Zhang, Huichun; Suri, Rominder P. S.; Van Aken, Benoit (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Priority organic and emerging contaminants are a growing concern for drinking water treatment due to their increasing presence in the environment. This study developed a predictive model for the sorption of anionic organic contaminants from drinking water on three anion exchange resins: a strong polystyrenic (IRA-910), weak polystyrenic (IRA-96), and a strong polacrylic (A860). The model quantifies the individual mechanisms of sorption using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) and the feasibility of phase conversion (e.g., an ideal gas phase as the reference state) for ionic species was examined. To develop the model, a training set of isotherms was obtained using aliphatic and aromatic carboxylates, phenols, anilines, nitrobenzene, and ibuprofen. These compounds were chosen as model organic contaminants in the environment. The training set and 1-3 test compounds (3-methyl-2-nitrobenzoate, phenol, and 4-nitroaniline) were accurately predicted using the created model for each resin. An understanding of the effects of resin structure on sorption interactions was also developed that focused on ionic functional groups, resin matrix, and hydrophilicity (i.e. water content). It was shown that greater sorption efficiency was achieved when electrostatic (ion exchange) and nonelectrostatic (adsorption) interactions were present together to create a synergistic addition. However, sorption on ion exchangers was poor if the pH of the system approached levels lower than the sorbate pKa. Additionally, weak base exchanges lose exchange capacity as pH levels approach resin pKa (IRA-96 pKa = 6.0). Additional contributions to the sorption mechanisms were observed by studying various electron donating/withdrawing functional groups on the contaminants. It was concluded that π-π and H-bonding interactions contributed a greater amount to the nonelectrostatic mechanisms than cavity formation forces and nonspecific forces. A comparison between the three resins showed that IRA-96 (weak base polystyrenic) had a greater removal capacity than IRA-910 (strong base polystyrenic), followed far behind by A860 (strong base polyacrylate). This is due to differences between the resins, such as the hydrophilicity, the density of the ion exchange group, and the presence of aromatic rings within the matrix structure. Although the modeling method accurately predicted the phase change from aqueous to sorbent phases, it was shown that the SPARC calculated aqueous-gas ion transfer energies were poor estimations of the transfer energy to the ideal gas phase and further study is necessary to accurately determine this value. This modeling methodology is believed to be applicable to emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals in water systems and helps further new water treatment technologies while developing a mechanistic understanding of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in general. This can be applied to additional separation processes such as chemical purification and chromatographic separation.
    • Understanding Black Undergraduate Females' Sense of Belonging at a Predominantly White Institution

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Schifter, Catherine; Witham, Keith; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      As college and university continue to recruit and enroll more diverse student populations and maintain institutional priorities of diversity and inclusion, it is imperative we understand the distinct experiences of our minority populations. This research will specifically focus on the experiences of Black undergraduate females. To ensure the success of our Black females students, it is imperative we understand their need for a sense of belonging on a predominantly White campus in order to achieve higher-level opportunities of classroom and campus success. Sense of belonging is defined as the ability to connect, feel validated, accepted, and matter. This understanding is key to Black undergraduate females’ ability to successfully integrate academically and socially in their college environment. Existing research provides insight into the Black male experience, not limited to the challenges Black males face, as well as variables needed to enable Black males’ educational success. However, there is a general lack of awareness and attention to the nuanced experiences of our Black female students on predominantly White campuses. What challenges do Black females face and what factors can enable their educational success? This missed opportunity of understanding of their experiences limits faculty, staff, and administrators from creating an environment where Black females can succeed both inside and outside the classroom. This research gives voice to the experiences of this seemingly silent minority and challenges campus environments to address their operating norm of campus rituals and culture. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine the experiences of nine Black undergraduate females at one predominantly White urban institution located in the North East. Through the use semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to understand in what ways Black female students’ understanding of self, relationship development, and engagement with their campus environment aids in the creation of their sense of belonging to their institution. Findings from this study demonstrate key components of belonging are rooted in understanding of self, and self in relation to others; the impact of participating in institutional programs; and the ability to navigate rules of engagement, both in the classroom and social environments. Participants demonstrate varying levels of belonging but provide key insight for higher education administrators to reflect upon their institutional programs, services, and opportunities to provide intentional space and place of support and ultimately find a place where they matter; their place of belonging.
    • Understanding Bulimia Nervosa from a neuropsychological perspective: Impulsivity and binge-purge behavior in adolescent and young adult women

      Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Fullard, William (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      According to the biopsychosocial model of bulimia, neurobiological mechanisms called endophenotypes cause eating disordered behavior. Impulsivity has been identified as a possible endophenotype for bulimia nervosa, and individuals with bulimia who present with multiple forms of impulsive behavior are known to have worse prognoses. Executive dysfunction in impulse control purportedly manifests as behavioral under-regulation in binge-purge episodes. Neuropsychological assessments were used to analyze the relationship between impulsivity and symptoms of bulimia. Twenty-eight inpatient adolescent and young adult women with bulimia completed the D-KEFS Color Word Task, which is a version of the Stroop that contains four trials including the classic Stroop and a switching Stroop, as well as the age appropriate versions of the BRIEF rating scale and a Type-T Survey of thrill-seeking. Performance on these measures was correlated with measures of bulimia symptoms, including the EDI-3, EDE-Q, and variables of illness severity. Delay of gratification was assessed by offering subjects a choice of compensation that was either immediate and smaller or delayed and larger. Mixed results were found. The sample did not differ from the D-KEFS normative sample on total number of errors or on speed of task completion for the switching Stroop, and the sample demonstrated faster performance than the normative sample on the classic Stroop. However, a tendency to favor speed over accuracy of performance was identified. On the BRIEF rating scales, the sample self-reported significantly higher rates of executive dysfunction compared to the normative data. Additionally, some variables of impulsivity, including greater frequency of errors on cognitive tasks and self-reported deficits of executive functioning, were significantly correlated with variables of bulimia symptom severity, including self-reported bulimia symptomatology on the EDI-3 and frequency of bingeing and purgeing. Risk-taking was also found to be correlated with symptoms of bulimia. Differences were found between subjects who chose the immediate prize versus those who chose the delayed prize, including differences in cognitive task performance and symptom severity. Differences were also found for subjects with a comorbid disorder of impulse control, including bipolar disorders and substance abuse. In conclusion, a unilateral deficit of impulse control was not found to be characteristic of this sample; however, a multi-impulsive cohort was identified as having deficits of cognitive impulse control.
    • Understanding Educational Choice Processes of Retired Professional Hockey Players

      Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Kaplan, Avi; Davis, James Earl, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the processes and influences that underlie the choice of retired elite athletes to further their education and assume the adult learner role. In the current study, focus was applied specifically to professional ice hockey players who were in a period of retirement from active play. Elite athletes often retire at a time when most other professions are just beginning or reaching a level of stability. Research suggests that many retired elite athletes experience a difficult transition to an early retirement from athletics that is fraught with depression and unemployment. A select number of these elite athletes choose to further their educations after their careers have expired. The literature suggests that some of these retired elite athletes find educational programming a valuable coping strategy in the often traumatic post-athletic career adjustment. Unfortunately, this choice is made by only few athletes. It would be desirable to encourage more retired athletes to consider and engage in educational activities; however, currently, there is only very little knowledge on the processes underlying athletes' choice to participate, or not to participate, in education in their retirement years. Using a theoretical framework that includes adult learning theory and adult development theory, in conjunction with expectancy-value theory of motivation, the impact of individual characteristics and environmental opportunities on post-athletic career choices made by professional athletes may be better understood. The primary instrument for data collection was a personal interview with ten retired professional hockey players, conducted over a consecutive six-month period resulting in significant data. Utilizing the constant-comparative method for data analysis, common themes were identified as indicators of educational engagement: Informal Mentorship, Head Injury Related Retirement, and Pre-Transition Planning. In addition to these themes, the findings reflected an alternative adult developmental model possibly unique to professional hockey players. The findings of this study are valuable to the larger conversation regarding adult learners, adult development, and elite athlete career transition.

      Coffman, Donna L.; Collins, Bradley N.; Lepore, Stephen J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Background/Purpose: The Kids Safe and Smokefree (KiSS) trial aimed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure to children. The study used a multifaceted approach that included a pediatric clinic-level intervention, individual behavioral counseling and community services for nicotine dependence. This secondary analysis focuses on the individual behavioral counseling portion of the intervention. The purpose of this cross-sectional, secondary analysis is to investigate the factors that affect adherence in a telephone-based intervention to reduce secondhand smoke exposure to children among a low-income population of women. Methods: Of those enrolled in the KiSS study, 163 cases assigned to the intervention group were used in these secondary analyses. After reviewing the literature, 15 variables of interest were identified as potentially having an association with adherence. A Lasso regression was used to select out variables that were insignificant or “unimportant” to predicting the outcome variable, total missed phone sessions. These variables were then used in a Poisson regression to determine if there was any significant correlation with the outcome. Results: Of the 15 variables in the Lasso regression, six variables were found to potentially have an association with total missed phone sessions. These six variables include: education level, total household occupants, total household smokers, life stress score, program support score and smoking self-efficacy score. The Poisson regression determined that three of these variables did have a significant correlation with missed phone sessions. Lower education level, greater program support and smoking cessation self-efficacy related to greater number of missed phone sessions. Conclusion: Those with higher education may complete more phone sessions because they may be more familiar with the importance of not exposing their children to secondhand smoke. Greater reported program support may be related to more missed phone sessions because the participant may feel that they received the support they needed from one or two of the phone sessions and no longer needed to participate. Another reason for this relationship could be that because the participant felt so supported by the phone session counselor, if they had exposed their child to secondhand smoke, their motivation to please would hinder their adherence. Another analysis would be needed in order to confirm this hypothesis. Lastly, the participants confidence in refraining from smoking may have lead them to miss more phone sessions because they felt that they already had the tools to refrain from exposing their children to secondhand smoke exposure. This analysis confirms that there are many barriers involved in good adherence and that adherence is influenced by many factors. There is a lack of conclusive data about what affects adherence. If research could identify what improves or stunts adherence behaviors, the effectiveness of any treatment could be maximized.
    • Understanding Incarcerated Women's Motivation to Exercise

