• Exploring and Understanding the Practices, Behaviors, and Identities of Hip-hop Based Educators in Urban Public High School English/Language Arts Classrooms

      Hill, Marc Lamont; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969-; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Petchauer, Emery (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Grounded in theories of culturally relevant and hip-hop pedagogies, this ethnographic study of a demographically diverse "community nominated" cohort of urban public high school teachers who integrate hip-hop pedagogies into their English/language arts classrooms responds to the methodological and theoretical shortcomings of a burgeoning body of research known as "hip-hop based education" (HHBE). HHBE has argued that curriculum and pedagogy derived from hip-hop culture can be used to transmit disciplinary knowledge, improve student motivation, teach critical media literacy, and foster critical consciousness among urban students in traditional and non-traditional K-12 learning environments. However, the field's overreliance on firsthand accounts of teacher-researchers, the vast majority of whom position themselves as members of the "hip-hop generation," discounts the degrees to which teachers' cultural identity informs hip-hop based curricular interventions, pedagogical strategies, and minority students' academic and socio-cultural outcomes. I argue that the hip-hop pedagogies evidenced by non-researching "hip-hop based educators" were diverse and reflected different beliefs about hip-hop, pedagogy, and the politics of education. Three primary findings emerge from 280 hours of classroom participant-observations and ethnographic interviews (January-June 2010): (1) teachers psychologically and discursively construct and perform individual hip-hop cultural identities through "necessary and impossible" politics of difference, (2) teachers' respective curricular approaches to hip-hop as literary texts are closely linked to their respective hip-hop cultural identities, and (3) hip-hop pedagogues employed hip-hop methodologies and literacies that reoriented conceptions of self and other, teacher-student relations, and notions of knowledge around "pedagogies of hip-hop." Study findings are salient to the fields of hip-hop studies, critical multicultural teacher education, and English/language arts education as they provide robust portraits of the instructional and relational nuances, as well as cultural-political implications of HHBE for a largely White, middle-class prospective teacher workforce and an increasingly diverse hip-hop nation.
    • Exploring Body Representations: Effects of Visuotactile Congruency on Sensorimotor EEG Measures

      Marshall, Peter J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Gunderson, Elizabeth; Giovannetti, Tania; Newcombe, Nora; Smith, David V. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      There has been a recent growth of interest in exploring the complexities of multisensory processes underlying human body representation. One cross-modal aspect of body representations involves the visuotactile body mapping between tactile stimulation of a body limb and the observation of a body limb. Previous findings demonstrate that visual information influences the spatial and temporal patterning of brain responses to tactile stimulation. By manipulating the congruency of the visuotactile stimuli, the integration of visual and tactile information of the body can be investigated further. In the current studies, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to record the neural responses to touch during congruent and incongruent visuotactile stimuli in adults and infants. Two studies investigated different characteristics of visuotactile congruency on the neural response to touch during observations of others’ bodies. In Study 1, spatial congruency of visuotactile events in adults was examined by recording electrophysiological responses to tactile stimulation of the hand in different postural positions while viewing pictures of hands. In Study 2, visuotactile body mappings were explored within typically developing, preverbal infants. In the second study, infants received tactile stimulation to their hand or foot while viewing the hand or foot of another person. The findings of both studies indicate neural modulations were driven by the viewed stimuli regardless of the visuotactile congruency suggestive of attentional factors at work during late stages of somatosensory processing.
    • Exploring Co-Rumination as an Interpersonal Vulnerability to Depression

