• MOLECULAR METHODS FOR ASSESSING THE RESPONSE OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PLANTS TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND HYDROXYLATED POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

      Van Aken, Benoit; Pleshko, Nancy; Tehrani, Rouzbeh Afsarmanesh; Obeid, Iyad, 1975- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic contaminants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. In the environment, PCBs have been shown to undergo various degradation processes and generate hydroxylated metabolites known as hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). There is a growing scientific interest in studying OH-PCBs as they are being increasingly detected in biotic and abiotic samples. Due to their widespread presence in the air, water, and soil, as well as their ability to bioaccumulate in living organisms, they pose a high danger to human beings and thus need to be remediated. Though phytoremediation has been proposed as a useful technology for the environmental management of PCBs, there is a lack of information about potential phytoremediation of OH-PCBs The hypothesis underlying this study is that hydroxylation of PCBs to OH-PCBs results in different toxicity and physiological effects on plants. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments aimed at understanding the toxicity and metabolism of PCBs and OH-PCBs by A. thaliana plants at physiological and transcriptomic levels. The applicability of FTIR to analyze lignin and cellulose content in the cell wall was tested for the purpose of biofuel production. More precisely, the specific aims of this study are as follows: 1. To determine the toxicity of selected PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) toward the model plant A. thaliana. 2. To understand the regulation of the response to and metabolism of PCBs and OH-PCBs in exposed A. thaliana at the transcriptomic level. 3. To determine the change in the biomass composition of A. thaliana upon exposure to different PCBs and OH-PCBs. Toxicity results indicated no observable toxicity of the parent PCBs toward the plants. However, lower chlorinated OH-PCBs resulted in a significant reduction in the growth and germination rate of the plants. Genome wide expression microarrays were used to investigate the transcriptional response of A. thaliana plants to 2,5-DCB and three of its OH-metabolites. Exposure to 2,5-DCB caused up-regulation of genes that are involved in toxic stress response and detoxification functions, and induction of multiple xenobiotic response genes. FTIR analysis was used to determine the effects of different PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites on the composition of the plant biomass. Significant changes in the lignin and cellulose content were observed between different treatments, which indicated an overall effect on the cell wall components upon exposure to PCBs and its OH metabolites.
    • Molecular Physiology of Novel Class of Protein Kinase C isoforms in Platelets

      Kunapuli, Satya P.; Driska, Steven Paul; Eguchi, Satoru; Daniel, James L.; Bray, Paul F. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Platelets are primary components of hemostasis. However, incongruous activation of platelets lead to thrombosis, which result in multiple cardio-vascular and cerebrovascular complications. Thus, platelet activation is tightly regulated. Molecular components that aid in activation of platelets have been extensively studied. However, molecular pathways that negatively regulate platelet activation and prevent accidental activation of platelets are poorly understood. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms that negatively regulate platelet activation. Protein Kinase C isforms (PKCs) are serine threonine kinases that regulate various platelet functional responses leading to hemostasis. Positive regulatory role of PKCs towards platelet aggregation and secretion has been extensively studied. However, we have recently demonstrated that PKCs negatively regulate ADP- induced thromboxane generation. The PKC isoforms and mechanism involved in this process have not been known. Thus, in this study we investigated the mechanism by which PKCs negatively regulate ADP-induced thromboxane generation and identified PKC isoforms that regulate thromboxane generation. Thromboxane generation in platelets is a multi-step process beginning with cPLA2 activation. cPLA2 activation is the rate limiting step in the process of thromboxane generation. Furthermore, cPLA2 activation is regulated by ERK and calcium in various cell systems including platelets. PKC inhibition potentiated both cPLA2 and ERK activation, suggesting that PKCs negatively regulate thromboxane generation by regulating ERK activation, which in turn regulates cPLA2 activation. Furthermore, we have also shown that PKCs negatively regulate ADP-induced calcium mobilization. ADP activates platelets via P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. P2Y12 receptor-mediated signaling is shown to positively regulate P2Y1-mediated calcium mobilization in platelets. Furthermore, PKCs are shown to negatively regulate P2Y12 receptor desensitization in platelets. Thus, we investigated if PKCs regulate calcium mobilization indirectly by regulating P2Y12 receptor function. However, PKCs regulate calcium mobilization independent of P2Y12 receptor signaling. In summary we have shown that PKC isoforms negatively regulate ADP-induced thromboxane generation by regulating calcium mobilization and ERK activation that in turn regulates cPLA2 activity. We further investigated the PKC isoforms involved in this process. Based on our results with Go-6976, a classical PKC inhibitor and GF109203X, a pan PKC inhibitor, we identified that that novel or atypical PKC isoforms are involved in negative regulation of ADP-induced thromboxane generation. Thus, we investigated the role of various novel class of PKC isoforms (nPKCs) in platelets. We first investigated the nPKCs activated by ADP. In aspirin-treated platelets, ADP failed to activate nPKC θ and δ non-stirring conditions. Thus, we conclude that these isoforms are not involved in negative regulation of thromboxane generation. We further investigated if other non-classical PKC isoforms i. e nPKC η and ε or atypical PKC isoforms could be involved in this process. We began our investigation with the mechanism of activation and functional role of nPKC η in platelets. The mechanism of activation of PKCs has been extensively studied in various cell systems including platelets. However, the mechanism by which they are inactivated is not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism of inactivation of nPKC η isoform by integrin associated serine/threonine phosphatase. we demonstrated that ADP activates nPKC η via P2Y1 receptor coupled to Gq. As expected, Gi pathway, which does not generate DAG or mobilize calcium, has no role in regulation of nPKC η. Interestingly, we show that upon activation of platelets, αIIbβ3 mediated outside-in signaling dephosphorylates nPKCη through PP1γ phosphatase. We have also evaluated the role of nPKC η using η-RACK antagonistic peptides that interfere with enzyme-substrate interaction. Similar antagonistic peptides have been successfully used in various cell systems such as cardiomyocytes and neuronal cell. Using η-RACK antagonists we have demonstrated that nPKC η positively regulates agonist- induced thromboxane generation with no effect on agonist- induced platelet aggregation. The peptides were targeted in to the cell using TAT carrier protein, which is also used as a negative control for these experiments. The specificity of η-RACK antagonistic peptides is further elucidated by the fact that they do not affect the platelet aggregation. In summary, nPKC η is activated by ADP via P2Y1 receptor and is dephosphorylated by integrin αIIbβ3 via PP1γ phosphatase. Furthermore, activated nPKC η positively regulates ADP- induced thromboxane generation with no effect on aggregation. Since, our aim was to investigate the nPKC isoforms that negatively regulate ADPinduced thromboxane generation we investigated if nPKC ε is involved in this process. We made use of PKC ε knockout mice (PKC ε KO) for this process. We observed potentiated thromboxane generation in ADP-induced PKC ε murine platelets compared to witd type murine platelets. Thus, PKC ε might be one of the PKC isoforms involved in negative regulation of ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, we failed to detect PKC ε in human platelets using western blot analysis. Since, PKC ε has been reported to be a part of platelet kinase repertoire, it could be limitation of our technique that we failed to detect it in western blot analysis. Since, PKCs negatively regulate ADP-induced thromboxane generation, we also investigated if PKCs also regulate PAR-mediated thromboxane generation. Similar to ADP, PAR-mediated thromboxane generation is not affected by Classical PKC isoforms. Furthermore, although non-classical PKC isoforms negatively regulate thromboxane generation, the extent of negative regulation is smaller and non-significant compared to ADP. Thus, we investigated if activation of nPKC isoforms were different between ADP and AYPGKF (PAR4 agonist). While, ADP fails to activate nPKC δ and θ, PARs activate Them. Furthermore, we have recently demonstrated that nPKC δ and θ are positive regulators of PAR-mediated platelet functional responses. Therefore, PKCinduced potentiation of thromboxane generation by ADP and PAR agonist are different due to differential activation of PKCs. This data lead to our final project, where we investigated the reason for differential activation of nPKC isoforms by various platelet agonists. Using strong and weak platelet agonists and DAG analogue, DiC8, we demonstrated that different platelet agonists differentially regulate nPKC activation due to variable amounts of DAG generated by them. Furthermore, we also have demonstrated that nPKC η and ε have higher affinities to DAG compared to nPKC δ and θ.
    • MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF p21-ACTIVATED KINASES