      Sachs, Michael L.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Patterson, Freda (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Women make up only 7% of the incarcerated population (Guerino, Harrison, & Sabol, 2012). However, this number is rising exponentially. The female prison population has increased eight-fold since 1980 (Carson & Gionelli, 2013). Up to 70% of women who are incarcerated will recidivate (Mallik-Kane & Vischer, 2008). A major contributor to this rapid increase and high rate of recidivism is that women's physical and mental health needs are not met while they are incarcerated. Creating gender sensitive programming that addresses women's physical and mental health needs while they are incarcerated and that can influence their lives after they leave could help decrease recidivism and increase the quality of life of thousands (Bloom, Owen, & Covington, 2003). While structured exercise programs are being offered with more frequency in women's prisons to help address these mental and physical health problems, attendance has been low and program staff struggle to retain participants. This research examined women's motivation to exercise, what they felt were benefits of engaging in physical activity, and what they perceived the barriers to physical activity are while incarcerated. The study was conducted in conjunction with an indoor cycling class being offered at the Philadelphia County Women's prison. Twenty-four women enrolled in the study and completed pre-program interviews and pencil and paper measures. Twelve women completed a follow up test; six graduated from the cycling program; six dropped out. Results show that women who build connections (relatedness) with instructors and peers are more likely to adhere to a structured exercise program, and that the basic psychological needs laid out by Self-Determination Theory are related to adherence. Additionally, women can internalize a range of reasons for and benefits of exercise that can help them overcome a range of institutional, individual, and environment barriers evident in a correctional setting.
    • Understanding Infant Feeding Choices among Hmong-American Women in Saint Paul, MN

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Kontopoulos, Kyriakos M.; Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; White, Sydney Davant (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      To understand infant-feeding patterns among Hmong women in St. Paul, MN, this qualitative study used a convenience sample of 21 Hmong mothers who had at least 1 child under the age of 2. Drawing on interviews and questionnaires, this researcher explored (a) how participants described their traditional and American cultural traditions, beliefs, and values, (b) their infant-feeding practices, and (c) how their infant-feeding practices are shaped by adaptations to traditional and American cultures. In this sample, those women who had recently immigrated to the United States were more likely to exclusively use formula. Interviews suggest that American norms of breastfeeding in public, hectic lifestyles in a new country, and lack of cultural knowledge about pumping and storing breast milk influenced 1st- and 1.5-generation participants to exclusively use formula. For 2nd-generation participants, the awkwardness of breastfeeding in public was also cited as an important influence on their decision to use formula. However, quite different from 1st- and 1.5-generation women, 2nd-generation women were more educated and more likely to be employed in less segregated and professional occupations, which exposed them to mothers of different backgrounds who were breastfeeding. This exposure to breastfeeding mothers appeared to influence breastfeeding initiation among 2nd-generation Hmong. This study also found that negative social support from participants' mothers and mothers-in-law, and positive social support from sisters and sisters-in-law had a strong impact on their infant-feeding decisions. Unlike previous research among Hispanic immigrants, this study revealed that 2nd-generation Hmong immigrants were slightly more likely to include some form of breastfeeding in their infant-feeding method. This study also revealed the importance of social support and the role of the ethnic community in infant-feeding choices. More research is needed, however, to further clarify the relationship between acculturation and social support on breastfeeding initiation and duration among various immigrant populations.

      Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970-; Ding, Meixia; Paris, Joseph H.; Brunner, Eric (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Despite the critical contributions that student affairs professionals make to college students' learning and development and campus operations, mid-level professionals are at risk of leaving the field altogether. The current study investigated the role of sense of belonging in mid-level student affairs professionals' experiences and their turnover intentions through a qualitative, phenomenological analysis. Ten mid-level student affairs professionals from various institutions were interviewed about how they experience belongingness within their work, and how their evaluation of belonging influences their intention to stay at their institution or in the field of student affairs. The results demonstrate that sense of belonging is experienced by mid-level student affairs professionals, but in varied ways, and it is shaped through relationships, being trusted for professional expertise and competence, and feeling supported by others. Salient identities, especially marginalized identities, can shape the experience of belonging as can professional networks outside of institutional experiences. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that sense of belonging, whether it was experienced or lacking, influenced the intentions of many participants to stay at their institution and in the field of student affairs more broadly. Should colleges and universities be committed to addressing the attrition of mid-level student affairs professionals, they should commit to supporting and cultivating sense of belonging as it does indeed matter.
    • Understanding student engagement: Insights from an all-girls urban neighborhood public high school

      Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Jordan, Will J.; McGuire, C. Kent; Schifter, Catherine; Woyshner, Christine A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Students in a large mid-Atlantic city graduate from the public district high schools at an average annual rate of fifty-six percent. This low rate of high school completion predicts future financial and social instability for not only those individuals who drop out of school, but also for their surrounding community. The research on dropouts highlights the significance that students' low levels of academic and social engagement in school have on their decisions to leave school. Advocates for single-sex education argue that students engage and achieve at high levels when learning in this educational model. According to the current literature, students' success in single-sex schools is primarily a result of the proacademic choice that they and their guardians make when electing to attend a single-sex school. Through focus groups, interviews, and observations, this study explores what student engagement looks like at an all-girls urban neighborhood public high school that is non-selective and where the proacademic choice of students is not a factor. With new federal policy measures advocating innovation in public education, single-sex schools - historically inaccessible to minority students from low-income communities - are finding a foothold in urban public school systems across the country. This study aims to illuminate the extent to which a single-sex school serves as a "site of transformation" for young women of color from a low-income neighborhood. The realization of the school's mission, to interrupt the social reproduction of the neighborhood through the education of its young women, depends on its students' graduation from high school and their access to and success through college. Data related to various features of the school are analyzed to highlight how student engagement is promoted and inhibited at the school and ultimately results in transformative and/or reproductive educational experiences for students.
    • Understanding the academic literacy experiences of adult undergraduate students at a four-year public institution

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969-; Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970-; Shorr, Lori (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Adult undergraduate students (age 25 or older) now make up 28% of the undergraduate student population at four-year public institutions. Using a sociocultural perspective of literacy, which posits that literacy and language are inextricably tied to identity, this qualitative multiple case study explores the adult undergraduate student experience with academic literacies: the specific languages of the university, both of its culture as a whole and the academic disciplines. Additionally, this study examines how the out-of-school literacies that adult undergraduate students acquire throughout their lives compete with, complement, or challenge their experiences with academic literacies. Eight diverse cases were studied, and data collection included interviews, classroom observation, and analysis of student writing. The study found that collisions between academic and out-of-school literacies were sources of both discovery and anxiety, and that anxiety was primarily associated with writing. The study also found that the adults displayed a desire for deep learning, and benefited in many ways from a lack of social relationships on campus. Relationships with professors could classify professors as teachers, colleagues, or supervisors and that high levels of social competence helped adult undergraduate students navigate these relationships and other academic challenges. As the undergraduate student body changes, and more “traditional” students begin to share the characteristics of adults, if faculty and administrators can better understand how AUS learn and engage with the language of the university, they will be able to develop pedagogical and institutional practices that can better support all students.
    • Understanding the cellular mechanism of Adeno-Associated Virus genome stabilization

      Xiao, Weidong; Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Gallucci, Stefania; Skorski, Tomasz; Yang, Xiao-Feng (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The Adeno-Associated Virus(AAV) is a small, single stranded DNA virus that has been developed as a gene transfer vector. Early clinical trials using recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) have identified the following concerns that need to be addressed in order to increase efficiency of these vectors. It has since been determined that AAV vector efficiency decreases due to the following mechanisms: ineffective endocytosis, endosomal degradation, inefficient trafficking, and the need to convert from a single-stranded AAV genome to a transcriptional active double-stranded form. The purpose of this study is to elucidate mechanisms that help stabilize the AAV genome in order to make it a more efficient vector for gene therapy. Previously, there have been studies using fluorescent labeling to track the movement of AAV into the nucleus. An integral part of AAV genomic stability may be the obstacles it encounters in the cytoplasm prior to entering the nucleus. Previous studies on improving AAV transduction have focused primarily on the nucleus. The study will hopefully shed light on the hurdles AAV encounters as it moves through the cytoplasm. Thus, this project has designed and utilized a new system for specifically tracking the status of AAV genomes in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. This project utilizes a novel dual luciferase reporter system to track the movement of AAV particles from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to elucidate mechanisms that could contribute to the stabilization of the AAV genome. The novel dual reporter system is comprised of a single-stranded vector containing two different types of secreted luciferases: Cypridina Luciferase and Gaussia Luciferase. Cypridina Luciferase is placed under the control of a nuclear promoter and therefore it is expressed only in the nucleus. The second, Gaussia Luciferase, is under the control of a cytoplasmic promoter that will only be expressed in the cytoplasm upon the presence of T7 RNA polymerase. Using this dual reporter luciferase system along with RT qPCR quantification in a Hek293 cell line expressing the T7 RNA polymerase, demonstrated that genomes are present in the cytoplasm at 18 and 24 hours post infection. The second part of this study is using the dual reporter system to understand the trafficking patterns of rAAV and looking at ways to enhance transduction. One method could be administering rAAV vectors in conjunction with a drug; this approach may help overcome some of these cellular barriers encountered during infection as well as help stabilize the genome. Cidofovir (CDV) is a monophosphate nucleotide analogue that competitively inhibits the incorporation of deoxycytidine triphosphate into viral DNA via viral DNA polymerase. In vitro, CDV actively inhibits a number of DNA viruses including herpes viruses, adenovirus, polyomavirus, papillomavirus, and poxviruses. Cidofovir has already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The effects of CDV on small DNA viruses that lack their own viral DNA polymerase, like AAV, has not been documented. Results have demonstrated that CDV is able to increase single-stranded rAAV transgene expression in the nucleus by 2 to 5 fold, depending on the cell type and concentration, in vitro, using both rAAV2 and rAAV8 luciferase reporter vectors. These results have been able to replicated using other reporter vectors: rAAV2-LacZ reporter, rAAV2-GFP, rAAV2-hAAT, and a rAAV8-GFP in vitro. Results have shown a dose-dependent increase in rAAV genomes with CDV pretreatment in HelaS3 cells via Southern Blot. Also southern blot analysis of cells pretreated with CDV then infected with rAAV revealed no difference in the amount of vector present between 0 and 2 hours post infection, suggesting CDV does not enhance viral entry but that CDV may enhance at steps downstream of viral entry. Using RNA sequencing and Ingenuity software analysis of HelaS3 cells pretreated with CDV, an increase in several genes of interest including those involved in the mechanism of viral exit were observed. These genes include Actin and vacuolar proteins, these molecules are involved in and associated with endosomal sorting complexes as well as required for transport inside the cell. This finding along with southern blot data supports the theory that CDV may enhance rAAV trafficking since we observed that CDV pretreatment enhances viral accumulation of rAAV vectors in both the cytoplasm and nucleus 24 hours post-infection. Also utilizing the dual luciferase reporter system an increase in transgene expression present with CDV pretreatment compared to PBS in both the cytoplasm and nucleus was observed suggesting that CDV may enhance with rAAV trafficking. These results taken together demonstrate that this dual reporter system is a powerful tool for understanding and improving rAAV trafficking. Also drugs like CDV can greatly contribute to the understanding of rAAV trafficking, and eventually lead to the development of novel strategies to increase overall efficiency of AAV transduction.
    • Understanding the determinants of the irrelevant sound effect: An analysis of task, task features, sound variability, and strategy use