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Fauber, Robert L.; Giovannetti, Tania; Olino, Thomas; Xie, Hongling (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Over the past decade, a growing body of literature has developed around the construct of co-rumination, defined as the excessive discussion of problems within close relationships at the expense of engaging in other, potentially more productive activities, such as problem solving (Rose, 2002). Past research on co-rumination has sought to elucidate its relationship with increases in depressive symptoms and, to a lesser extent, greater relationship satisfaction in youth and young adults. Although co-rumination is at its core an interpersonal process, there have been no attempts to understand this behavior in light of other long-established interpersonal vulnerabilities to depression. The present study sought to extend the literature in two key aspects at both a macro and micro level. First, the study examined the interrelations among co-rumination, interpersonal vulnerabilities (dependency and excessive reassurance seeking), depressive symptoms, and relationship quality. Using a longitudinal design, the study tested whether co-rumination mediated the relationships between these interpersonal vulnerabilities and depressive symptoms. Second, using a daily diary paradigm, this study explored how daily co-rumination affected not only daily levels of negative affect, but daily relationship satisfaction as well. A sample of 309 university students completed a baseline questionnaire assessing interpersonal vulnerabilities, relationship quality with their closest confidant, and depressive symptoms followed by a seven-day daily diary that measured target participants’ negative mood, levels of co-rumination with their closest confidant regarding a stressor, relationship satisfaction, and interaction quality. One month later, participants completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Partial support for hypotheses was found. Co-rumination was positively related to other measures of interpersonal vulnerability and relationship quality, but was unrelated to depressive symptoms both concurrently and at the one-month follow-up. Co-rumination was not found to be a moderator or a mediator of the relationships between interpersonal vulnerabilities and depressive symptoms. Co-rumination did moderate the relationships between interpersonal vulnerabilities and relationship quality, with a differential pattern of results across gender. At the daily level, co-rumination was related to negative mood and relationship satisfaction; however, no support was found for co-rumination as a mediator of gender differences in negative mood or relationship quality. Overall, these findings suggest that engaging in co-rumination is associated with relationship quality and satisfaction. More research is necessary to determine under which circumstances and for which young adults co-rumination results in elevations in depressive symptoms, findings that have tended to be more consistent in youth samples.
    • EXPLORING DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS

      Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Contemporary research suggests that multiple criteria, including SES, ethnicity, first and second language proficiency levels, language dominance, immigrant and/or generational status, acculturation status, and educational placement history predict ELL student achievement levels (Abedi, 2008). However, the majority of states do not examine these factors and instead use a combination of the Home Language Survey (HLS) plus an English language proficiency test for screening and identification, though it is debated if these instruments adequately measure the type of language proficiency needed to be successful in mainstream classrooms (O'Malley & Pierce, 1994). Because of these findings, it seems that multiple criteria are important to examine when screening students for English Language Learner (ELL) placement. It is hypothesized that a more detailed classification system will better predict students' academic language abilities as part of a universal screening effort, and truly identify those at most need for specialized language support. The present study uses a correlational design to examine the relationship between a parent interview form, the Bilingual Parent Interview (BPI) and students' language proficiency scores in both their native and second languages, as well as their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that the multiple criteria assessed with the BPI would be more associated with language proficiency abilities and academic achievement than the HLS. English-Language Learners (ELLs; n= 42) in grades two through five were targeted for participation. Families were recruited from a public elementary school in a city in Southern California. Record reviews were conducted to collect parents' responses on the HLS and the BPI, as well as students' language proficiency scores on the California English Language Development Test (CELDT), the Language Assessment Scales Links Español, and the Preschool Language Assessment Scales 2000 Español 2000 (Pre-LAS 2000). In addition, students' academic achievement based upon the California STAR program was also collected. It was anticipated that items on the BPI would better correlate students' language abilities and academic achievement than those from the HLS. However, it was determined that the HLS better correlated with measures of English Language Proficiency and Spanish Language Proficiency, therefore providing initial support for the validity of this measure. Examination of the socio-cultural factors related to the language abilities and academic outcomes of at-risk ELL students expands upon efforts to identify students in need of remedial support as part of an early prevention model. In addition, the assessment of language proficiency and achievement data in both English and Spanish extends the effort to discriminate between endogenous learning disabilities and language delays resulting from second language acquisition amongst ELL children who struggle academically.
    • EXPLORING ELEMENTARY GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS’ REFLECTIVE STRATEGIES WITHIN A TEACHER COLLABORATION GROUP: AN INSTRUMENTAL CASE STUDY

      Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.); Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy; Hattikudur, Shanta; Kreinberg, Steven (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The purpose of this instrumental case study was to describe the ways two elementary general music teachers participating in a teacher collaboration group (TCG) used reflective strategies in their classrooms. The following questions initially framed the case: When these two teachers engaged in reflective strategies, (1) What did they notice about their students’ performance and their own teaching practices? (2) What did they describe as the benefits and challenges of incorporating reflective strategies? and (3) What insights did they articulate as a result of their participation in a TCG? I (student investigator) invited two purposefully sampled elementary general music teachers to participate in a TCG focused on incorporating reflective strategies. In my interactions with the two teachers, I served three roles: researcher, facilitator, and colleague. The theoretical lens for this research was professional learning through collaboration. As researcher, I embraced the required tasks for this research, including studying existing literature, obtaining the necessary approvals, devising data collection tools, analyzing the data and drawing conclusions based on the data. Since I chose to conduct the research in the school district where I currently teach, I needed to be mindful of my professional relationships with all 10 of my elementary general music teacher colleagues, since the two of my elementary general music teacher colleagues participated in the TCG. Throughout the study I strove to maintain balance between my roles of researcher, facilitator and colleague as I drew on my review of research and practice literature on reflective strategies to make decisions throughout this research. To reduce over rapport during the study, I continually examined my motives for all choices, and sought to be mindful of how each choice affected research design, TCG agendas, and my colleagues’ professional responsibilities. I strove to identify sources of tensions relative to each of my roles, and remain as neutral as possible to each role during data analysis. The two teachers engaged in member checks, and I invited a critical friend with experience in qualitative research to serve as an auditor of the data. Based on my research on reflective strategies, I offered participants four reflective strategies, from which they chose one, to incorporate with a fourth grade general music class of their choice. Over seven months, the participants documented in their professional reflective journals what they noticed about their students and themselves while engaged in reflective strategies. The participants studied reflective practice independently and collaboratively. The participants completed two solo interviews and attended five group meetings. Data sources for this study were transcripts of TCG meetings and interviews, researcher’s field notes, participants’ professional reflective journals, and artifacts of student work shared with parent consent and student assent: video recorded teaching examples and students’ written classwork, both of which participants shared during TCG meetings. I studied the transcripts and professional reflective journals for emerging patterns and themes. Three themes emerged: Noticings About Students and Self, Learning About Students and Self, and Changing Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning. The overarching theme, Sharing Experiences, served as the catalyst for participant noticing, learning, and changing. The participants reported that the use of reflective strategies designed for their elementary general music students informed their instruction and decision-making processes, and provided insights to their students’ levels of understanding. Additionally, the participants reported learning the value of reflection, both for themselves and for their students. The participants also reported that participating in the TCG as a form of collaborative professional development alleviated feelings of isolation and provided an opportunity for teachers to learn from one another in a professional environment. The research presented in this study has implications for teachers and administrators. Because of the benefits associated with engaging students in reflective strategies, teachers should consider how to include reflective opportunities appropriately as part of their instruction. Further, administrators should consider providing collaborative professional development opportunities for teachers of any subject area or grade level. The two elementary general music teachers in this research described gaining valuable insights regarding music teaching and learning by incorporating reflective strategies. Further, they valued the professional development in the form of the TCG, which developed over time and offered them an opportunity to reflect as partners who generated collective knowledge with each other as supportive peers, all while individually growing as teachers. Suggestions for future research include researching a curricular approach to implementing reflective strategies with PreKindergarten through 5th grade elementary general music students, reflective strategies elementary musical ensembles, investigating how reflective strategies relate to different approaches for teaching elementary general music, and exploring teacher collaboration groups consisting of music teachers from various grade levels or music teaching disciplines.
    • EXPLORING FORMER NCAA DIVISION I WOMEN SOCCER PLAYERS’ TRANSITION: COLLEGE TO CAREER

      Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970-; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine, 1966-; Taylor, Elizabeth A.; Jordan, Jeremy S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women student-athletes are high-level athletes who experience the traditional demands of job-hunting, interviewing, and the range of emotions experienced by college students transitioning from postsecondary education into the workforce. In addition, they have unique experiences related to their collegiate playing careers ending and being women in the workplace. Guided by Nancy Schlossberg's (1981) Model for Analyzing Human Adaptation to Transition, this qualitative study explored eight former NCAA Division I women soccer players' perceptions about the transition to the workforce. The focus was on the student-athletes' psychosocial and institutional influences related to the career transition process. Five themes emerged from the interviews: 1) institutional career support, 2) transferable skills, 3) career connections, 4) moving on, and 5) advice from former student-athletes. All the participants had a positive experience being a collegiate student-athlete, but still, they felt a lack of support and resources provided to them to aid with the career transition from their coaches, athletic department, and university. The participants acknowledged that internship experiences contributed to a positive transition into the workforce but expressed challenges completing an internship opportunity due to the time demands associated with being a student-athlete. The respondents also expressed other challenges with transitioning from being a student-athlete to a young professional, but all collectively used their families, friends, and teammates for support during the transition. The former student-athletes also unanimously believed they acquired several skills such as time management, conflict management, and discipline from being student-athletes that helped them have a more successful transition. Each participant provided advice to current student-athletes and recommendations to athletic programs, coaches, and administrators about the career transition process for student-athletes.
    • EXPLORING GREEN GENTRIFICATION IN ESTABLISHED URBAN PARKS: A STUDY OF PHILADELPHIA’S NEIGHBORHOOD PARKS