      Kunapuli, Satya P.; Scalia, Rosario; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Goldfinger, Lawrence; McKenzie, Steven (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Platelets are involved in many processes ranging from fighting microbial infections and triggering inflammation to promoting tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Nevertheless, the primary physiological function of platelets is to act as essential mediators in maintaining homeostasis of the circulatory system by forming hemostatic thrombi that prevent blood loss and maintain vascular integrity. The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases known to be the downstream effectors of GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1. PAKs are the key regulators of actin polymerization and have been shown to play an important role in platelet spreading and aggregation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Whereas several signaling cascades downstream of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulate platelet functions have been characterized, little attention is paid towards the signaling cascades that involve small G proteins effectors such as PAK. A few studies have characterized the role of PAK, downstream of the Rho family of small G proteins, in outside-in signaling, but its role in the regulation of platelet functional responses by inside-out signaling events have not been elucidated. PAK is reported to interact with numerous proteins including Akt, PDK1 and PI3-kinase in different cell lines. PAK’s function as a scaffolding protein expands the role of this protein in cellular functions. Although PAK is known to have non-catalytic scaffolding functions and is shown to associate and translocate Akt in other cell systems, the catalytic and possible non-catalytic scaffolding role in platelet functions are not clearly defined. In this dissertation we propose to elucidate the scaffolding function of PAK and also its role platelet functional responses using molecular genetics approach. Akt is an important signaling molecule regulating platelet aggregation. Akt is phosphorylated upon translocation to the membrane through Gi signaling pathways by a PIP3-dependent mechanism. However, Akt is more robustly phosphorylated by thrombin compared to ADP in platelets. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of Akt translocation as a possible explanation for this difference. Stimulation of washed human platelets with protease-activated receptor (PAR) agonists caused rapid translocation of Akt to the membrane, whereas Akt phosphorylation occurred later. The translocation of Akt was abolished in the presence of a Gq-selective inhibitor or in Gq-deficient murine platelets, indicating that Akt translocation is regulated downstream of Gq signaling pathways. Interestingly, PI3-kinase inhibitors or P2Y12 antagonist abolished Akt phosphorylation without affecting Akt translocation to the membrane, suggesting that Akt translocation occurs through a PI3-kinase/PIP3/ Gi-independent mechanism. An Akt scaffolding protein, PAK, translocates to the membrane upon stimulation with PAR agonists in a Gq-dependent manner with the kinetics of translocation similar to that of Akt. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed constitutive association of PAK and Akt, suggesting a role of PAK in Akt translocation. These results show for the first time an important role of the Gq signaling pathway in mediating Akt translocation to the membrane in a novel Gi/PI3-kinase/PIP3-independent mechanism. PAK contains an autoinhibitory domain that suppresses the catalytic activity of its kinase domain. This autoregulatory domain found within PAK kinase provides a unique target for chemical inhibitors. IPA3, a small molecule allosteric inhibitor of PAK activation, binds covalently to the PAK regulatory domain and prevents binding to its upstream activators. IPA3 has been used in various cells, including platelets, to evaluate the role of PAK in signaling. Herein, we investigated the specificity and selectivity of IPA3 as a PAK inhibitor in the human platelets. Stimulation of platelets pretreated with IPA3 using a PAR-4 or GPV1 agonist resulted in a concentration dependent inhibition of aggregation, as was suggested by earlier studies. Interestingly, we found that incubation of washed human platelets with IPA3 leads to a non-specific increase in phosphorylation of several proteins in absence of any agonist. However, this phosphorylation is not sufficient for aggregation of platelets by IPA3. In summary, we demonstrate that IPA3 by itself can phosphorylate several proteins in human platelets and thus its use is not an appropriate strategy for investigating PAK function in platelets. PAKs are classified into two groups based on their structural differences. Human platelets have been shown to express both group I (PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3) and group II PAKs (PAK4). Previous studies showing the role of PAK were performed with nonspecific inhibitors of PAK, such as IPA3, that do not distinguish isoforms. Thus, we propose to evaluate the function of specific PAK isoforms in platelets using knockout murine platelets, which are more selective tools to study the role of individual isoforms of PAK. We observed that Pak2 null mice showed enhanced secretion responses upon stimulation with 2MeS ADP and collagen, and delayed clot retraction. Interestingly, Pak1 null murine platelets did not have any functional defects, suggesting redundancy with other PAK isoforms. The studies proposed in my thesis will provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms of platelet activation and hence provide a basis for development of PAK as novel antithrombotic therapeutic targets. Furthermore, PAK inhibitors are currently being developed by pharmaceutical companies to treat malignancies, although this enzyme is ubiquitously expressed in the body. A thorough understanding of the role of PAK in platelets can predict the effect of these drugs on hemostatic functions, which helps during clinical trials. In the future, targeted inhibition of signaling molecules in platelets could be developed and that would solely target platelet signaling pathways.
    • MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF THROMBOXANE A2 GENERATION IN PLATELETS

