• VAGABONDS AND THE VIRTUAL: IDENTITY, ECONOMICS AND ETHICS IN THE GENRE OF DIGITAL TRAVEL WRITING

      Goldblatt, Eli; Newman, Steve, 1970-; Omizo, Ryan; Durst, Russel K., 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      While the genre of travel writing has been popular with authors and audiences over centuries, developments in new media, social media and public use genres have caused an adaptation of the genre in the digital space. This genre, as it exists, claims two antecedents: first, the traditional and literary version of the genre and second, the blogs that emerged and were popularized in the late twentieth century. In exploring the genre of digital travel writing, hundreds of internet publications were read, reviewed and cataloged. Of these, many began to demonstrate the criteria which would be considered prototypical for the genre. Any publication in the genre demonstrates, in various ways and to varying degrees, the following characteristics: frequent updates, multiple platform-use and multimedia inclusions, discursive constructions of identity, engagement with economies, and entanglements with the ethical concerns proper to both the genre and its situated ideology. In addition to stabilizing this vast archive of open source media as a perceptible genre, this dissertation hints at ways that the literate practices of these authors speaks to a nuanced appreciation of literacy and one that reverses the classical binary privileging reading over writing. Further, some suggestions are made for using open source and new media genres productively in writing classrooms.
    • Validating Beliefs: Liberal And Conservative Protestant Views of Sexual Morality in America

      Delaney, Kevin; Ericksen, Julia A., 1941-; Goyette, Kimberly A.; Watt, David Harrington (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      While many debates about sexual morality seem to be dominated by conservative, right wing Protestants, there are differing worldviews within Protestantism as there are in the larger American culture. In Protestantism, disparate beliefs about sexual morality have caused division between groups. Concurrently, these differing perspectives have bled into the larger discourse about sexual morality in the United States. Each group has spokespeople who attempt to validate what individuals should believe about issues like the family, sexuality, and how Protestants, and Americans in general, should think and act regarding these issues. Prior research provided a limited analysis about the views and conversations of these spokespeople and their arguments to validate their positions on sexual morality issues. To better understand how Protestants attempt to validate their beliefs, I focus on what liberals and conservatives say about sexual morality issues. In particular, what do those in influential positions (i.e., authors and pastors) tell others? To answer this question, I conduct a content analysis of 30 Protestant sex advice manuals and 20 in-depth pastoral interviews. The results indicate not only the differences and similarities of beliefs, but also that many spokespeople use various forms of validation besides, or in addition to, biblical texts. The influential are influenced greatly by their own personal biases and views of gender, maybe even more than their particular religious beliefs. Future research should explore whether there is a definitive correlation between spokespersons' messages and listeners' adherence.
    • Validity of Teacher Ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; Mahone, E. Mark; DuCette, Joseph P.; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Thurman, S. Kenneth (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This study tested the construct validity of a preschool measure of executive function (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; BRIEF-P) through support of convergent and discriminant validity using the multitrait-multimethod validation process. Convergent validity was examined through teacher ratings of executive function and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and through the measurement of executive function on a performance measure. Determination of discriminant validity was attempted through teacher ratings of executive function and anxious/shy behaviors and through performance measures of visuospatial processing. Participants were placed in one of two groups: a control group/no diagnosis (n = 21) or an ADHD Group (n = 14). Group comparisons were conducted using t-tests and chi-square analysis and determined group differences related to gender, ethnic background, IQ, and age. An Analysis of covariance, controlling for gender, indicated significantly higher teacher ratings of preschool-age children with ADHD than without ADHD on the BRIEF-P. Pearson correlations suggest a strong relationship between similar constructs utilizing same method procedures and a moderate relationship measuring the same construct between measures. Discriminant validity was unable to be established due to non significant relationships between the same trait/between methods and different trait/between methods correlations. However, the small number of participants (n = 35) and poor teacher return rate of questionnaires (control n = 7; ADHD n = 14) may have affected the results of this study. There were several other limitations of this study, including the design of the study and the extended length of time to complete the study.
    • Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