      Pearsall, Hamil; Gilbert, Melissa R.; Rosan, Christina; Li, Xiaojiang; Haddad, Monica (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      This dissertation seeks to examine whether neighborhood public parks have a relationship to neighborhood change, including gentrification outcomes, through the investigation of a city-wide study of the neighborhood parks system in Philadelphia. It addresses the gap in the literature that examines investments in existing neighborhood parks and examines how they effect the surrounding community. In this dissertation, I ask the following research questions: What does a multi-dimensional concept of public park accessibility look like? What effect does proximity to a small neighborhood park have on the demographics and quality of the surrounding built environment? What effect does park quality of small neighborhood parks have on the quality of the surrounding built environment? Four methodological tools were used in this study: analysis of policy documents, Google Street View remote surveying, geographic information system (GIS) analysis, and statistical analysis. This study is the first of its kind that examines existing neighborhood parks, their quality, and the relationship to demographics and development in neighborhoods at a city-wide scale. The findings expand existing green gentrification literature and finds that while parks themselves are associated with gentrification and increased built environment development, the number of amenities in a park is not associated with an increase in the gentrification of the surrounding neighborhood. This key finding opens the door for cities to invest into their existing neighborhood parks without fear that improvements will trigger gentrification and displacement in vulnerable neighborhoods as long as additional policy steps are enacted to keep residents in place.
    • Exploring Parent Acculturation and Student Characteristics that are Related to Teacher Academic Ratings Among Latino Students with Symptoms of ADHD

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Eiraldi, Ricardo (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Given that children who have academic and/or mental health issues exhibit underachievement, measures completed by teachers become a primary source of information for school psychologists (DuPaul & Stoner, 2003; Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006; Sherman, Rasmussen, & Baydala, 2008). However, teacher measures have been called into question because of the discrepancies between teacher academic ratings and student scores on direct (Feinberg & Shapiro, 2009; Hamilton & Shinn, 2003) and norm referenced measures (Eaves et al., 1994). The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES; DiPerna & Elliott, 1999), a teacher academic measure, used on a Latino population referred for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Further, the current study explored whether teachers' ratings of their Latino students' academic competence were related to the parents' acculturation and/or students' characteristics, such as language proficiency, grade retenti
    • EXPLORING PARENTS' AND THEIR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING AND PERSPECTIVES ABOUT COLLEGE PREPARATION KNOWLEDGE

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Fullard, William; Thurman, S. Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This research investigated high school students, their parents, and high school counselors self-reported views about the nature and relative importance of different aspects of "College Preparation Knowledge." In brief, this research investigated many areas of College Preparation Knowledge (CPK) broadly defined as the facts and the processes needed to be known to be prepared to successfully apply, attend, and graduate from college. Practical suggestions derived from the research findings may help the high school counselor better serve their college-bound students and parents.
    • Exploring Resilience and Academic Achievement: A Comparison Between Mexican American Students and Mexican Students