      Kunapuli, Satya P.; Driska, Steven Paul; Eguchi, Satoru; Woulfe, Donna (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries. Anti-platelet therapy is a cornerstone treatment for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Patients are routinely managed with a combination therapy consisting of aspirin and clopidogrel. Aspirin inhibits cyclooxygenase 1 (COX 1) a crucial intermediate enzyme involved in thromboxane biosynthesis. Clopidogrel on the other hand antagonizes ADP receptor P2Y12. ADP is a weak platelet agonist stored in platelet dense granules and is released upon platelet activation. ADP activates platelets through two purinergic receptors namely P2Y1 and P2Y12 these receptors couple to Gq and Gi class of G-proteins, respectively. P2Y1 causes calcium mobilization through activation of PLC-β. P2Y12 inhibits adenylyl cyclase, causes activation of Rap1B and Akt. Signaling from both the receptors is required for complete integrin activation, thromboxane generation and Erk activation. Previous studies have shown that P2Y12 potentiates fibrinogen receptor activation, secretion, thrombi stabilization, thrombin generation, platelet leukocyte aggregation formation. ThromboxaneA2 (TXA2) is a potent platelet agonist generated through arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets. TXA2 thus, generated after platelet activation acts as a positive feedback mediator along with ADP. Under physiological conditions, platelet activation leads to thrombin generation through coagulation cascades. Generated thrombin activates PAR receptors and ADP is released from dense granules, which further potentiates thromboxane generation downstream of PARs. Current anti-platelet therapy regimens often include P2Y12 antagonists and aspirin in management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation. However, there still exists a need for improved treatment strategies as not all patients benefit from this dual combination therapy. Reasons include, poor responders either to P2Y12 antagonists or to aspirin, or if aspirin is contraindicated in these patient populations. In the current study we evaluated the role of P2Y12 in thromboxane generation under physiological conditions. We studied serum thromboxane generation in a model system wherein P2Y12 was antagonized or deficient. Using pharmacological approaches we show that dosing mice with 30mg/Kg/body weight clopidogrel or 3mg/Kg/body weight prasugrel decreased serum thromboxane levels when compared to the control mice. Pre-treatment of human blood ex vivo with active metabolites of clopidogrel (R361015) or prasugrel (R138727) also led to reduction in thromboxane levels. We also evaluated serum thromboxane levels in P2Y receptor null mice, serum thromboxane levels in P2Y1 null mice were similar to those in wild type littermates, and were inhibited in P2Y12 null mice. Furthermore, serum thromboxane levels in P2Y12 deficient patients, previously described in France and Japan, were also evaluated and these patients had lower serum thromboxane levels compared to normal controls. In a pilot study, serum thromboxane levels were radically reduced in healthy human volunteers upon dosing with clopidogrel, compared to the levels before dosing. In conclusion, P2Y12 antagonism alone can decrease physiological thromboxane levels. Thus P2Y12 regulates physiological thromboxane levels. Further it is known that ADP-induced thromboxane generation is integrin-dependent. However it is not clear if other potent platelet agonists like thrombin require outside-in signaling for thromboxane generation. Our results show that thrombin-induced thromboxane generation was independent of integrins i.e. when platelets were stimulated with PAR agonists in presence of fibrinogen receptor antagonist thromboxane generation was not affected. Since PAR agonists, unlike ADP, activate G12/13 signaling pathways. Hence, we hypothesized that these pathways might play a role in TXA2 generation. Our results show, that inhibition of ADP-induced thromboxane generation by fibrinogen receptor antagonist SC57101 was rescued by costimulation of G12/13 pathways with YFLLRNP. This observation suggested an existence of a common signaling effector downstream of integrins and G12/13 pathways. Next, we evaluated role of three potential tyrosine kinases; c-Src, Syk and FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase) that are known to be activated by integrins. Our results showed that c-Src and Syk kinase did not play a role in ADP-induced functional responses in platelets. We observed differential activation of FAK downstream of integrins and G12/13 pathways. ADP-induced activation of FAK was integrindependent and SFK-independent. On the other hand selective activation of G12/13 pathway lead to FAK activation, in SFK and Rho dependent manner. We also evaluated specificity of new FAK inhibitor TAE-226 to understand the role of FAK in TXA2 generation. Our results showed that TAE-226 exhibited non-specific effects at higher concentrations. Furthermore, in comparison to WT mice, FAK null mice did not show any difference in TXA2 generation. Therefore, we concluded that differential activation of FAK occurs downstream of Integrins and G12/13 pathways. However, the common effector molecule downstream of integrins and G12/ 13 pathways contributing to TXA2 generation in platelets remains elusive.
    • ‘Money’ Free Throws: Understanding Clutch Performance Under Pressure from the Free Throw Line

      Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Giannini, John, 1962- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This study attempted to explore the phenomenon of free throw shooting under pressure. The participants in the study were 10, Division III college basketball players who agreed to take part in an interview centered around free throw shooting. The data were gathered from the responses of the players, using a semi-structured interview, developed by the researcher with the suggestions and approval of an expert basketball panel, comprised of sport psychology professors, NBA sport psychologists, basketball coaches, and former players. Four of the interviews were done in person, while the other six were done over the phone. The interviews were transcribed and coded using a constant comparative method described by Boeije (2002). This entailed a process of open coding, which resulted in 65 codes. Of these 65 codes, 57 codes were assigned into eight categories during a process of axial coding. These categories were as follows; routine, practice, focus, pressure, pressure management skills, confidence, clutch factors, and non-clutch factors. Confidence was technically a sub-category of clutch factors, but was deemed large and separate enough to be its own category. The coding of interviews went through a process of inter-rater reliability via an independent coder. The independent coder and the researcher agreed on over 86% of the coded responses. The disagreements were discussed and a mutual understanding was established. Players emphasized the importance of a pre-shot routine, especially under high-pressure circumstances. Players discussed the importance of practice in preparation for high-pressure free throws. Players gave their level of focus on task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli when attempting free throws, both under normal circumstances and under pressure circumstances. Players revealed pressure management strategies that they used to aid in the performance of attempting high pressure free throws. Possible links to clutch performance were explored by the researcher.
    • MONITORING INFILTRATION FROM NATURAL STORMS USING TIME-LAPSE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY

      Toran, Laura E.; Nyquist, Jonathan; Davatzes, Alexandra K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (TL-ERT) enables an accurate characterization of the heterogeneity of flow through the unsaturated zone especially when compared to point measurements taken within the same survey area. The most powerful tool for understanding the unsaturated zone is a combination of several techniques. Many models of unsaturated zone flow assume a uniform wetting front even though the existence of preferential flow paths is well-documented in the literature. TL-ERT surveys were collected perpendicular to a stream at the Stroud Water Research Center in Chester County, PA to provide continuous measurement of unsaturated flow during two natural infiltration events. Dielectric sensors were installed along this transect to collect soil moisture data during these events. Additionally, slug tests and infiltrometer tests were collected along the transect to characterize the subsurface at the study site. TL-ERT successfully located sections with preferential flow, and these results were reproducible three months later. Other methods of measuring soil moisture content or infiltration rates were less successful at identifying preferential flow. The rates determined from point measurements often did not match where the TL-ERT identified zones of preferential flow. This comparison reveals that slow-infiltration points can exist within preferential pathways and exemplifies the importance of large-scale measurements in the unsaturated zone. Any scientific study looking at infiltration should consider utilizing TL-ERT to map where preferential flow may be occurring.
    • MONITORING STORMWATER INFILTRATION IN A VACANT LOT COMPARING TIME-LAPSE ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY

      Toran, Laura E.; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ravi, Sujith (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Vacant lots in cities and surrounding urban areas can potentially be used for stormwater management because they are pervious. However, the extent to which vacant lots provide pervious cover to increase infiltration and reduce stormflow is poorly understood. The goal of this study was to develop faster methods for monitoring stormwater infiltration to improve characterization of heterogeneous urban systems. Geophysical techniques are capable of mapping and characterizing subsurface materials, but are often limited by time and sensitivity constraints. In this study, the infiltration characteristics of a vacant lot created by the demolition of a house was characterized using a series of modeling, field and lab experiments. Site characterization under background conditions with an EM Profiler was used to map zones of different fill materials. Three zones were identified in the study site: grass area, driveway area, and a former house area. Transient soil moisture conditions were monitored during irrigation tests using two geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography [ERT] and electromagnetic induction [EM]) to evaluate method sensitivity and differences between the three zones. ERT proved more sensitive than EM profiling at detecting changes in the three zones. Soil moisture changes in the driveway area were particularly difficult to detect using EM. The EM Profiler showed a reduction rather than increase in conductivity at the start of irrigation and storms, which was attributed to flushing of high conductivity pore fluids by dilute irrigation or rain water. This explanation was supported using Archie’s Law to model the response of apparent conductivity under highly conductive pore fluid conditions. The EM Profiler was also used under natural precipitation conditions to quickly monitor areas too large for the ERT to reasonably survey. The results suggested that EM instrument drift needs to be corrected to make the method more sensitive. It was difficult to detect differences in hydrologic characterization between areas of the vacant lot using traditional soil point measurements because of the inherent spatial variability. The most useful point measurement was soil moisture loggers. Data from soil moisture loggers was used to parameterize the model; in addition, the soil moisture loggers showed a slow drying period. By combining the EM Profiler method with soil moisture data and applying corrections for drift, some improvement in sensitivity might be achieved. Quantitative characterization of fill material was shown by ERT, which detected more heterogeneous infiltration in the area of the former house than in the grass area.
    • Monkey and Ape Iconography in Minoan Art