      Banker, Rajiv D.; Chen, Pei-yu; Mehta, Mihir; Wattal, Sunil; Pavlou, Paul A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have significant impacts on firm performance and growth in the competitive, information-orientated business environment. Using firm-level data collected from Taiwan, this dissertation examines specific valuation issues that are vital in shaping not only firm performance but also competitive advantages in current knowledge-based economy: (1) investments in information technology (IT), (2) human capital, and (3) corporate governance. To address these three major managerial challenges relating to firm investment strategies, this dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of three sources of business value creation, including IT investment, workforce education, and Chief Audit Executive (CAE) turnover. The results of investigating service infrastructure in the banking industry support the idea that in today's complex, fast moving multichannel business environment, evaluation of the strategic value of IT must consider both the direct impact of individual channels and the complementary relationships between IT-based channels and the traditional branch channel while constructing an effective business strategy to align IT use with firm strategic objectives. The interdependence between channels found in this study has a significant effect on firms' short term profitability and long term market competition capability, suggesting that the true value of IT will be fully realized only when coupled with complementary investments in organizational resources. Second, results of examining investments in workforce and research and development (R&D) activities in IT industries indicate that firms with more highly educated workforces have, on average, better performance. Investment in R&D for improving innovation capability is positively associated with firm performance. More importantly, higher levels of workforce education moderate the impact of R&D investment on firm performance, confirming the hypothesized interdependency between workforce education and firm innovation capabilities. In other words, firms benefit more from investment in R&D activities when they have a higher level of educated workforce. An important strategic implication from the DuPont Analysis is that the complementarity between workforce education and R&D capital reinforces a firm's differentiation strategy. Finally, the results of analyzing CAE turnover in Taiwan public companies show that CAE turnover is positively correlated with executive turnover (Chief Executive Officer [CEO] and Chief Financial Officer [CFO]) and financial restatements, which are commonly viewed as a signal of a troubled business or failure. The study also shows that CAE turnover has a negative impact on contemporaneous and future firm performance, suggesting that, to some extent, changing the head of the internal audit function conveys a negative signal to the market regarding a firm's performance. Given that the CAE monitors and assesses enterprise risk practices, the findings of this study suggest that CAE turnover could be used as an indicator of business volatility and potential business risk. The passage of the governance law which improves the quality of a firm's internal control system is found to reinforce the signaling role of CAE turnover and improve firm performance. The results of this dissertation provide important strategic insights regarding the factors managers should consider when making investment choices that are expected to align with a firm's long term development and performance. This dissertation complements literature in managerial accounting and information systems, particularly contributing to business value of IT investment, human capital, and internal audit research streams. It also addresses regulatory implications for policy makers such as regulating relevant disclosures of company information for interested parties and developing a regulatory environment that minimizes regulatory barriers which can suppress businesses and economy growth.
    • VALUE CREATION, VALUE SENSING, VALUE DELIVERY, AND VALUE CAPTURING MECHANISM OF GREEN BUILDING: A VALUE NETWORK

      Bakshi, Gurdip; Bakshi, Gurdip; Mao, Connie X.; Scott, Jonathan A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The development and expansion of cities has led to increased public awareness of the influence of building sustainability on the environment, society, and economy. Green building eases the pressure of urbanization by saving energy, reducing waste, protecting the environment, improving the living standard, and encouraging industry. Consequently, green building has developed rapidly for 20 years. This study reviews the literature on green building, recognizes the stakeholders’ motivations for and barriers to green building development, uses value network analysis, cost–benefit analysis, and case study method for understanding value creation, value sensing, value delivery, and value capturing mechanism of green building to augment the knowledge of green building development for both academics and practitioners. This study proposes an applicable analysis tool.
    • Values Subduction: A Critical Examination of the Hyderabad Information Technology Sector

      Andersson, Lynne Mary; Calvano, Lisa M.; Deckop, John Raymond; Halbert, Terry (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Increasingly, there are organizations, industries, and cities worldwide where the "first" and "third" worlds meet in terms of culture, commerce, and politics. Although researchers agree there are significant socio-cultural implications associated with living and working in these dynamic spaces, there is considerable debate about the nature of these implications. Emerging as an example of an industry operating outside traditional parameters of space, time, and culture, the Indian Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry employs Indians to service the needs of clients and customers from around the world without ever having to leave India. Often heralded (or sometimes demonized) as vanguards of an idealized (i.e. Westernizing) Indian middle class, the identities of call center workers are often extrapolated from the goods they consume, and employment in the global workforce is equated with ascension into the global consumer class (Saraswati, 2008). In reality, the deeper socio-cultural implications of working in the Indian BPO industry are as unclear--both conceptually and empirically--as they are contested. In this research, I contribute to our understanding of these issues by examining the ways in which call center work influenced the values and behaviors of my respondents from their unique points of view. Within the empirical domain, I present a critical ethnographic analysis of fieldwork I conducted in "DomesTech"--an Indian-owned, hybrid-focused BPO organization in Hyderabad, India. Calling upon postcolonial theory and the Bhabhaian perspective of "Third Space" as conceptual and analytical guides and focusing on the values of family, materialism, and ecological orientation, my research shows that call center workers do not fit neatly into the aspirational mold often attributed to them. I also argue that the sociocultural implications of contemporary call center work are not sufficiently conceptualized by existing theoretical frameworks. Hoping to contribute to our theoretical understanding of these issues, I engage in a grounded theory approach to data analysis and call upon the geological process of subduction as interpretive metaphor to develop a refined conceptualization of contemporary culture change.
    • Valuing STEM majors: The Role of Occupational-Academic Ego-Identity Status and Task Values in STEM Persistence