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Schifter, Catherine; Farley, Frank; Thurman, S. Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The demography of the United States is changing rapidly creating challenges in the classrooms and ultimately changing the educational system in the United States due to this increase in diversity. With this change there is a need for educators and educational researchers to know more about the most rapidly growing ethnic group: Latinos. The purpose of the present study was to investigate why some Latino students struggle to achieve in school while other Latino students excel in their educational pursuit. This study differs from other studies since it compares academic performance differences between Mexican (n=56) and Mexican American students (n=30) in a small suburban school district in an agricultural area in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The present study investigated barriers to academic achievement such as discrimination, acculturation, language acquisition and socioeconomic status, and looked at variables related to academic success. The study focused on two psychological constructs as possible predictors of academic achievement for this group of students: resilience and acculturation. In addition, a variety of variables were used in the study as demographic predictor variables. These included: birthplace (whether the student was born in the United States or Mexico), the student's level of acculturation, the length of time in the United States, the student's level of family socio-economic status, the student's level of resilience, gender, home language, and educational placements (ESL, Special Education, technical education enrollment). The outcome variables included a variety of measures of academic achievement including grade point average and SAT scores. All of the predictor variables were analyzed against all of the outcome variables using Pearson correlations and multiple regression. The findings of this study have addressed multiple issues surrounding resilience, acculturation and academic achievement within the new demography of the United States. While there were statistically significant findings, they are not necessarily meaningful due to the small effect size. Nonetheless, it is imperative that researchers continue to explore what factors may contribute to the success of some Latinos while others do not succeed. For example, one somewhat unexpected finding was the strength of the relationship between acculturation and academic achievement, since a student's cultural competence was a strong predictor of academic success. In addition to these findings and a subsequent discussion, this study highlights the need for more culturally sensitive resilience measures or acculturation measures and ways to support Latino students in order to bridge the academic achievement gap that exists. This study did bring attention to what may be societal struggles that impede the success of Latinos in the United States education system.
    • Exploring SET Instructor, Course, and Student Biases in a Large, Urban, Public, R1 Business School

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Blau, Gary J.; Paris, Joseph H.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Laufgraben, Jodi Levine, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Using the SET questions as the dependent variable(s), this study answers the following research questions: (1) Are the Instructor variables of gender and race biasing factors?; (2) Are the Course variables of class size and content (qualitative to quantitative ratio) biasing factors?; (3) Is the Student variable of section-level GPA related to SET ratings?; (4) Is the administrative mode of data collection, the change from pencil and paper to online data collection, a biasing factor? Questions were answered through bivariate correlations and two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. This study found there was a significant effect on SET outcomes as a function of race, but not for gender. While class size had no significant effect on SET outcomes, the section-level GPA and the amount of qualitative vs quantitative course content did. The administrative mode of data collection had a significant effect, mostly due to the large sample size.
    • EXPLORING SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE ADOS-2 IN AN EARLY INTERVENTION SAMPLE

      Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Connell, James (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed using the same criteria for males and females (e.g., DSM-5, ICD-10). Our understanding of ASD, including its etiology, symptom presentation, and prevalence has evolved significantly over time motivating several changes to the diagnostic criteria and the tools with which symptoms are measured. One aspect of ASD prevalence and presentation that has remained consistent overtime and across the world is the consistently disproportionate male-to-female ratio that is reported. This ratio may reflect a true difference in prevalence or suggest that females with ASD are under- or mis-diagnosed, as evidenced by an emerging body of literature suggesting differences in symptom presentation and related abilities across sex. Studies have reached varied conclusions regarding sex differences as measured by standardized autism assessment tools, for example, finding no significant sex differences in Total Scores across measures or finding fewer parent reported repetitive and restricted behaviors (RRBs) in females (Duvekot et al., 2017). Limitations in the current body of research include small sample sizes, inconsistencies in participant ages, and the use of mixed sets of measures with a strong reliance on parent report. Most studies within this body of research use one of three iterations of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Indeed, the ADOS and its revisions are considered the gold-standard assessment tools for ASD symptoms and in many studies and clinical practice are used almost exclusively to determine whether a child meets diagnostic criteria. Previous studies have explored the factor structure of the ADOS in its current iteration (i.e., ADOS-2) by domain area and between ASD and typically developing or clinical samples of participants (Bishop et al., 2016; Gotham et al., 2007; Gotham et al., 2008). However, to date, no published studies have explored the factor structure of the ADOS-2 across sex with a preschool age sample. The current study examined the structure of the ADOS-2 through exploratory factor analysis to analyze algorithm items and determine if the Social Affect (SA) and Restricted and Repetitive Behavior (RRB) subscales demonstrate a different structure for males and females. A two-factor structure, relatively consistent with the tool itself, was identified for the combined and male samples. However, the female sample produced a three-factor structure, with some loadings inconsistent with the current algorithm of the ADOS-2. Further analysis through confirmatory factor analysis indicated a relatively well-fitting model for the combined, male, and female groups. However, despite adequate model fit, there were notable differences in the strength at which certain items loaded onto each subscale across sex. Similarly, correlation estimates between the two subscales were stronger for the combined and male groups, and relatively weak for the female group. Implications for the use of the tool with females are discussed, along with suggestions for future evaluation of the ADOS-2 algorithm across sex.
    • EXPLORING SOCIAL CONTAGION WITHIN A TRIBE CALLED HIP HOP: MECHANISMS OF EVALUATION AND LEGITIMATION