      Betancourt, Philip P., 1936-; Evans, Jane DeRose, 1956-; Hall, Marcia B.; Tartaron, Thomas F. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This dissertation examines monkey and ape iconography in Minoan art during the Aegean Bronze Age (ca. 3,000–1,100 B.C.). Although a broad range of animals exist for depiction, Minoan artists carefully selected each subject in order to fulfill specific roles. Monkeys and apes appear to function differently than the other creatures that are depicted in art. Rather than subscribing to the general roles played by other animals, these primates may be shown outdoors, behaving like wild animals, or in a ceremonial context, participating in a ritual. Monkeys also imitate human activities. The deviation of primates from the typical roles of other animals found in Minoan art invites a deeper investigation of the role and iconography of apes and monkeys. In this study, three types of media that bear depictions of primates are considered. These media include figurines, glyptic art, and wall paintings. First, a review of the stylistic features of Minoan art and the possibility for the use of pattern books is discussed. Next, monkey and ape iconography in Egyptian art is explored. A thorough review of the creatures’ iconography in Minoan art follows, which includes the identification of figures as either ape or monkey, as well as a detailed description and conclusions about each type of representation. A new possible reconstruction of the Saffron Gatherer fresco is also included. Finally, the possible origins of Minoan primate iconography are considered, as well as the possible implications of the creature’s history, development, and roles. With this information in mind, the Offering to the Seated Goddess scene is then examined. The possible reconstruction of a crocus ceremony is proposed and explained, and the Levantine parallels for the compositional arrangement of the scene are also addressed. These conclusions may directly inform greater themes in Minoan culture, such as religion and cult practices.
    • MONTE CARLO MODELING OF DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN BIOMEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS

      Patil, Chetan Appasaheb; Pleshko, Nancy; Tuzel, Erkan; Fang, Qianqian; Wright, William Geoffrey (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Computational modeling of light-matter interactions is a valuable approach for simulating photon paths in highly scattering media such as biological tissues. Monte Carlo (MC) models are considered to be the gold standard of implementation and can offer insights into light flux, absorption, and emission through tissues. Monte Carlo modeling is a computationally intensive approach, but this burden has been alleviated in recent years due to the parallelizable nature of the algorithm and the recent implementation of graphics processing unit (GPU) acceleration. Despite impressive translational applications, the relatively recent emergence of GPU-based acceleration of MC models can still be utilized to address some pressing challenges in biomedical optics beyond DOT and PDT. The overarching goal of the current dissertation is to advance the applications and abilities of GPU accelerated MC models to include low-cost devices and model Raman scattering phenomena as they relate to clinical diagnoses. The massive increase in computational capacity afforded by GPU acceleration dramatically reduces the time necessary to model and optimize optical detection systems over a wide range of real-world scenarios. Specifically, the development of simplified optical devices to meet diagnostic challenges in low-resource settings is an emerging area of interest in which the use of MC modeling to better inform device design has not yet been widely reported. In this dissertation, GPU accelerated MC modeling is utilized to guide the development of a mobile phone-based approach for diagnosing neonatal jaundice. Increased computational capacity makes the incorporation of less common optical phenomena such as Raman scattering feasible in realistic time frames. Previous Raman scattering MC models were simplistic by necessity. As a result, it was either challenging or impractical to adequately include model parameters relevant to guiding clinical translation. This dissertation develops a Raman scattering MC model and validates it in biological tissues. The high computational capacity of a GPU-accelerated model can be used to dramatically decrease the model’s grid size and potentially provide an understanding of measured signals in Raman spectroscopy that span multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale. In this dissertation, a GPU-accelerated Raman scattering MC model is used to inform clinical measurements of millimeter-scale bulk tissue specimens based on Raman microscopy images. The current study further develops the MC model as a tool for designing diffuse detection systems and expands the ability to use the MC model in Raman scattering in biological tissues.
    • Moral Code: The Design and Social Values of the Internet

