• Wandering: Seeing the Cinema of Wim Wenders through Cultural Theory and Naturalized Phenomenology

      Gaycken, Oliver; Singer, Alan, 1948-; Alter, Nora M., 1962-; Corrigan, Timothy, 1951- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In both form and content, Wim Wenders's films create a cinema of wandering, tracing a route of intersections between the modern and postmodern visual landscape. The space of the world, its deserted horizons and populated streets, are a kind of visual architecture through which the mobile vision of the film wanders, just as Wenders's peripatetic characters wander through space and time towards encounters with others. This wandering invites a phenomenological understanding of embodied spectator experience and perception, for as much as Wenders's films are about the representative image, they are also about the dynamic relationship of the embodied spectator to the visible world. A first avenue of inquiry leads through the deserts and cities that shape the visual terrain of Wenders's cinema. These locations are always sites (places) and sights (images) of recuperation that offer critique, analysis, and resistance to the hyperreal and the reductive visual practices of postmodernity. A second route follows the journeys of both Wenders's characters and films. The insistence in existential phenomenology that meaning and intentionality inhere in the body's motility provides a starting point for elucidating the relationship of cinematic technology to embodied vision. The film and the spectator share a way of being in the world, and the wandering vision and audition that shape the journeys of Wenders's films are always expressions of the modern experience of space and time. Finally, this dissertation undertakes a third course, applying naturalized phenomenology to a reading of the encounters of Wenders's wandering subjects. This methodology allows for a clearer understanding of the socially mediated subject, and of the relationship of spectator to film. The dynamic mirroring that constitutes cinematic experience as it occurs neurologically and phenomenologically shapes cinematic encounters. Film is a mirror, but more significantly, the spectator is a mirror. For the spectator, as for Wenders's characters, wandering is a way of engaging the contingencies of the other and confronting the truths and lies behind cinematic illusion.
    • Warriors and Prophets of Livity: Samson and Moses as Moral Exemplars in Rastafari

      Rey, Terry; Alpert, Rebecca T. (Rebecca Trachtenberg), 1950-; Schipper, Jeremy; Shellhorse, Adam Joseph (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Since the early 1970’s, Rastafari has enjoyed public notoriety disproportionate to the movement’s size and humble origins in the slums of Kingston, Jamaica roughly forty years earlier. Yet, though numerous academics study Rastafari, a certain lacuna exists in contemporary scholarship in regards to the movement’s scriptural basis. By interrogating Rastafari’s recovery of the Hebrew Bible from colonial powers and Rastas’ adoption of an Israelite identity, this dissertation illuminates the biblical foundation of Rastafari ethics and symbolic registry. An analysis of the body of scholarship on Rastafari, as well as of the reggae canon, reveals the centrality of an Israelite identity for Rastas and its enabling of Rastafari resistance to racial oppression. Furthermore, the Hebrew Bible is, for Rastas, key to an intimate relationship with Jah, for it reveals their chosenness and their inherent divine nature. They both textually confirm this election and enact it through ritual practice. By interrogating the methods Rastas apply to the pages of the Bible in order to ascertain their appointment and decipher proper ritual practice, this dissertation expands scholarly conversations about Rastafari biblical hermeneutics. Centering on readings of Samson and Moses, it suggests that these two biblical actors function as moral exemplars and models of livity for Rastas. Despite the transgressive nature of Samson and Moses, Rastas adopt them as co-practitioners and paradigms of Rastafari election because when Samson and Moses are Rastas, all Rastas can claim their chosenness, strength, and relationship with Jah.
    • Water sorption of flowable composites