      Mudambi, Susan; Andersson, Lynne Mary; Wray, Matt, 1964-; Mandviwalla, Munir (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Social contagion—the spread and adoption of affects, behaviors, cognitions, and desires within a social group due to peer influence—is a widely studied phenomenon that continues to have a significant impact on commerce. When social contagion occurs within a culture of consumption, brands and branded products are not only adopted by the community, but they are also normalized and elevated from a strictly utilitarian function to identity-markers. Brands become important components of cultural meaning. Despite this impact, the specific details of the processes of social contagion are still relatively unknown. This dissertation studied social contagion within the hip hop culture of consumption, a multi-billion dollar marketplace. Using data from the Reddit social networking platform, the research provided empirical evidence that non-linear social contagion exists within the hop hip community for multiple brands. A netnography determined the processes by which brands and branded products spread within the hip hop community. Building on the established social processes of evaluation and legitimation that are known to drive the community coordination necessary for social contagion, the research uncovered four underlying mechanisms—responding, recontextualizing, reconciling, and reinforcing. These four mechanisms of evaluation and legitimation not only provide a richer understanding of social contagion but also enable the embedding of brands into culture and culture into brands. This theory-grounded empirical analysis of social contagion and meaning-making in the hip hop culture of consumption provides practical insights to marketers on how to better curate signals and communications to drive cultural meaning.
    • Exploring Social Influences on Executive Function in Preschool Children

      Marshall, Peter J.; Newcombe, Nora; Shipley, Thomas F.; Chein, Jason M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Hindman, Annemarie H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The development of executive function in young children is currently a central topic in developmental science. Despite great interest in this area, empirical research examining the influence of social interaction on children's executive functioning is still scarce. The present study aims to fill this gap by addressing how aspects of current and preceding social interactions affect preschool children's executive function performance. In the first phase of the experiment four- and five-year-old children completed an activity either individually or in collaboration with an experimenter. Following this manipulation, children completed a series of executive function tasks. The first task was a motor contagion task in which children moved a stylus on a graphics tablet while viewing a background video of another person producing congruent or incongruent movements. Children also completed a go/no-go task, a two-choice spatial compatibility task (i.e., a Simon task), and two joint go/no-go tasks in which they essentially shared a Simon task with an experimenter. The main finding from the motor contagion task was that children who collaborated with an experimenter in the first part of the study were more susceptible to interference from observing incongruent movements produced by their partner from the collaborative activity compared to observing the same movements produced by an experimenter who merely observed the collaboration. In addition, for children in both conditions, the results of the go/no-go and Simon tasks indicated the presence of a joint Simon effect. Specifically, a significant spatial compatibility effect was observed in the Simon task and the first time children completed the joint go/no-go task with an experimenter. Importantly, there was no spatial compatibility effect when children completed an individual go/no-go task. No differences were found for the joint Simon effect related to the social manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to their implications for our understanding of social influences on children's developing executive abilities.
    • Exploring Teachers' Literacy and Language Supports during Writing in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Classrooms

      Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Neugebauer, Sabina Rak (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Early writing ability for young children is essential for later literacy and academic achievement. Early writing, especially composing, with young children offers rich opportunities to foster both emergent literacy and language skills simultaneously, which may help boost overall growth for children in poverty. This study examines early writing supports of teachers in prekindergarten and kindergarten classrooms within an early writing framework that includes language, as well as literacy, supports during early writing instruction. Fifteen teachers’ writing instruction was examined during two instructional contexts: morning message and small-group in the fall of the school year. Results suggest that, in general, teachers used morning message to reinforce emergent literacy skills related to the alphabetic principle and concepts of print. Teachers’ language (i.e., translation) supports during writing were sparse. However, during small group writing activities, teachers’ supported child language related to pragmatics/discourse at higher rates, specifically, guiding children’s attention to topic. Additionally, a unique relation emerged between teachers embedding language supports within writing instruction to their overall global classroom quality. Results suggest that composing with young children may be an optimal context to support child language growth. Few teacher background or control factors were systematically linked to quality writing in the classroom; however, teachers who spoke using more complex syntax also used more abstract writing supports (i.e., explaining and connection), suggesting linguistic features may be connected to teacher approach during instruction. Implications for professional development are discussed.
    • EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF NEARLY COMPLETE MARKET DATA ON SMALL BUSINESSES IN THE GOVERNMENT PROFESSIONAL SERVICES MARKET