      Gould, Carol C.; Taylor, Paul C. (Paul Christopher), 1967-; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Schwartz, Joseph M., 1954-; Gordon, Jane Anna, 1976- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In the field of philosophy, the study of the Internet has mainly focused on the social responses to the technology or offered contending visions of the future forms of the Internet with little or no regard for the import of the technical features that contribute to these possibilities. Philosophy lacks a sustained investigation of the implications of the basic design of the Internet technology. This dissertation lays out a philosophical framework for investigating the social and historical relations that result in the embodiment of specific interests in the technology of the Internet. Its philosophical basis, influenced by the thought of Karl Marx, Herbert Marcuse, and Andrew Feenberg, supports a social constructivist approach that includes theorization of the oppressive embodiment of hegemonic and exclusive interests in technology while rejecting the technological determinisms influenced by Martin Heidegger's philosophy of technology. After establishing that three pervasive social-political interests - accessibility, openness, and decentralization - directed the design choices that produced the fundamental structure of the Internet, I consider how these embodied interests have interacted with interests arising through the commercial commodification and the globalization of the Internet since the 1990s. Critically evaluating and expanding upon theoretical work in philosophy and other disciplines, I argue that the interests of accessibility, openness, and decentralization, while potentially oppressive when appropriated to satisfy the needs of commercial advertising and dominant social relations, avert the technological hegemony and exclusivity that has concerned philosophers. The result of these embodied interests is an emancipatory ability to incorporate alternative interests and uses through dispersed collaboration and participation, which enables Internet technology to remain minimally coercive.
    • Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection of Executive Compensation

      Banker, Rajiv D.; Plehn-Dujowich, Jose M.; Krishnan, Jayanthi; Naveen, Lalitha (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation investigates the structure of incentive contracts in which adverse selection problems are more severe. Specifically, I examine the moderating effect of R&D intensity on the relative weights placed on signals of ability and on performance measures in executive compensation. Furthermore, I also investigate the determinants on the compensation of university presidents. I find that that more weight is placed on signals of ability in R&D intensive firms and less weight is placed on performance measures. I find that R&D intensive firms pay more to executives with technical work experience and/or relevant educational degrees. Additionally, in the context of university presidents, the positive association between organizational complexity and executive compensation is driven by the role of managerial ability rather than by effort. This result also suggests that considering measures of organizational complexity (such as firm size and diversification) as control variables in empirical studies of executive compensation is the appropriate means by which to account for the impact of organizational complexity.
    • More Success Than Meets the Eye: The Case of M&As in the High-Tech Industry

      Guillotin, Bertrand; Wray, Matt; Naveen, Lalitha; di Benedetto, C. Anthony (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Mergers and acquisitions are staples of the business landscape. On a global basis, companies engage in tens of thousands of deals each year, collectively valued in the trillions of dollars. At the same time, decades of research, predominantly grounded in the finance literature, predicts most deals will fail. These competing ideas of high transaction volume and high failure rate lead researchers to wonder why managers would continue to engage in these deals knowing most are predicted to fail. While some might argue agency theory issues are the answer, the problem is the commonly used assessment measures (e.g., CAR and ROA) are unreliable when trying to determine the success or failure of individual transactions. M&A are complex transactions that may take years to develop value and require a multi-faceted approach for assessment. Using an inductive, theory-building, case study methodology the overarching focus of this study asks, “How does the use of multiple acquisition success measures help to identify M&A success.” This research develops a random sampling of 50 completed Cisco Systems acquisitions and determines and then compares the CAR, ROA, and managers’ subjective assessment outcomes for each transaction. Primary and secondary objectives and insights concerning cultural fit and talent retention are also found. An additional sample of 600 acquisitions from twelve highly acquisitive firms is developed and CAR results for each transaction, each firm, and the whole sample are determined. I organize this research effort into two studies. The first considers limitations of the commonly used academic measures of acquisition assessment and the second considers how a strategy-focused, multi-faceted or holistic approach to acquisition performance assessment might produce a more reliable measure of acquisition success. During the second study I obtain due diligence checklists and primary data through practitioner interviews. The research produces several important findings. The CAR results are not statistically significant and cannot be used to provide an assessment of the sample acquisitions. CAR, which is often used to predict the effect or influence of a piece of information on stock price, is not an effective measure of the success or failure of an individual acquisition transaction and the oft-cited statistics are not an accurate representation of M&A success rates. ROA has limitations in highly acquisitive firms, especially when the acquiring company is larger than the target firm. These findings support the argument by other researchers that suggest the need for another measure and that overreliance on a single success measure produces unreliable results. Additionally, this research offers new insights regarding practitioner assessment criteria, when assessment criteria are developed, and how practitioners assess these deals. More specifically, practitioners determine acquisition assessment criteria during corporate strategy discussions or when developing the business case for a deal. These new insights reinforce the need for a holistic, ex-post assessment to effectively determine M&A success or failure.
    • More Than a Hashtag: An Examination of the #BlackGirlMagic Phenomenon

      Mazama, Ama, 1961- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Cashawn Thompson, who is credited for coining the phrase “Black girls are magic” which was later shortened to Black Girl Magic, says in an interview with the Los Angeles Times that “at its core, the purpose of this movement is to create a platform where women of color can stand together against “the stereotyping, colorism, misogynoir and racism that is often their lived experience.” Julee Wilson, Fashion Senior Editor at Essence Magazine, reflects Thompson in her article written for HuffPost saying, “Black Girl Magic is a term used to illustrate the universal awesomeness of black women. It’s about celebrating anything we deem particularly dope, inspiring, or mind-blowing about ourselves.” (Wilson, 2016) Nielsen Media Research similarly defines #BlackGirlMagic as “a cross-platform gathering of empowered Black women who uplift each other and shine a light on the impressive accomplishments of Black women throughout the world, a hashtag which uncovers and addresses the daily racism that so
    • MORE THAN A SOCIAL DETERMINANT OF HEALTH: INCARCERATION AS A NEGATIVE HEALTH OUTCOME