      Chein, Jason M.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Parikh, Vinay; Olino, Thomas; Weisberg, Robert W.; Martin, Nadine, 1952- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) describes the disruption of processes involved in maintaining information in working memory (WM) when irrelevant noise is present in the environment. While some posit that the ISE arises due to split obligation of attention to the irrelevant sound and the to-be-remembered information, others have argued that background noise corrupts the order of information within WM. Support for the latter position comes from research showing that the ISE appears to be most robust in tasks that emphasize ordered maintenance by a serial rehearsal strategy, and diminished when rehearsal is discouraged or precluded by task characteristics. Evidence supporting such a stance has been used to create a narrow narrative in which the ISE should only emerge on tasks with ordered output demands, when a serial rehearsal strategy is used, and in the presence of changing-state auditory distractor sequences. However, an ISE has been documented in many situations that do not match the scenario described above, thus raising questions as to what specific factors and combination of factors give rise to the ISE. The present study aims to disentangle each of the proposed contributing variables to the ISE by using eight working memory tasks that vary based on demands and features in the presence of multiple sound conditions. Further, strategy use is assessed on a task-by-task basis using an informed, multi-step process. The results reveal patterns of the ISE that do not match the claims made by rehearsal-disruption nor attentional accounts, and instead support a narrative in which poor cognitive control likely leads to the adoption of ineffective strategies for memory maintenance, and the combination of such factors increases one’s susceptibility to disruption by irrelevant sounds.
    • Understanding the Dynamic Nature of Willingness to Communicate in L2 Classroom Interaction and the Influence of L2 Investment

      Toth, Paul D.; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Holmquist, Jonathan Carl; García, Próspero N. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      In the context of language instruction and learning, L2 willingness to communicate (WTC) is a relevant factor in learners’ language use. It is viewed as a volitional process influenced by individual, social, linguistic, and situationally dependent factors. Foundational research focuses on either trait or state WTC-influencing factors as separate entities. Current research considers the dynamic relationship that occurs between the two though less research exists on how WTC manifests in classroom interaction. This study investigates such differences by examining learners’ self-reported, perceived trait WTC and situational state WTC. It treats WTC as a dynamic entity which is shaped by learners’ investment in language learning and the identity they take on as language learners. It considers the relationship of WTC to its three most influential trait variables: motivation, L2 perceived competence, and L2 anxiety. It presents findings of additional variables influencing state WTC. Data were comprised of questionnaire surveys, focal participant interviews, and classroom observations. Quantitative data consisted of 39 participants, and qualitative data consisted of 12 focal participants. The importance of the present study lies in its investigation of WTC in relation to trait and state factors, and its stance that investment in L2 learning is a key factor in fostering classroom WTC. Finally, it explores how WTC can be positively fostered to optimize the learner’s language experience.
    • Understanding the Experiences of Participants in the Professional Studies Enhancement Program