      Whitaker, Eugene J.; Jefferies, Steven R.; Rams, Thomas E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      ABSTRACT Objectives: Flowable composites are characterized by lower filler loading and a greater proportion of diluent monomers in their formulation. These composites were traditionally created by retaining the same small particle size of the conventional hybrid composites, but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture However, their various mechanical properties such as flexural strength and wear resistance have been reported to be generally inferior compared to those of the conventional composites. Dental restorative materials are in continuous contact with fluids and saliva in the patient’s mouth. Consequently, the water sorption and solubility of these materials are of considerable importance. Resin based materials demonstrate water sorption in the oral cavity, which is the amount of water absorbed by the material on the surface and into the body while the restoration is in service. The water intrusion in the dental material can lead in a deterioration of the physical/mechanical properties, decreasing the life of resin composites. Water uptake can promote breakdown causing a filler-matrix debonding. Water sorption affects the physical and mechanical properties of resin composite such as dimensional change, decrease in surface hardness and wear resistance, filler leaching, change in color stability, reduction in elastic modulus, and an increase in creep and a reduction in ultimate strength, fracture strength, fracture toughness, and flexural strength. In addition, penetration of water into the composite may cause release of unreacted monomers (solubility) which may stimulate the growth of bacteria and promote allergic reactions. The effect of water sorption on conventional composites has been extensively studied and reviewed in the dental literature. However , there are no published studies on the water sorption of flowable composites. Water sorption increases as the amount of resin matrix increases and filler content decreases, since the filler particles do not absorb water. Thus, it is of utmost importance to study the water sorption of flowable composite. Hence the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare water sorption and solubility values of different light-activated flowable composite materials in solutions with varying pH values. And, since water filled porosities in the flowable composites may form small incubation chambers, a second related objective was to compare and correlate water sorption values of the various flowables to their ability to form Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis single species biofilms in/on their surfaces. Methods: In this study, water sorption and solubility tests were performed according to the ISO standards (International Organization for Standardization specification 4049:07-2009- Dentistry- Polymer Based Restorative Materials [available at http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store.htm]). Three disc-shaped specimens of each flowable composite were made in a jig consisting of a Teflon mold (15 mm in diameter by 1 mm in thickness) compressed between 2 glass slabs with mylar strips used as separating sheets. The flowable resin was inserted in the Teflon mold in a single increment. All specimens were cured with a light-emitting diode curing unit. According to the ISO standard, discs were weighted every day for 35 days using the same balance, with a repeatability of 0.1 mg, until a constant mass (M1) was obtained. Once a constant M1 was obtained, the volume (V) was then calculated in cubic millimeters as follow: V =π(d/2)2h, where π=3.14; d is the mean diameter of the specimen; and h is the mean thickness of the specimen. After M1 was achieved, each flowable composite resin group of 3 discs was placed into buffers of pH = 4.0,5.5 and 7.0. After 24 hrs, specimens were wiped free of excess buffer with absorbent paper and weighed. This cycle was repeated at one week , one month, and six months. When a constant mass was achieved it was designated M2. Mass gain (Mg) was defined as follows: (M2 –M1). Per cent mass gain (%Mg) was defined as follows: (M2-M1/M1). Finally, the specimens were reconditioned to constant mass, once again following the above-mentioned procedure. This constant mass was recorded as M3. Water sorption (Wsp) was calculated in micrograms per cubic millimeter for each of the specimens by using the following equation provided by ISO 4049 standard: Wsp=(M2-M3)/V, where M2 is the mass of the specimens in micrograms after immersion in buffer for 30 days; M3 is the reconditioned mass of the specimen, in micrograms; and V is the volume of the specimen in cubic millimeters. Water solubility (Wsl) was calculated in micrograms per cubic millimeter for each of the specimens, using the following equation, provided by ISO 4049 standard: Wsl=(M1-M3)/V, where M1 is the conditioned mass of the specimen in micrograms before immersion in buffer; M3 is the reconditioned mass of each specimen in micrograms, and V is the volume of the specimen in cubic millimeters. For biofilm experiments, flowable discs were prepared as described above. Each disc was then sectioned into three equal portions using high speed and low speed handpieces , a diamond bur, and sandpaper discs, such that the three samples of each flowable had the same mass to within 0.3 mg. The samples were sterilized by dipping in 1.2% sodium hypochlorite (Chlorox), followed by rinsing with sterile distilled water, and then conditioning to a constant mass as described above, inside a desiccator that was wiped with 1.2 % Chlorox. Biofilm experiments were conducted as follows: three equal mass specimens of each flowable composite were placed in a series of wells of a sterile culture disc. Then sterile BHI broth (2 ml) was added to each well. One well served as control and no growing bacteria were added to it. To the other specimens was added 40 μl log phase S. mutans or S. sanguis cells. The culture dishes were then placed on a rotator at 37C for six hrs. Biofilm formation was measured by staining attached cells with crystal violet, destaining with 30% acetic acid, and measuring the satin spectrophotometically. Results: The pH of the solution influenced the % mass gain, as all samples gained more mass at pH 4.0 as compared to pH 5.5 and 7.0. The flowable resin SureFill showed the least % mass gain at each pH. However, there was no statistical difference in % mass gain based on pH of storage buffer for any of the flowable composites (P=.05) . Time had a significant influence on the % mass gain for the first week for all samples, with minor gains thereafter, and became steady after 1 month. Surefill showed the least water sorption when stored in buffer for 30 days, however it was not significant compared to the other flowables (P= 0.05). Filtek showed the least water solubility, but is not significant compared to the other flowables (P=0.05). The highest significant values (P< 0.05) for water sorption and solubility were observed for Virtuoso. Two trials indicated that strains of S. mutans and S. sanguis form biofilm readily on the surface of the composites, with S. sanguis having a higher predilection to form biofilm on all composites (Figure 6). However, no correlation was found between water sorption and solubility values of the flowable composites and biofilm formation. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study the following is concluded: Time and storage conditions are important to the % mass gain due to water, with all flowable composites showing more mass gain at low PH. Due to its hydrophilic nature, as well as to the filler characteristics, the flowable composite Virtuoso exhibited significantly higher values of water sorption and water solubility than the other flowable composites that were tested. All flowable composites formed S. sanguis and S. mutans single species biofilm on their surfaces, with S. sanguis forming higher concentrations of biofilm on all samples. There was no clear correlation to water sorption and biofilm formation characteristics of the composites.
    • Wave Chaos and Enhancement of Coherent Radiation with Rippled Electrodes in a Photoconductive Antenna

