP measures are a reliable indicator of dysphonia. Additionally, within the VFN group, male children had lower CPP values than female children. Conclusion: Although no group difference was found, the within-group analyses indicated that VFNs impacted productions. Children with VFN who were more dysphonic had increased VOT variability. This may suggest that VFN impact a child’s ability to phonate therefore causing more variability within productions. Future research is needed to study the impact dysphonia treatment for children with VFN may have on VOT values. Additionally, a longitudinal study of the impact of VFNs on VOT values during developmental stages may be warranted.
• #### VOICES FROM THE EDUCATIONAL FRINGE: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY EXPLORING EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES IN AN ALTERNATIVE GED PROGRAM

Black males are more likely than others to attend alternative education programs and schools (McCall, 2003; Howard, 2008). Alternative high schools and programs tend to serve a disproportionate number of male students, students of color, at risk students, and economically disadvantaged students (McNulty & Roseboro, 2009; Watson, 2011). A significant number of Black male students will pursue the GED credential in these programs. This ethnographic study focuses on Black male students who have dropped out of traditional high school prior to attending a GED program in a Northeastern city. This study addresses the following questions: How do Black males' perceptions of caring and educational experiences in an alternative GED program differ from experiences in their former traditional high school? This study uses an intersectionality theoretical framework. As Black males are more likely to attend alternative schools, prioritizing race, gender, and class are essential in this study. Findings indicate that students experience more caring environments in the alternative GED program. The results also indicate that students' experiences in their formal high schools are fraught with disciplinary problems and uncaring environments.
• #### VOICES IN THE HALL: A BLACK MALE STUDENT CENTERED EXAMINATION OF ENGAGEMENT IN AN URBAN MIDDLE SCHOOL ART CLASS

This study examined the experiences and perceptions of black male middle school students in an urban visual art class. Black male students have endured unequal educational outcomes such as dropping out of school at a higher rate than many of their peers of other races (NCES, 2013). Previous studies have shown that many students who have considered leaving school cite a lack of engagement in the education setting as one of the key reasons they attend school less and may eventually drop out (Yazzie-Mintz, 2010; Fredricks J. A., Blumenfeld, Friedel, & Paris, 2005). Research has also shown a correlation between high school dropout rates and student performance, attendance, and engagement in 8th grade (English, 2007; Yazzie-Mintz, 2010). Increased levels of engagement have also been shown to lead to improvements in student attendance, behavior and academic outcomes (Finn & Rock, 1997; Marks, 2000; Willingham, Pollack, & Lewis, 2002). The arts have long been seen as areas of study in which students show indications of increased engagement. The present study will add to this body of research by examining how black male students experience the art classroom and how such classes impact their overall sense of engagement. Data gathered for this study includes observations of student behaviors and interactions in their art classes. Five black male 8th grade students comprised the key study participants. Interviews were formulated to gain background information and to ascertain how the observed classroom setting was perceived from these students’ perspectives. Additional data was gathered from teacher interviews. This data provided a context for student analyzing perspectives. The literature for this study helped to explain the role engagement plays in educational outcomes, observable measures of engagement, the value of an increased emphasis on the arts for middle school students, discernible practices that differentiate arts classrooms from other classes, and the processes through which students make meaning of their experiences.
• #### Voices of Returning Adult Community College Studio Art Majors: Perceptions and Motivations

A current phenomenon of interest in community college education is the ever-expanding number of students pursuing college level instruction. This research aimed to look at the phenomenon within the framework of an undergraduate community college program in the Studio Arts. The study sought to identify threads of motivation and self-reflection during enrollment in college courses among a participant group of eight returning adult (28y.o.+) studio art students as they considered the significance of art in their lives, the decision to continue their arts education, and how their art-making and art-thinking may have been interconnected with personal identity development. A modified three-part phenomenological interview protocol, participant observation, and arts-based research methods were utilized to contribute to the understanding of the shared essence of these participants' lived experiences. What emerged from the data were intersections between identity development, artistic creativity, and maturity which had emerged in midlife as a commitment to developing their artistic identities through a community college program in the studio arts.
• #### VOIDS IN SONIC FILLTM RESTORATIONS COMPARED TO TRADITIONAL INCREMENTALLY-FILLED COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS

SonicFillTM is a new composite resin and delivery system designed to provide rapid filling of cavity preparations by decreasing viscosity through application of sonic energy. However, it may produce unwanted air voids in the final restoration due to the short filling time. Air voids compromise long-term performance by providing weak foci, discontinuity at cavosurface margins and at internal cavity walls, and potential crack propagation. This study assessed the locations, sizes, and numbers of voids in SonicFill restorations compared with traditional composite resin restorations in a set of extracted molars with mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity preparations. Fifty noncarious intact extracted third molars were collected randomly from a large collection of discarded anonymous tooth specimens. Standardized MOD cavity preparations were cut, and teeth were assigned randomly to one of two groups (n = 25). The first group was restored with SonicFill composite in two steps. The second group was restored with Herculite UltraTM using an multiple increment layering technique (1-2 mm per layer). Cross-sectional images of the filling were taken by digital microscope. A total of 196 voids were found in the 50 specimens: 97 in SonicFill restorations and 99 in conventional restorations. Mean number of voids in SonicFill restorations was 3.88 versus 3.96 for conventional restorations. Mean percentage of void area in SonicFill restorations was 0.588% versus 0.508% for conventional restorations. Unpaired t tests for these differences indicated no statistically significant differences (p =.931 and p =.629, respectively). One-way ANOVA tests for mean void count and mean void area percentage differences by three location zones for conventional and SonicFill restorations also indicated no significant differences among the groups. The bulk-fill SonicFill system does not result in increased or decreased numbers or ii area of voids within Class II MOD restorations compared with a conventional composite resin layering system.