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Schifter, Catherine; Benjamin, Gregory D. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      It is widely known that the racial and ethnic composition of the United States is diverse and it is predicted that this diversity will become more pronounced in the decades ahead. Conversations about diversity and its effect on public health and the healthcare system are underway and likely to continue in the future. Enhancing the diversity of the healthcare workforce has the potential to make a positive difference as race/ethnicity and language concordance improves the provider-patient interaction. Across all racial and ethnic backgrounds, there are individuals with the desire and ability to become highly skilled healthcare providers providing access to care for an increasingly diverse population, but many lack knowledge of how to navigate the required path to accomplish their goal. Fortunately, educational institutions can enhance social capital through their ability to provide a network of diverse, learned individuals who can provide access to information, resources and educational opportunities to students who desire the knowledge of how to advance through the educational system and become a healthcare provider. For decades, pipeline programs have been designed and offered with the intent to inspire and prepare students to pursue careers as healthcare providers by affording opportunities to link educational experiences and guidance from learned individuals to careers in the healthcare professions. The Professional Studies Enhancement Program (PSEP) is a pre-matriculation pipeline program that began in the 1970s and was offered annually during the summer until 2015. The intent of the PSEP was to recruit and retain students from underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds for the profession of optometry by promoting a successful transition from the undergraduate educational experience to the healthcare educational experience. The purpose of this qualitative research is to gain a deep understanding of the experiences of participants in the PSEP. Three fundamental goals guided this study. First, to understand the personal lived-experiences of the participants during the PSEP. Second, to understand if the PSEP influences the professional development of the participants. Third, to understand if the PSEP contributes to the creation of social capital for the participants. Twenty-four optometrists who completed the PSEP prior to entering their optometry program volunteered to participate in a one-on-one semi-structured interview that was audio recorded. The audio interviews were converted into transcripts and coded using qualitative analysis software. A secondary coder provided clarity checks by independently reviewing portions of the interview transcripts in conjunction with the coding schema created by the primary coder. The study findings reveal that the personal experiences of the participants are rooted in the connections made with individuals associated with the PSEP, the attributes of the program and the successful personal growth and personal commitment needed to complete the program. Additionally, the findings illustrate that the PSEP influenced the professional development of the participants including academic success in professional school, setting personal career goals and creating awareness about the personal and professional responsibilities of being a URM healthcare provider. Finally, the findings illustrate how participants currently value the PSEP as professionals, notable influencers from the PSEP are acknowledged, valued organizations and activities, along with perspectives on the value of mentoring are also shared. Interwoven throughout the findings are valuable insights about the PSEP contributes to the creation of social capital. Analysis of the findings reveals the answer to each of the three research questions posed in this study. First, the overall lived-experiences of the 24 PSEP participants interviewed for this study are characterized by the creation of deep and enduring interpersonal relationships and the realization of the academic rigor of the doctor of optometry program. Second, the experiences reported by the 24 participants for this study indicate that the PSEP influences and guides the participants to assume the role of a professional-in-training through meaningful interactions with notable influencers. These influencers inspire these burgeoning professionals to be conscious of and purposeful in their individual development. This conscious and purposeful individual development leads to the creation of outstanding professionals who provide eye care to the public and concurrently engage in personally valued professional organizations and activities. Third, for these 24 participants the PSEP creates social capital through quality collective interactions with peers, upper class students, faculty members and program leaders allowing accepted norms and available resources to be known to the participants. This transfer of knowledge allows these PSEP participants to successfully navigate the rigor of the optometry program and graduate to become optometrists and members of the profession, ultimately increasing the number of URM optometrists available to serve patients and shape healthcare policy. Additionally, the interviewees personal, lived-experiences reveal attributes of the PSEP that closely align with those of a particular HBCU recognized for its success in creating social capital for its students and graduates.

      Kaplan, Avi; Booth, Julie L.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Pendergast, Laura L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This dissertation addressed knowledge gaps concerning “mastery-avoidance goals”—a construct within the prominent motivational perspective Achievement Goal Theory. Mastery-avoidance goals refer to students’ engagement in an achievement task with the purpose of avoiding failure to develop competence. While it was introduced to the achievement goal literature over a decade and a half ago, the construct of mastery-avoidance goals still lacks intuitive relevance, conceptual clarity, and evidence of prevalence among young students. In addition, so far, research has not established clear patterns of relations of mastery-avoidance goals with the other personal achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance), with contextual motivational emphases, or with adaptive and maladaptive educational outcomes. This dissertation aimed to contribute to knowledge in these gaps by investigating mastery-avoidance goals among middle school students in two subject domains that concern different types of competence: science and instrumental music. The dissertation describes two studies. In Study 1, I administered a self-report measure to middle school students (N=126) that included summated scales to investigate the empirical distinction between mastery-avoidance goals and other achievement goals, the components of its conceptual definition, its prevalence of adoption by young students in the two different domains, as well as its relations with contextual emphases and adaptive and maladaptive educational outcomes. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that while students in both science and instrumental music made a distinction between mastery and performance goals, these students did not make a complete distinction between mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals, at least according to the conceptual definition investigated in these studies. Regression analyses indicated that students’ perceptions of their teachers’ emphasis on mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals were significantly related to their reports of mastery-avoidance goals. Cluster analysis suggested a pattern of two general motivational profiles in the sample of more and less motivated students that differed on their simultaneous and respective high and low endorsements of both mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, sense of academic efficacy, and also academic achievement. In Study 2, I aimed to further knowledge of the meaning that students make of mastery-avoidance goals by examining students’ (N=79) qualitative responses to questions asking them to interpret items from the summated-scales self-report measure. Findings from a qualitative content analysis supported the findings from Study 1 about students’ lack of distinction between mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals, and indicated that students interpreted mastery-avoidance goals items in ways that were different from those intended by the researchers. These findings suggested that students form meanings of mastery-avoidance goals that are potentially different from the formal conceptual definition in the literature. The findings are interpreted as suggesting that students’ meaning-making about mastery-avoidance goals in both science and instrumental music may be contextualized by their personal characteristics (e.g., age), by characteristics of their school and classroom environments, and by situational characteristics (e.g., proximity of evaluative tasks). Further research should investigate systematically the different personal and contextual factors that may contribute to the meaning students make of mastery-avoidance goals.