      Tao, R. (Rongjia); Riseborough, Peter; Wu, Dong Ho; Won, Chang-Hee, 1967- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy is now a well-established technique. Of the many methods available for a terahertz source for terahertz spectroscopy, the most widely used may be the GaAs-based photoconductive antenna, as it provides relatively high power at terahertz frequencies, commercially available up to 150 µW, and a wide-bandwidth, approximately 70 GHz to 3.5 THz. One of the limitations for developing more accurate and sensitive terahertz interrogation techniques is the lack of higher power sources. Because of our research interests in terahertz spectroscopy, we investigated detailed design and fabrication parameters involved in the photoconductive antenna, which exploits the surface plasma oscillation to produce a wideband pulse. The investigation enabled us to develop a new photoconductive antenna that is capable of generating a high power terahertz beam, at least twenty times stronger than those currently available. Throughout this research, it was discovered that antenna electrodes with particular geometries could produce superradiance, also known as the Dicke effect. Chaotic electrodes with a predisposition to lead charge-carriers into chaotic trajectories, e.g. rippled geometry, were exploited to reduce undesirable heat effects by driving thermal-electrons away from the terahertz generation site, i.e. the location of the surface plasma, while concentrating the removed charge-carriers in separate locations slightly away from the surface plasma. Then, spontaneous emission of coherent terahertz radiation may occur when the terahertz pulse generated by the surface plasma stimulates the concentrated carriers. This spontaneous emission enhanced the total coherent terahertz beam strength, as it occurs almost simultaneously with the primary terahertz beam. In principle, the spontaneous emission power increases as N^2, with the number N of dipole moments resulted from the concentrated charge carriers. Hence, if the design parameters are optimized, it may be possible to increase the strength of coherent terahertz beam by more than one order of magnitude with a photoconductive antenna containing rippled electrodes. However, as the parameters are yet to be optimized, we have only demonstrated 10-20 % enhancement with our current photoconductive antennas. Photoconductive antennas were fabricated via photolithography and characterized by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy and pyroelectric detection. In addition to chaotic electrodes, a variety of other parameters were characterized, including GaAs substrate thickness, GaAs crystal lattice orientation, trench depth for electrodes, metal-semiconductor contact, and bias voltage across electrodes. Nearly all parameters were found to play a crucial role influencing terahertz beam emission and carrier dynamics. By exploiting wave chaos and other antenna parameters, we developed a new photoconductive antenna capable of continuous operation with terahertz power twenty times larger than that of the conventional photoconductive antennas, improving from 150 µW to 3 mW. With further optimizations of the parameters, we expect more dramatic improvement of the photoconductive antenna in the near future.
    • Waves of Change: Longitudinal Growth Profiling of Bilingual (Spanish-English) Language Development

      Iglesias, Aquiles; Goldstein, Brian; Pavlenko, Aneta, 1963-; Cromley, Jennifer (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Although the research literature supports the notion of language growth trajectories, primarily in monolingual English children, the shape and direction of English-language learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely unknown. The present study examined the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories by estimating the initial status and the growth rates of specific oral language skills (mean length of utterance in words (MLUw), number of different words (NDW), and words per minute (WPM)) in each language during the first 3 years of formal schooling. This study was framed from the perspective of language as a dynamic system, composed of linguistic subsystems that change over time. This study utilized secondary data from a larger project, the Bilingual Language Literacy Project (BLLP), which collected narrative retell language samples produced in Spanish and English from ELL children. The final longitudinal dataset used in this study consisted of 12,248 oral narrative language samples (6,516 Spanish; 5,732 English) that were produced by 1,723 ELLs. This study examined the effect of three predictors on language growth: academic semester (metric of time), gender, and schooling. Growth curve model (GCM) testing was used to profile the longitudinal growth of the ELLs' oral language skills in Spanish and English over time. This study had a number of important findings regarding change over time, intra- and inter-individual variability, and the impact of initial status on growth. With regard to change over time: MLUw, NDW, and WPM demonstrated growth over time in Spanish and English; the shapes of Spanish (curvilinear, non-monotonic, and continuous) and English growth (linear, non-monotonic, and discontinuous) were similar within-language; language growth in Spanish was predicted by academic semester and gender; and language growth in English was predicted by academic semester, gender, and schooling. With regard to intra- and inter-individual variability: significant intra-individual differences in the growth of all the oral language measures, across each wave of measurement, were found for both languages; significant intra-individual differences in the initial status of participants for all the oral language measures were found for both languages; significant inter-individual differences in the growth rates were found for WPM-Spanish; and significant inter-individual differences in the growth rates were found for all the oral language measures in English. With regard to the impact of initial status on growth: the growth of MLUw-Spanish was systematically related to initial status (lower performers at initial status may not catch up to higher performers); the growth of NDW- and WPM-Spanish were unrelated to its initial status (lower performers at initial status may, or may not catch up to higher performers); and the growth of MLUw-, NDW-, and WPM-English was systematically related to initial status (lower performers at initial status may catch up to higher performers). With regard to the co-development of interconnected subsystems, qualitative observations (non-empirically tested) based on visual inspection and GCM estimates provided initial insight into the possible co-development occurring within- and across-languages. The present study broke new ground by specifying the shape of growth for MLUw, NDW, and WPM in the Spanish and English of ELLs during their first 3 years of formal schooling. The study had a number of methodological limitations that will guide and motivate future work on the language growth of ELLs.
    • “We are all going into log huts – a sweet life after a most fatiguing campaign”: The Evolution and Archaeology of American Military Encampments of the Revolutionary War