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The Healthy People 2020 initiative recognizes how the physical, emotional and mental toll of incarceration causes poorer health outcomes because of the health risks and exposures individuals face in the prison environment. However, incarceration in the urban setting is more than the social determinant of health. The social, political, and economic consequences of mass incarceration have disproportionately affected urban communities. By reviewing the research on the health and socio-economic status of incarcerated population prior, during and after imprisonment, I make the argument that prisoners have a predisposition to be incarcerated due the negative social determinants of health present in their natal neighborhoods. I illustrate how the evolution of mass incarceration is in part due to the United States (US) government imprisonment of many non-violent offenders by criminalizing drug abuse in part due to racial discrimination towards men of color, primarily African-American men. I examine how drug abuse as a mental illness has been disregarded by the US Criminal Justice System, and how racism has contributed to this factor. Furthermore, as the drugs policies have disproportionately affected these communities, additional consideration should be given to how the criminalization and demonization of drug abuse and addiction has impinged on the bioethical rights of the members of urban communities. I explain how mass incarceration in the urban setting violates each bioethical principle and how the racial disparities in mass incarceration is a reflection and is an extension of the problems of racism inherent to the US. Ultimately, I conclude that any new legislation passed to end mass incarceration should include policies that help to rehabilitate and to rebuild lives of those affected most by mass incarceration.
    • More Than Road Trips and Rangers in Flat Hats: Recognizing Millennial Perceptions of the National Park Service to Effectively Engage the Next Generation of Park Stewards

      Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Lowe, Hilary Iris; Eyring, Shaun (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Despite popular perceptions that the National Park Service (NPS) is first and foremost the steward of spectacular natural vistas, two-thirds of the system’s nearly four hundred parks exist explicitly to protect and interpret cultural and historic resources. It is this perception that the NPS only cares for Western natural wonders that impedes the agency, especially as it looks to the future. If the National Park Service is looking to cultivate the next generation of stewards, as employees, visitors, or advocates, it must understand how this diverse audience perceives the NPS. This thesis argues that this next generation of millennials perceives the National Park Service as a purveyor of natural wonders in the Western United States, road trip destinations. While the NPS is far from only “Western nature parks,” this popular perception permeates the next generation of park stewards. With this in mind, this thesis argues that the National Park Service must actively prioritize this next generation by defining who they are, recognize their perceptions and needs from the NPS, and understand how to best engage them in all aspects of natural and cultural resources. The NPS has a long history of youth engagement and outreach, in both natural and cultural resources, illustrating its importance to the agency. Looking to the future, it is imperative that the NPS supports youth engagement and outreach in a more productive and inclusive way.
    • MORPHOMETRY AND INDICATIVE MEANING OF BLUE LAND CRAB (Cardisoma guanhumi) BURROWS

      Buynevich, Ilya V. (Ilya Val); Terry, Dennis O., 1965-; Ravi, Sujith (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      A variety of land crab species spend large parts of their life cycle in supratidal burrows, making these structures valuable paleoenvironmental indicators. Specifically, the blue land crab (Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825) is a keystone species and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, however few geologic efforts have been made to assess the biogenic structure produced by this decapod. We present, for the first time, a comprehensive (morphological and environmental boundary) analysis of C. guanhumi burrows using modern examples from a carbonate setting in the Bahamas. Ten burrow casts were collected from both a mangrove and interior blue hole environment on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Measurements were taken from the casts and 2D photogrammetry and 29 key architectural metrics were analyzed using the Bray-Curtis similarity test to determine morphometric indices representative of the biogenic structures produced by C. guanhumi. Additionally, due to the requirement for gill immersion in shallow water, the basal sections of C. guanhumi chambers are closely correlated with long-term high-tide level, making them potential indicators of past biotope boundaries (wetland/upland) and sea level position. Burrow sites were investigated to assess the range of groundwater perturbations over several tidal cycles, casts and in situ water samples were used to determine the magnitude of tidal dampening. Finally, the water conditions within C. guanhumi burrow end chambers and by extent within their biotope, are essential to support the physiological needs (ventilation, circulation, molting) of this decapod. Salinity thresholds has been investigated using non-invasive extraction of end chamber and biotope water. Results demonstrate high overall burrow morphology between the 10 cast (>0.80) and specifically, the basal end chamber exhibits the highest similarity index (>0.85). In addition our findings show the open-ocean mean tidal range of 0.57 m is reduced by 40% (~0.30 m) within blue holes and the North Pigeon Creek (NPC) mangrove shoreline. Further dampening to a mean amplitude of 0.10 m was measured at NPC burrow sites. Moreover the large terminal chamber is particularly important due to its preservation potential, repository of vegetation matter and potential skeletal remains, and a reliable water table (~sea-level) indicator. Lastly, the results of this study indicate that the blue land crab thrive in an ideal groundwater salinity range of 20-40‰, however evidence from locations indicates that they can live long enough to burrow into muddy substrates at lower salinities (7-10‰). Our findings demonstrate how a quantitative assessment of modern biogenic structures and their likely counterparts from the sedimentary record (e.g., Macanopsis plataniformis) can help constrain tracemaker identity and aid in paleoenvironmental reconstruction.
    • Mors mystica