      Flanagan, Richard Y.; Schuff, David (David Michael); Gordon, Elizabeth A. (Associate professor); Mudambi, Susan (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      According to the United States Government’s Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS), in 2016 the Government awarded contracts worth over $472 billion. While the majority of these contracts were for products, the Government spends an average of over $76 billion per year on professional services. Roughly 28 percent of these funds go to small businesses, as classified by the Small Business Administration. Supporting Government contractors, several firms provide nearly complete market information on Federal Business (FedBiz) contract opportunities through Data as a Service (DaaS) offerings. Such services create a unique environment where nearly complete information about upcoming opportunities is available to anyone for a price. Businesses need to understand the value of such data services and ask questions about how best to use them. This gives businesses a very unique information resource in a very unique market and should cause firms to adapt by developing new and different ways to become more profitable. The goal of this research is to provide conceptual insights into the impact of FedBiz DaaS on the Government marketplace itself and on the resource mix of Government contractors. The results of this research show that businesses that adopt FedBiz DaaS increase revenue and win more contracts. Implementation of FedBiz DaaS resources leads to an improved Competitive Position for a company; changes to staffing, roles, and processes for a company’s Organizational Capabilities; and changes to the Competitive Intensity of the overall marketplace.
    • EXPLORING THE MECHANISMS OF ESOPHAGEAL KERATINOCYTE HOMEOSTASIS IN THE CONTEXT OF EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS

      Whelan, Kelly A.; Haines, Dale; Tempera, Italo (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic allergic pathology of the esophagus characterized by infiltration of eosinophils into the esophageal mucosa. EoE results in considerable impact on patient quality of life, substantiating the need to better understand the pathobiology of the disease in order to define novel approaches to diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. Our previous studies indicate an increase in circulating mitochondrial DNA in patients with active EoE and extracellular structures consistent with mitochondria in esophageal epithelium of patients with active EoE inflammation. While published studies provide evidence of a genetic link between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of EoE, the functional role of mitochondria in EoE pathophysiology remains unclear. In this thesis, we use immunohistochemistry on human patient biopsies, mouse models of EoE-like inflammation, and complementary in vitro and ex vivo models to explore the effects of the EoE inflammatory milieu on mitochondria in esophageal keratinocytes. We report that mitochondrial content is increased in human patients and mice with EoE inflammation. We also provide evidence that the EoE-associated cytokine, interleukin-13 increases mitochondrial DNA level and mitochondrial activity in vitro. To explore the role of autophagy in mitochondrial regulation in esophageal keratinocytes, we began generation of an autophagy-deficient cell line. This thesis provides foundation for further studies evaluating the role and mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in the context of eosinophilic esophagitis.
    • Exploring the Mechanisms of Guided Play in Preschoolers' Developing Geometric Shape Concepts

      Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Newcombe, Nora; Curby, Kim; Weinraub, Marsha; Booth, Julie L.; Golinkoff, Roberta M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation offers the first set of empirical studies to examine the differential impact of didactic instruction and playful learning practices on geometric shape knowledge. Previous research demonstrated that successful child-centered, guided play pedagogies are often characterized by two components: (a) dialogic inquiry, or exploratory talk with the teacher, and (b) physical engagement with the educational materials. Building on this conclusion, three studies examined how guided play promotes criterial learning of shapes. Experiment 1 examined whether guided play or didactic instruction techniques promote criterial learning of four geometric shapes compared to a control condition. Results suggested that children in both didactic and guided play conditions learn the criterial features; however, this equivalence was most evident for relatively easy, familiar shapes (e.g., circles). A trend suggested that guided play promoted superior criterial understanding when learning more complex, novel shapes (i.e., pentagons). Experiment 2 expands on the previous study by examining how exposure to enriched geometric curricular content (e.g., teaching with typical shape exemplars only vs. typical and atypical exemplars) augments shape learning in guided play. As hypothesized, children taught with a mix of typical and atypical exemplars showed superior criterial learning compared to those in taught with only typical exemplars. Experiment 3 further explores the factors that facilitate shape learning by comparing the effectiveness of guided play, enriched free-play, and didactic instruction on children's criterial learning of two familiar shapes (triangles, rectangles) and two unfamiliar, complex shapes (pentagons, hexagons). As hypothesized, those who learned via guided play outperformed those who learned in didactic instruction who, in turn, outperformed those in enriched free play. In both didactic instruction and guided play, children's shape concepts persisted over one week. The findings from these studies suggest (1) guided play promotes equal or better criterial learning than didactic instruction, (2) curricular content (shape experience) augments criterial learning in guided play and (3) dialogic inquiry may be a key mechanism underlying guided play. The current research not only has implications for enhancing the acquisition of abstract spatial concepts but also for understanding the mechanisms that foster playful learning.
    • Exploring the Motivations of NCAA Women's Artistic Gymnasts to Participate in Strength and Conditioning Training

      Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Schifter, Catherine (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This is the known first study completed on NCAA gymnastics motivations to participate in strength and conditioning. The study was open to all NCAA women’s artistic gymnastics participants. Research included the completion of an online survey (n = 141) with the opportunity to volunteer for a follow up phone interview (n = 5). Three research questions were examined: 1. What are the motivations of student-athletes in NCAA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics to participate in strength and conditioning training? 2. How does motivation to participate in strength and conditioning training influence the performance level of the student-athletes? 3. How does motivation to participate in strength and conditioning training influence the injury rate of the student-athletes? Overall, this study did not identify significant findings in the relationship with motivation to participate in strength and conditioning training with level of performance or injury rates. Qualitative phone interviews provided additional insight on experiences and feelings toward strength and conditioning training, which can be utilized by both researchers and practitioners. In order to further explore the relationship between strength and conditioning and gymnastics performance more research needs to be completed.
    • Exploring the Pedagogical Aspects of Songs by Giacomo Meyerbeer: The Hidden Jewels of 19th-century Song Repertoire

      Anderson, Christine L.; Abramovic, Charles; Indik, Lawrence; Zohn, Steven David, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791-May 2, 1864) was one of the most celebrated composers in the 19th century and the leading exponent of French grand opera. Meyerbeer's operas were immensely popular; for example, his opera Robert le diable was performed 100 times in Paris alone and was featured on the programs of 77 theatres in ten countries, all within three years of its première. Meyerbeer's collaboration with Eugène Scribe, who was the most famous librettist of the century, began with Robert le diable (1831) and their partnership continued for the creation of Les Huguenots (1836), Le prophète (1849), and L'Africaine (1865). Meyerbeer's larger-than-life operas defined the genre of French grand opera. Meyerbeer was a serious, dedicated composer who composed mostly for the stage, but he also wrote sacred music, choral music, instrumental music, and songs. Meyerbeer composed over 50 songs, mostly mélodies and lieder that were translated and published in both German and French. He also composed some Italian canzonette. Meyerbeer's songs are rarely performed in recitals, however, they have originality, beauty, intensity, and theatricality and are worthy to be explored, performed, and cherished. His operas featured unconventional and sensational scenes, tragic love stories set in the middle of the whirlwind of political and religious clash, and bigger-than-life sets to transport his audience to exotic, faraway places. Did Meyerbeer lend the same magical touch to his songs? Was he able to create the same story line of epic portion as he did in his grand operas? My goal is to provide an introduction to the Meyerbeer song repertoire which as a result will encourage more voice teachers, students, and professional performers to incorporate Meyerbeer's outstanding, yet rarely performed songs into their recital programs. In the charts, Meyerbeer's songs are organized by three language groups: Italian, French, and German, and are organized alphabetically by title within each language group. Each chart has eight columns: number; song title; lyricist; year of composition; range; additional available singing translations; difficulty level; and comments. Six songs in total, with two songs from each language group, are chosen and analyzed to explore Meyerbeer’s songs in depth. The selected songs are from various points of Meyerbeer’s career, and are of different levels of difficulties, topics, lengths, and moods.