      Farnsworth, Paul, 1958-; Ranere, Anthony James; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A.; Orr, David Gerald, 1942-; Veit, Richard F., 1968-; Urwin, Gregory J. W., 1955- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation focuses on the history and archaeology of the American military encampments of the American Revolution. The organization of this dissertation reflects the purpose and methodology of the study to create context — both historically and archaeologically — for the American military encampments of the American Revolution, in order to understand the encampments’ design, implementation, and evolution over the course of the war. By employing a multifaceted approach towards the documentary record, this dissertation illustrates as many perspectives as possible by consulting a diverse collection of primary source material to construct a historical framework that explores how the military and the individual soldiers involved negotiated the theater of war during the encampment periods. Specific attention is paid to the orders that were handed down from the military hierarchy and how the soldiers reacted. This dissertation further refines the discussion of the American military encampments of the American Revolution by examining the physical remains of the encampments through the archaeological record. Utilizing information collected from nearly a century of archaeological investigations at places such as Middlebrook, New Jersey, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, Pluckemin, New Jersey, Redding, Connecticut, Morristown, New Jersey, and New Windsor, New York, this dissertation will provide a review and assessment of the archaeology of American military encampments of the American Revolution. In doing so, this dissertation examines the results these investigations have yielded and evaluates whether different approaches or a reevaluation of the results obtained from these investigations can provide new avenues of information to further interpret these historic sites. A case study is presented based on the author’s own excavations within the Valley Forge winter encampment on the grounds of the modern Washington Memorial Chapel. Through this case study, the physical and material remains of this encampment site are interpreted as expressions of the Continental Army’s adaptation to the landscape, as well as an expression of their status and training during this early stage of the war. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben’s work is presented as a determining factor in this development. This dissertation uses the archaeological remains of these military landscapes to provide insight into the lifeways and power structures of the military as well as the soldiers who defined the social and economic disposition of this diverse community. Viewing each of these sites as a particular marker in time, this dissertation provides case studies of events over the course of the American Revolution to examine how the Army and its soldiers interact with the then-contemporary conflict, training, and the environment. Each of these influences played a role in the evolution of this military force.

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Brandt, Carol B.; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The underrepresentation of women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remains a critical issue. Uneven academic preparation and lack of interest have been cited as common factors associated with low participation and degree attainment rates among women of color in STEM; however, these factors do not adequately explain why women with academic achievement and interest comparable to their white, male peers pursue and attain STEM degrees at disproportionately low rates. Identity has been found to be a useful lens to understand why and how women of color pursue and attain STEM degrees and subsequent career goals. Viewing the challenges women of color face as a result of being in a "double bind"-both female and non-white -can enable scholars and practitioners alike to better understand how they navigate trajectories towards their career and other personal goals. Specifically, forms of capital that women of color access because of, and not in spite of, their identity have been found to provide means for women of color to successfully achieve their goals. This study uses ethnographic methods to explore the experiences of early-mid career Latina engineers and the forms of capital they have accessed along their trajectories through undergraduate education in engineering and in the early stages of their engineering-related careers. Findings reveal that Latinas draw upon multiple forms of science-related social and cultural capital to overcome obstacles related to being female and non-white in a male-dominated field in a U.S. context. The challenge associated with being a Latina is exacerbated in the workplace where "bro" culture is more pervasive than in college; however, an awareness of one's social identity, the "Americanness" of the gender/race gap in STEM, and a desire to make the field of engineering more welcoming for subsequent generations of women motivates study participants to persist. Specifically, women in this study draw strength from personal or inherited experience of struggle along their trajectories through engineering. They face challenges with an awareness that obstacles are part of any journey and have developed both an ability to transform obstacles into inspiration for working harder and an understanding that overcoming them is crucial both to repaying the debt of sacrifice of those who came before and paving the way for those who will come after. "Struggle" is thus a form of capital that women in my study acquired and is worthy of exploration as a distinct theoretical framework for persistence. Overall, findings from this study bear implications for individual supports and institutional transformation required to foster the success of Latinas in engineering as a distinct group as well as women of color in STEM broadly speaking.

      Rosan, Christina; Pearsall, Hamil; Ferman, Barbara; Mason, Randall (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Drexel University, a private university in Philadelphia, is expanding its campus to attract more students, faculty, and researchers. The current President, John Fry, envisions transforming West Philadelphia into an innovation district. The university is working with real estate developers on a $3.5 billion real estate project at Schuylkill Yards, in addition to mixed-use student housing and projects. The development goals of the university will impact the social conditions of the long-term residents of the two neighboring communities, Mantua and Powelton Village. In addition to the larger developers who are working with Drexel, numerous small-scale developers are developing market-rate student housing around the periphery of the two communities. In the process, the developers are disrupting the character of the neighborhoods and changing the racial demographics of the Mantua community from a predominantly African American community into one that reflects predominantly White and Asian demographics of the university. The combination of Drexel University and the developers is threatening to “studentify” the Mantua community. In the process Mantua, is at risk of losing the cultural elements that have defined the neighborhood for decades, in addition to their sense of belonging in the neighborhoods where the residents have lived for generations. This research is a qualitative assessment of the social changes to the two communities as a result of Drexel’s expansion activities. A social sustainability framework was developed based on the results of a cultural landscape assessment and structured and semistructured interviews of long-term residents, business owners, community leaders, and university officials.