      Pueyo Zoco, Víctor; Piera, Montserrat; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Poeta, Salvatore J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Mors mystica es un estudio sobre los límites de la Modernidad. Estudiando el declive del feudalismo, se cuestionan los lindes –e incluso la validez misma– de las categorías de lo moderno y lo premoderno. Un análisis de las ontologías lingüísticas y las teorías de la subjetividad de los místicos mediterráneos e, hispanos en particular, permite sistematizar un paradigma alternativo de modernidad definido en simultánea oposición al feudalismo saliente y al incipiente individualismo del sujeto autónomo moderno. La existencia de esta cosmovisión al alba de la Modernidad triunfante desvela la complejidad histórica de un proceso que no es ni puramente secuencial ni impecablemente hermético; muestra, empero, que entre los siglos XI y XVII la identificación entre lo premoderno y el discurso teológico no es menos problemática que la de lo moderno y lo secularizante. Atendiendo a este concepto de mors mystica entendida como producción en negativo de una subjetividad ya no feudal, pero no exactamente moderna en sentido que habría de adoptar, el presente ensayo propone leer la predilección de la mística por el deceso como una original vía para propiciar la formación de subjetividades contraindividualistas. En el contexto del Bajomedievo y las Guerras Europeas de Religión, los místicos conciben un individuo definido mediante el acto de muerte –del ego– por amor al otro.
    • “MOST HISTORIC HOUSES JUST SIT THERE”: ACTIVATING THE PRESENT AT HISTORIC HOUSE MUSEUMS

      Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Lowe, Hilary Iris; Adair, Bill (Museum curator) (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Historic house museums (HHMs) are contradictory spaces, private places made public. They (often) combine the real with the reproduction. Drawing from object reverence, taxonomy, and tableaux over a century and a half of practice, the American HHM arrives in the present as a Frankenstein's monster of nostalgia. Chamounix Mansion has been a youth hostel since 1964. It has also been a historic house museum, though when it became one and when—if—it ever stopped being one is an open question. Chamounix is a space where the past, present, and future all share space, as guests move through historic spaces, have conversations about anything or nothing at all, and plan their next day, their next destination, their next major life move. It is a place that seems fertile for meaning-making. It also provides a fascinating case study of what HHMs have been and what they might become. The Friends of Chamounix Mansion employed the methods of other HHMs as it tried to achieve recognition as an HHM in the 1960s, but by the 1980s, they began claiming the hostel’s usage as another form of authenticity. As HHMs face a variety of challenges today, and seek to make meaning with visitors and neighbors alike, the example of Chamounix Mansion offers a case study of how embracing usage might offer new directions for meaning-making.
    • Mother of God, Cease Sorrow!: The Significance of Movement in a Late Byzantine Icon

      Bolman, Elizabeth S., 1960-; Evans, Jane DeRose, 1956-; Evans, Jane DeRose, 1956- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      The relationships between movement, emotion, and ritual communion in Byzantium have drawn the attention of art historians in recent years. While Henry Maguire has considered many facets of this subject, a monumental Late Byzantine icon, the Two-Sided Icon with the Virgin Pausolype, Feast Scenes, the Crucifixion and Prophets, suggests others. While the catalog entry by Annemarie Weyl Carr in Byzantium: Faith and Power remains the only published discussion of this particular icon, or even specifically of the Pausolype ("cease sorrow!") iconographic type, I believe that this image contributes significantly to our understanding of Late Byzantine culture and liturgical practice. Careful study of this particular icon encourages a consideration of the problematic subject of emotion, and its interactions with movement, ritual and art. The paucity of evidence makes it difficult to address specific devotional practices associated with this particular object, although some observations can be made. I am able, however, to align it with its iconographic antecedents and establish contemporary relationships, illuminating aspects of its original function.
    • Motivation and adherence to exercise in college students with schizophrenia

      Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Snethen, Gretchen A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The purpose of this study was to explore and define the behavioral and thought processes that affect exercise engagement and adherence in college students with schizophrenia. A mixed methods approach was proposed utilizing an online survey followed by semi structured interviews. The online survey used was the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS) Adult Version and the semi structured interview questions were produced by the researcher. The potential participants for this study were students who were 18 years of age or older and registered with the Disability Resources and Services Department at Temple University. The participants were also to have already experienced their first episode of psychosis (FEP). The online survey yielded no completed questionnaires. The online survey consisted of the 43 question EBBS Adult version and a basic demographic questionnaire. The EBBS utilized a 4-point Likert scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree.’ At the end of the survey, an optional question was added if participants wanted to take part in a semi-structured interview. The semi-structured interview also yielded no participants. Interviews were designed to develop a more in depth understanding of personal schizophrenia symptoms, how well symptoms are managed by the individual, and how exercise plays a role in their management. Interviews were to be transcribed verbatim and coded using transcendental phenomenology theory to explore the phenomenon of exercise adherence and non-adherence. Considering the lack of responses, social stigma surrounding mental illness could be a contributing factor. Discrimination surrounding mental illness has been shown to lower quality of life for individuals with a mental illness, increase unemployment rates, and increase anxiety and depression rates. Another potential contributing factor to low survey completion rate was the length of the EBBS. The population diagnosed with schizophrenia could benefit from research involving a six month exercise implementation. The EBBS or a shortened modified version could be utilized in pre and post testing along with exercise testing in the pre and post form analyzing the five areas of physical fitness. Semi-structured interviews would be beneficial to do prior, during, and at the end of the exercise intervention to acquire a well rounded view of the perceptions of exercise engagement. A follow up survey and interview would be completed after two months to examine continued or discontinued exercise engagement and the associated reasons. A case study or narrative research would be a second beneficial study. One or two participants who currently engage in exercise and are considered in the maintenance stage of behavior change would be followed and interviewed over the course of a year or longer. It would be valuable to examine a participant who is currently engaged in exercise since this is a phenomenon in this population. A qualitative research approach would give better insight into how these individuals perceive exercise, exercise barriers, or current and past exercise motivators. This in turn can better mold future research designs and exercise implementations to address the exercise motivation obstacle in people with schizophrenia.