      Olson, Ingrid R.; Mirman, Daniel; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Giovannetti, Tania; Chein, Jason M.; Coslett, H. Branch (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      While the neural underpinnings of concrete semantic knowledge have been studied extensively, abstract conceptual knowledge remains enigmatic. In the first experiment, participants underwent a functional MRI scan while thinking deeply about abstract and concrete words. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a cortical network, including portions of the left temporal parietal cortex (TPC), that showed coordinated activity specific to abstract word processing. Alternatively, concrete words led to cooperation of a network in the inferior, middle and polar temporal lobes. In a second experiment, participants with focal lesions in the left TPC, as well as matched control participants, were tested on a spoken-to-written word matching task, in which they were asked to select either an abstract or concrete word, from an array of words that were related or unrelated to the target. The results revealed an interaction between concreteness and relatedness. Participants with lesions did not have an overall deficit for abstract words, relative to concrete words, in this task. However, their accuracy was significantly lower for abstract words in related arrays, compared to words in unrelated arrays. These results confirm that the TPC plays an important role in abstract concept representation, and that it is part of a larger network of functionally cooperative regions needed for abstract word processing. These results also provide converging evidence that abstract concepts rely on neural networks that are independent from those involved in concrete concepts, and have important implications for existing accounts of the neural representation of semantic memory.

      Ok, Chihyung (Michael); Roehl, Wesley S.; Davey, Adam; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The purpose of this study was to better understand the goal-striving process in the context of non-problem gambler’s responsible gambling. More specifically, the primary aim of this study was to elucidate the hierarchical structure of goals, the role of the motivational phase of the goal-striving process, and the influence of cognitive evaluation and affective regulation on the goal-striving process. In the first part of the study, a conceptual model is proposed, in which the intrinsic factors used to predict non-problem gamblers’ intentions to gamble responsibly are delineated and tested according to the extension of the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1991), the model of action phases (Gollwitzer, 1990, 1993), the model of goal-directed behavior (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001; Perugini & Conner, 2000), and the model of effortful decision making and enactment (Bagozzi, Dholakia, & Basuroy, 2003; Dholakia, Bagozzi, & Gopinath, 2007). Four cognitive factors explain the motivational phase of the goal-striving process, and were incorporated in the current study. One factor explains the goal-oriented behavior at abstract level (i.e., goal feasibility), and the other three explain implementation of action-oriented behavior at concrete level (i.e., attitude toward implementing the actions necessary to achieve the goal, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control). In addition, two ways of emotional regulation were incorporated to explain the goal-oriented behavior at abstract level. That is, prefactual emotional valence factors related to the success and failure of future goal attainment (anticipated positive and negative emotions) affect goal desire. To sum up, this study anticipated that the proposed antecedent constructs (two anticipated emotions, goal feasibility, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) were strong indicators of how non-problem casino patrons would strive to achieve the goal (i.e., maturing or developing responsible gambling behavior) through a goal-striving process, where the motivational phase plays a critical role in explaining intention to gamble responsibly. A secondary goal of the study was to explore how responsible gambling strategies implemented by the gambling industry influence non-problem casino customers’ goal-directed behavior in a responsible gambling setting. Given the ongoing controversy about the effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies, the focus in the second part of the current study was on how situational arousal factors (i.e., psychological reactance) with regard to external interventions (i.e., compulsory and supplementary responsible gambling strategies) would affect implementation intention, based on the psychological reactance theory (J. W. Brehm, 1989; S. S. Brehm & Brehm, 1981). In other words, situational arousal factors were incorporated herein to explain the extrinsic part of the goal-striving process model. This study was designed to facilitate an understanding of how and why external interventions may fail to deliver the intended effect in the responsible gambling context. In order to take into account the varying effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies, an effort was made to discern between the different effects of each responsible gambling strategy type and to understand in greater detail how these effects were moderated by individual disposition, and especially the strength of the individual’s desire for control. A clear understanding of the moderating effect enables a richer understanding of the effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies with regard to responsible gambling behavior by non-problem casino patrons. Insight gained from the study through analysis of the results is discussed, and important theoretical and practical implications and future research agendas presented in the conclusion.
    • Understanding the Role of Confidence when Targeting Naive Conceptions of Force and Motion Using Demonstrations