      Asante, Molefi Kete, 1942-; Johnson, Amari; Allison, Donnetrice; Mazama, Ama, 1961- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Michael Tillotson’s Agency Reduction Formation theory is designed to expose, situate, and explain ideological trends that are intended to compel African people to distance themselves from their collective identity (Tillotson 2011, 62). Identity provides African people the internal construction to seek self-determination that allows them to strive for agency, the ability to provide the psychological and cultural resources necessary for the advancement of human freedom (Asante 2007, 40-41). In this study, I have added an agential location dimension to the discourse of “identity names” utilizing Afrocentric analysis to interrogate whether those specific “identity names” position African people toward victorious consciousness, an attitude which reflects a commitment to Africana history, values, and culture. In addition to exploring why it is problematic for African people to identify with terms such as “Nigga”, “Bad Bitch”, “Savage” and “Trap Queen” given the controversy sustained by their overuse as racial epithets and radical forms of misnaming, I also address how such “identity words” are aggressive forms of Agency Reduction Formation. To demonstrate how the use of the previously mentioned “identity words” is an agency reducing activity, I analyzed the words and photographs of African men and women featured on the social networking platform Instagram. Through content analysis, I claimed that African people identifying particularly as a “Nigga”, “Bad Bitch”, “Savage” and “Trap Queen” within their profiles and posts create an environment for dis-empowerment, identity dislocation, and internalized oppression. If tendencies to use these “agency reducing identity words” continues in this manner, African people will experience ongoing cultural dislocation that diminishes their “need for a collective agency that fights against oppression.”
    • Weak Boson Production in High Energy Colliders as a Probe of Nucleon Structure

      Surrow, Bernd; Metz, Andreas; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Aschenauer, Elke-Caroline (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Presented in this thesis are measurements of W boson production in high energy pp collisions and ep deep inelastic scattering that take place at RHIC and HERA facilities, respectively. These measurements explore the inner structure of the nucleons, in particular, probing the distributions of the light flavor sea which consists of up, down and strange quarks. The W+/W− cross-section ratio, RW , in pp collisions is sensitive to the asymmetry in the ¯d and ¯u flavors in the nucleon sea. This ratio was first measured with the STAR detector at RHIC with the data collected in 2009 and again with the data collected from 2011 to 2013, featuring pp collisions of a center-of-mass energy of √s = 500/510 GeV and an integrated luminosity of ∼ 350 pb−1. The study considered in this thesis further improves the precision of this measurement by analyzing an additional data set collected in 2017 which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of ∼ 350 pb−1. The experimental results are compared to theory predictions generated with various global PDF fits. The measurement performed at HERA searches for the strange quark content in the nucleon via charm production in charged current deep inelastic scattering. This is the first measurement of its kind, using the HERA II data collected with the ZEUS detector. This data set corresponds to e±p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 318 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 358 pb−1. The results are consistent with expectations from the Standard Model, albeit with large experimental uncertainties arising from the limited statistics.
    • Weapon of War, Tool of Peace: U.S. Food Diplomacy in Postwar Germany

      Goedde, Petra, 1964-; Immerman, Richard H.; Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Sayward, Amy L., 1969- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation examines U.S. food diplomacy in occupied Germany. It argues that the origins of food aid as an anti-communist strategy are located in postwar Germany. Believing a punitive occupation was the best insurance against future conflict, Allied leadership agreed to enforce a lower standard of living on Germany and did not allow relief agencies to administer aid to German civilians. Facing a growing crisis in the U.S. Zone, President Truman authorized food imports and permitted voluntary agencies to operate in 1946. This decision changed the tenor of the occupation and provided the foundation to an improved U.S.-German relationship. It also underscored the value of American food power in the emerging contest with the Soviet Union. Food served as a source of soft power. It bridged cultures and fostered new relationships while reinforcing notions of American exceptionalism. Officials recognized that humanitarian aid complemented foreign policy objectives. American economic security was reflected in their abundance of food, and the dispersal of this food to war-torn Europe, especially a former enemy, made a strong statement about the future. As relations with the Soviet Union soured, policymakers increasingly relied on American food power to encourage German embrace of western values. Occupation officials portrayed food relief as an expression of democratic ideals, emphasizing the universality of Freedom from Want and focusing on well-nourished German children as the hope for future peace. American food fostered the spread of liberal democracy but its dispersal also contained communism. This work bridges diplomatic history and food studies to investigate the consequences and significance of the transnational food exchange. Food aid had layered political, cultural, and emotional implications. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this dissertation examines the role of compassion in diplomacy and the symbolism inherent in food to demonstrate the lasting political currency of humanitarian aid. Paying close attention to the food relationships that emerge between Germans and Americans allows one to better gauge the value of U.S. food aid as a propaganda tool. Food embodies American power; it offers a medium for understanding the experience and internalization of the occupation by Americans and Germans alike. Food aid began as emergency relief in 1946, reflecting the transition from a punitive to rehabilitative occupation policy. Recognizing Germany’s need for stability and self-sufficiency Military Government officials then urged economic recovery. Food aid was an important piece for German economic recovery, with supporters emphasizing Germany’s potential contribution toward European recovery. The positive press generated by the Marshall Plan and Allied airlift of Berlin contributed to the growing significance of propaganda in the emerging Cold War. Food relief was both good policy and good public relations, providing a narrative that cast the United States as a benevolent power in a rapidly changing world. Food aid to Germany underscored America’s humanitarian obligations, conscripted emotion into the Cold War, and swayed public opinion on the home front and with the former enemy.
    • Weathering At Work: Narratives of African American Women's Perception of Procedural Justice Relative to Diversity Management Practices in Healthcare Companies

      Schmidt, Stuart M.; Andersson, Lynne Mary; Goldberg, Daniel E.; Hill, Theodore L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Employees are observant to their employers' policies and practices, which can reveal a lot about an organization's commitment to procedural justice. According to Judge & Colquitt (2004), perceived procedural justice, in particular, appears to have a considerable effect on chronic stress. Chronic stress, on the other hand, can have a negative effect on one’s wellbeing (Geronimus et al., 2006). Despite this, little research on African American women’s perception of procedural justice in relation to diversity management practices has been conducted. Using a qualitative interpretative phenomenological approach, I examined African American women’s lived experiences in healthcare companies in relation to diversity management practices under a procedural justice framework to investigate if weathering is exhibited within healthcare companies. Weathering recognizes that “the cumulative health and stress disparities that African American women experience throughout their lives result in negative health outcomes” (Warren-Findlow, 2006, p. 221). Two studies were performed. Study Two was designed to replicate, validate, or bring different perspectives to Study One's findings. Its findings were consistent with those of Study One, suggesting that the weathering concept is exhibited within healthcare companies. These findings may encourage healthcare organizations to delve deeper into the origins of health disparities impacting African American female employees and members. Furthermore, the findings of this investigation advocate for research to be broadened beyond the societal level to include the experiences of African American women working in other organizations.

      Abramovic, Charles; Schmieder, Eduard, 1948-; Zohn, Steven David, 1966-; Latham, Edward David (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      A brief study of the history of classical music and the subsequent performance of it reveal magnificent innovative achievements in the inspired evolution of composers and the performing artists that have presented it. Throughout the centuries these performers have stimulated generations of audiences while taking them on musical journeys that cover the complete spectrum of human emotion. Today the classical music world faces weighty challenges that that could very well crush the future of this valuable art form and lead the industry into a desolate demise. A thick cloud of smoke has descended upon these once proud and distinguished music institutions in the United States. Orchestras, opera companies, and other traditional performing institutions are facing financial tribulations, and many of these organizations have already shut their doors. Interest in classical music has plummeted and audiences have continued to disintegrate along with it. In the meantime, music colleges and conservatories have ignored the plight of the professional organizations in turmoil by continuing to train performers in the United States the same way that they have always done since the National Association of Music Schools developed their accreditation standards in 1924. This has led to a generation of music performance majors being trained for jobs that are no longer viable. What’s worse, once these students are finished studying, their music colleges and conservatories disregard them, and institutions move forward with training the next generation of students who will undoubtedly face a similar fate. Along with the turmoil surrounding traditional performing institutions and a music performance curriculum built for a different time, another problem exists that will ultimately push these two concerns to the forefront in the coming years. Higher education in the United States is beginning to experience a colossally devastating financial crisis as a result of decades of unlimited federal student loan aid, decreased state funding, overspending by institutions, and technological alternatives to traditional education that have triggered steady increases in tuition rates for students. These increases have culminated in a substantial amount of graduates taking on debt, on which significant percentages of those graduates are now defaulting. Subsequently, enrollment in higher education has been dropping every year since 2011, and a growing number of prospective students are losing faith in the system and are looking towards alternative avenues to receive their educations. A “perfect storm” has developed in our midst. Several problematic elements of the storm have been simmering for quite a while, but have never been properly confronted or treated. Now a fresh set of storm indicators are emerging that will further emphasize the severity of the problems that have been there for years. Addressing challenges in institutions that have done things the same way for many decades can admittedly be arduous. But regardless of how long these problems have been ignored, they generally don’t go away by themselves, and they often become so insurmountable that only undesirable solutions are feasible. The perfect storm threatening the classical music world is not going away, but, fortunately, reforms are possible that can assist music colleges and conservatories in weathering it and help to reverse the negative forecast. The purpose of this monograph will be to detail the different elements that make up this “perfect storm,” and explain why reforming the music performance curriculum so that it becomes relevant to the current realities of being a 21st-century performing artist is essential. In order to be able to proceed with these reforms, a fundamental reorganization of foundational aspects in music higher education needs to occur. This project is not something that I wanted to take on, but I felt that it was my duty to do everything possible to reinvigorate and transform the training of performing musicians so that the next generation will be able to succeed in saving our art from its downward trajectory and move it onto a path of sustainability and relevance. I am writing this for my colleagues who are navigating the professional music world, for current music students, for future prospective students preparing to enter the music industry, for current and future music professors, for deans in music schools, and for the accreditors who build the music performance curriculum.
    • Web-Based Evaluation Survey of Campus Mediation Programs: Perceptions from the Field