      Lombardi, Doug, 1965-; Bailey, Janelle M.; Newton, Kristie Jones, 1973-; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The study of conceptual change in science education, specifically in the realm of physics, is not new, however, there is still much that is not well understood. Continuing with the trend of including characteristics of the learner in models of conceptual change, this study seeks to explore the role confidence plays in helping or hindering conceptual change. Current research on this topic has provided mixed conclusions. The concept of force is foundational for understanding most areas of physics, as well as other sciences. Students often lack correct understanding of this critical concept. It is important to separate students’ lack of knowledge about the topic from misconceptions, as each likely requires different types of intervention to correct. Pairing a concept inventory with a Certainty of Response Index (CRI) is one way of separating misconceptions from incomplete knowledge (Hasan, Bagayoko, & Kelley, 1999). In this study, students paired a series of multiple-choice questions about force and motion with a CRI. After each survey, students obtained feedback about correct answers followed by a discussion or a live demonstration designed to exemplify the concept in question. The study compared knowledge scores immediately after the intervention (posttest), as well as one month after the intervention (delayed posttest), between the two types of feedback (discussion and live demonstration). The results of this study support the argument to include confidence as one of the many learner characteristics that influence conceptual change. Additionally, students who viewed a demonstration had significantly greater gains in knowledge than students who participated in the discussion at posttest; however, the differences between the groups did not persist at delayed posttest. In examining CRI gain scores from pretest to delayed posttest, students who viewed a demonstration had significantly greater gains on items relating to Newton’s Third Law than the discussion group. The results taken collectively support the need to reexamine the order of the physics curriculum, particularly as it relates to Newton’s Laws. The findings suggest that Newton’s Third Law deserves much greater focus and potentially should be taught before Newton’s Second and First Laws, however, more research needs to be done to better understand the implications of such a change.
    • Understanding the Role of Principal Autonomy in School Success

      McGinley, Christopher W.; Estrada, Armando X.; Shorr, Lori; Haviland, Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      The role of the school leader is changing, as increasing regulatory obligations in the form of federal, state, and local mandates impact a principal’s ability to make autonomous decisions. Autonomy, or the ability to self-direct and make independent decisions, is a leadership aspect that fosters communal relationships; autonomy for school leaders allows them to address and be responsive to their school’s unique needs. Although public education functions within a variety of frameworks, the primary responsibility for school success lies with the school principal. No matter the level of students, or the particulars of a school’s demographics, Pennsylvania school principals are required to comply with federal, state, and local data collecting and reporting. Data-driven decisions fuel educational policymaking at the state, local, and federal levels. Today’s principals are not only charged with collecting data but also responsible for cultivating the highest performance from their students and staff. A principal’s success – the standards by which they are deemed effective by the Department of Education - is directly connected to the success of the students in their schools. Thus, there is a dynamic pull-and-tug between the need for a principal to be responsive to the school culture and community while simultaneously creating an environment of optimal performance in high-stakes testing. This research is designed to shed light on the extent to which school principals feel local, state, and federal mandates affect their autonomy and ability to provide the best experience for children. With building level data comprising half of the measure of a principal’s success, this study hopes to understand the relationship between the regulatory requirements, school success, and if principal autonomy factors into that relationship.
    • Understanding the Zero Tolerance Era School Discipline Net: Net-widening, net-deepening, and the cultural politics of school discipline

      Gastic, Billie; Hill, Marc Lamont; Gilbert, Melissa R.; Jordan, Will J.; Lipman, Pauline, 1944- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      School safety is widely recognized as an ongoing problem in United States public schools. Guided by the New Right, the school safety problem has been framed as an issue of school crime, violence, and student misbehavior that is best mitigated by zero tolerance policies. This stance has emerged as an agenda that has proven disproportionately detrimental to poor urban students of color who have experienced unforeseen levels of punishment since the Gun Free Schools Act of 1994 endorsed zero tolerance. Despite mounting evidence that zero tolerance approaches to discipline do little to deter school crime and violence or make schools safe, little ground has been gained in interrupting the ideology, policies, practices, and discourses of the zero tolerance agenda. The dissertation study theorizes and explores how ideology, cultural-politics, and discourse foster the tendency for policy creation and codification to legitimize the New Right's official knowledge of zero tolerance ideology and policy as a panacea for the school safety problem. To accomplish this, I conducted an ethnographic content analysis of codes of student conduct to examine the imbued ideologies, discourses, and policy changes that emerge from the cultural politics of managing school discipline over the last 15 years. Through this process, I lend empirical credence to the concepts of net-widening and net-deepening. With these guiding concepts, I push the field beyond the zero tolerance discourse on school safety and discipline to establish a generative alternative to understanding school discipline policies called the school discipline net framework. The results of the study establish a precedent for thinking more deeply and creatively about the perils and possibilities of school discipline policies. Major findings include the identification of several school policy changes that make the discipline experience both increasingly likely and potentially more punitive for students. Finally, through substantiating the school discipline net as a framework for discoursing, researching, guiding policy creation, and recognizing and locating sites of agency, this work establishes that it is indeed possible to engage issues critical in the field in ways that can transfer into the highly politicized school policy context dominated by New Right ideologies and discourses.