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Fullard, William; Stahler, Gerald (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      Campus mediation programs (CMP's) experienced a rapid growth in higher education institutions from 18 programs in 1990 to more than 200 programs in 1998 (Warters, 2000). During that period, CMP's became a widely accepted approach for addressing conflict within US colleges and universities. However, recent data indicate that there are just over 100 programs which points to a decline and raises questions as to the value of campus mediation programs to higher education institutions. A hindrance to addressing the questions raised has been the limited amount of empirical research and published data on evaluation use within campus mediation programs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to gather information from US campus mediation program directors regarding their use of program evaluation in order to suggest ways to improve their evaluation efforts. Campus mediation program directors were surveyed on their perceptions of evaluation use in their respective programs. This study was conducted over a period of six months using a web-survey and follow-up telephone interviews. The web-based survey used in this study was adapted from an online campus mediation program survey developed by Rick Olshak and modified. The web-survey consisted of four sections: Demographics, Description of Services, Evaluation and Program Profile. The population consisted of 108 campus mediation program directors in US higher education institutions who were solicited for this study and agreed to participate. Of the 108 directors, there were a total of 59 respondents representing a 55% response rate. There were nine respondents who participated in a follow-up telephone interview. Data analysis for the research questions utilized rank order, frequencies, and averages; supplemental analyses utilized an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA's and Pearson correlations. Results indicated that evaluation received one of the lowest priority ranking as a program goal, however, most of the directors indicated that they would be very interested in learning different ways of improving their evaluation methods and having a standard evaluation process. The most prevalent concerns and recommendations from the telephone follow-up interviews focused on acquiring buy-in of administration and campus affiliates, improving program surveys, addressing budget cuts and decreasing high staff turnovers.
    • Webs of Interactions: International Perspectives on Cultural Music Mediation Among Adults and Young Children

      Reynolds, Alison (Alison M.); Bolton, Beth M.; Zohn, Steven David, 1966-; Latham, Edward David (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      In this qualitative phenomenological inquiry, I explore how an international group of early childhood music teachers describe creating music-learning environments for young children. As members of the Early Childhood Music Education Commission of the International Society for Music Education, the nine research participants share a common interest in contributing to early childhood music education. I was interested in understanding how members of that group perceived creating music-learning environments for young children. I wondered: What are early childhood music teachers' perceptions of music-learning environments for young children; What shapes their perceptions; and How do early childhood music teachers strive to create an environment conducive for young children's music learning? Using tenets of narrative inquiry, I restory this study as a conversation in a coffee shop. Imagine there's an international early childhood music conference in your town. During a conference break, I walk into your favorite coffee shop. You stand in a long line waiting to order. I walk in and take my place behind you in line, and we begin a conversation about children's music learning. Eventually, colleagues who are attending the conference (i.e., the nine research participants) join us. During our conversation, you and I discuss our experiences with understanding and creating early childhood music-learning environments. Next, we talk with the nine research participants about how they create music-learning environments for young children and I reveal the essence of their shared experience: participants view themselves as cultural music mediators, believing it is their job to mediate music interactions among adults and young children. Finally, you and I discuss implications for parents, early childhood music teachers, early childhood general education teachers, and pre-service music and general education teachers. We talk about ways they can become cultural music mediators, and create webs of music interactions for adults and young children. After reading this study, I invite you to visit my Facebook page, Music-Learning Environments for Young Children, to contribute thoughts and questions.
    • Weighing in on Eating Disorders: Collegiate Swimming Coaches' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Eating Disorders and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors in Female Athletes

      Sachs, Michael L.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This study examined collegiate swimming coaches' knowledge and attitudes towards eating disorders and unhealthy weight loss practices within their athletes along with their perceptions of sport specific pressures in swimming. I used a modified version of the 2003 NCAA Questionnaire for Collegiate Coaches of Female Student-Athletes developed and utilized by Sherman, Thompson, Dehass, and Wilfret. I used email to distribute the link to an online version of the survey, and used SPSS to analyze the data. The results suggest that NCAA Division I, II, and III collegiate swimming coaches are aware of the prevalence along with the fact that that athletes do participate in unhealthy weight loss practices and suffer from eating disorders. This study suggests that many coaches are knowledgeable about this topic, but I was unable to conclude whether swimmers experience sport specific pressures that put them at higher risk for or lead to eating disorders. Both participant gender and NCAA division coached were found to present statistically significant differences in survey responses. Despite results being statistically significant, results are consistent with previous research examining eating disorders in sport. Results were not able to conclude if swimmers experience sport specific pressures leading to the development of eating disorders. It is hoped that future research will continue to examine the link between specific sports and the development of ED, as well as focus on providing coaches with more knowledge and education on this topic.

      McGinley, Christopher W.; Cordes, Sarah A.; Haviland, Joseph; Shorr, Lori (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      ABSTRACT Bullying is recognized as a serious problem affecting children and adolescents in the U.S. and around the world. Recent school shootings and media attention surrounding them has thrust bullying into the forefront of our attention and has created a sense of resolve around the issue. As a result of the increased media attention around bullying, there has been a call for action and demands for schools to do what they can to decrease bullying. In an effort to deter students from participating in bullying behaviors many schools have been implementing bullying prevention programs to educate students about the negative impacts of bullying and to promote positive behaviors. As with any change, it is not uncommon for the implementation of a bullying prevention program to be met with some resistance by staff, and unfortunately, like many educational innovations they are short-lived. It appears that in order for the implementation of a bullying prevention program to see success and be sustainable within a school, there must be certain conditions in place at the time of the implementation. This study is designed to investigate why the same bullying prevention programs that are perceived to be successful and sustainable in some schools, are not successful nor sustainable in other schools. The goal is to determine what conditions, if any, are present in the schools with perceived successful and sustainable bullying prevention programs, that were not present in schools where the bullying prevention programs were unsuccessful and unsustainable.
    • What Does That Piece of Paper Really Mean? An Inquiry Into Certification Motivation

      Blau, Gary J.; Zeitz, Gerald Joseph, 1942-; Deckop, John Raymond; Pred, Robert (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      Though under-analyzed, third-party employee competency certifications are increasing in number; many feel that accumulation of certifications is essential for career success. I argue that in their current form, certifications are double-edged: their purpose is to reduce transaction costs, enhance performance, and foster development; but they can also be used as 'credentials' to gain prestige, rewards or influence. I suggest that excessive use for this latter purpose can undermine their contribution to performance. In this study of HR practitioners that draws on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), I test the relationship between certification-seeking motivation and obtaining certification, perceived job competence, and affective occupational commitment. Hierarchical regression results show an association between autonomous motivation and both obtaining certification and commitment; however, professional association membership may also play a role in fostering such motivation. I end with suggestions for future research.
    • What Matters Most, Culture or Process? Investigating the Determinants of High-Performing Global Supply Chain Teams

      Schmidt, Stuart M.; Mudambi, Susan; Schuff, David (David Michael); Di Benedetto, C. Anthony (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The proposed research investigated specific cultural attributes of supply chain teams that enable the transformation of a firm’s working supply chain into a high-performing supply chain (what is considered “best-in-class” in its peer group), thereby increasing the overall firm value. The findings of the research indicate that throughout global supply chains, the practice of leadership is considered more impactful and more value creating than the practice of process. Moreover, specific leadership influences cultural attributes and, when practiced, can also generally increase firm value. A comprehensive review of current literature about supply chain teams and organizational culture as well as supply chain team engineering was conducted to determine the significance of culture in high-performing firms, regardless of industry. In the discipline of supply chain management (SCM), significant research exists for the usual business focus areas of improving cost, quality, and service. However, there is limited research about the construct of culture and, in particular, high-performing supply chain culture. Furthermore, this research examined the extent to which the combination of supply chain team culture, as influenced by leadership and a highly engineered supply chain team process contribute to a firm’s success. Data were collected from senior supply chain executives from a cross-section of low, mid, and large market capitalization firms. Additionally, stakeholder value-added metrics of two-year firm performance were used to define successful, sustainable public firm performance. The implications of this research, when practiced, can act as enabler for increasing firm supply chain performance, thereby assisting firms with a successful value-creating framework.
    • What Next? Unpacking Anticipatory EEG Oscillations in Auditory, Tactile and Visual Modalities: Relations with Behavior and Executive Function in Children and Adults

      Marshall, Peter J.; Marshall, Peter J.; Newcombe, Nora; Chein, Jason M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Jarcho, Johanna; Gunderson, Elizabeth (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Anticipation refers to preparation for upcoming events in the environment (Clark, 1998; Ondobaka & Bekkering, 2007; Allen & Friston, 2016). The ability to anticipate – as manifested in the preparatory actions and neural activation in expectation of an upcoming target stimulus – may play a key role in the development of cognitive skills. In the current study, cognitive skills are specified as the execution of stimulus-relevant, goal-directed actions (as indexed by reaction time) and individual differences in the ability to use goals to direct action (as indexed by executive function measures). A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in 40 adults and 40 6- to 8-year-old children to examine the association of neural correlates of anticipatory attention to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli with inter- and intra-individual variation in executive function (EF) abilities. Consistent with prior findings (Weiss, Meltzoff, & Marshall, 2018), the sensorimotor mu rhythm in the alpha range of the EEG signal was suppressed in the contralateral hemisphere during anticipation of tactile stimulation, with the extent of this suppression being related to children’s performance on EF tasks. Within-subject relations were also found between lateralized EEG modulation and single-trial reaction time responses to target stimuli. This relation was evident for visual and tactile stimuli (but not auditory stimuli) and was more prominent in adults than children. Further, these relations were responsible for significant variance in executive function scores using a multi-level model. Results indicated that inter-individual differences in anticipatory sensorimotor mu modulation (not visual alpha or auditory tau rhythms) contributed to the significant association with executive function variability. I discuss anticipatory EEG oscillations as an empirical, quantifiable indicator of stimulus prediction, advancing anticipation as a bridge concept embedded in neuroscientific, behavioral, computational and developmental science.