      Cromley, Jennifer; Kaplan, Avi; Byrnes, James P.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Students who initially choose STEM majors frequently switch to non-STEM majors. Additionally, there are national concerns over the paucity of homegrown scientists, and college is a potentially critical period when many potential scientists are lost. The aim of this study was to examine, over the course of a semester, the role of identity formation and motivation in students' intent to leave a STEM major. Participants included 363 diverse undergraduate science students enrolled in chemistry II. Measures of achieved ego-identity status, competency beliefs, task values, perceived costs, interest, self-efficacy, chemistry II grades, and intent to leave a STEM major were given over four waves of data collection. Regression analysis and cross-lagged path analysis were the primary analytical methods. Results revealed that achieved ego-identity status significantly predicted competency beliefs, values/interest, and effort costs; however, achieved ego-identity status was not related to opportunity or psychological costs. Competency beliefs of the major was a significant predictor of chemistry II grades, and values and effort cost were significant predictors of intent to leave STEM. Opportunity cost was only significantly related to intent to leave STEM at the end of the semester and psychological cost was not significantly related to students' intent to leave STEM. These results provide evidence for theorized relationships between identity formation, competency beliefs, task values, and perceived costs. Furthermore, perceived cost was demonstrated to be a multi-dimensional construct with important implications for students' intent to leave STEM.
    • VAPORIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES USING INTENSE, ULTRAFAST LASERS: MECHANISM AND APPLICATION TO PROTEIN CONFORMATION

      Levis, Robert J.; Owens, Kevin Glenn, 1960-; Strongin, Daniel R.; Matsika, Spiridoula (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This dissertation details the design and implementation of a state-of-the-art ambient trace analysis technique known as laser electrospray mass spectrometry. This novel technique utilizes an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse to transfer nonvolatile, fragile molecules into the gas phase from various substrates. The vaporized analyte is subsequently captured, solvated and ionized in an electrospray plume enabling mass analysis. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry is capable of analyzing samples in the liquid or solid states, mass spectral imaging of adsorbed molecules and detecting low vapor pressure analytes remotely. Experiments with biomolecules and pharmaceuticals, such as vitamin B12 and oxycodone, have demonstrated that the nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse allows for coupling into and vaporization of all molecules. This implies that sample preparation (elution, mixing with matrix and choosing samples with a particular electronic or vibrational transition) is not necessary, thus creating a universal mass analysis technique. Investigations using low vapor pressure molecules, such as lipids and proteins, led to the discovery that unfragmented molecules are transferred into the gas phase via a nonthermal mechanism. The laser electrospray mass spectrometry technique has allowed for the nonresonant femtosecond laser vaporization and mass analysis of trace amounts of a nitro-based explosive from a metal surface. The vaporization of unfragmented explosive molecules from a surface facilitates the identification of the explosive, reducing the probability of false positives and false negatives. In addition, this "soft" vaporization of molecules using nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses allows for protein to be transferred from the condensed phase into the gas phase without altering the molecule's structure, enabling ex vivo conformational analysis and possible disease typing.
    • Variable Selection and Supervised Dimension Reduction for Large-Scale Genomic Data with Censored Survival Outcomes

      Tang, Cheng-Yong; Devarajan, Karthik; Chitturi, Pallavi; Dong, Yuexiao; Obradovic, Zoran (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes, providing insight into the disease's process. With the rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic variables (covariates) is far greater than the number of subjects. It is also typical for such data sets to have a high proportion of censored observations. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genes related to survival outcome. However, the Cox model assumes proportional hazards (PH), which is unlikely to hold for each gene. When applied to genes exhibiting some form of non-proportional hazards (NPH), these methods could lead to an under- or over-estimation of the effects. In this thesis, we develop methods that will directly address t
    • Variables Predicting Success in an Advanced Medical-Surgical Nursing Course and the NCLEX-RN for Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Stahler, Gerald; Thurman, S. Kenneth; Beitz, Janice M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      The purpose of this descriptive, ex post facto study was to examine possible relationships between demographic, pre-programmatic, and programmatic factors with success in a final Advanced Medical-Surgical nursing course and the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses, as well as their predictive abilities. Data were obtained from the academic records of 209 full-time and part-time nursing program graduates who completed an upper-division baccalaureate nursing degree at a mid-Atlantic private urban university. Descriptive and inferential analyses were utilized to discover possible relationships between the two dependent variables and the various independent variables in groupings suggested by Carroll's (1963) model of School Learning. Two models were derived to predict success in the nursing program as evidenced by successful completion of the final Advanced Medical-Surgical nursing course and passing the NCLEX-RN on the first attempt. The first model identified age at entrance to the nursing program and repeating a science course as the two factors that explained approximately 49% of the variance in the Advanced Medical-Surgical course performance. The second model was able to predict 97.2% correctly those graduates who would be successful on the NCLEX-RN, and only identify 43.8% of those candidates likely to fail. The overall classification ability by the model was 89%. Implications for nursing educators are that more attention needs to be given to admission policies/procedures, and that students entering nursing programs require routine standardized evaluation, identification and remediation of nursing content gaps in order to be successful throughout their nursing studies and ultimately on the NCLEX-RN.
    • Variation of Hyporheic Exchange in Thin and Thick Sediment Using Solute Tracer Tests, Geophysical Resistivity, and Sediment Characterization at a Reconstructed Stream

      Toran, Laura E.; Nyquist, Jonathan; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Solute tracer tests, geophysical resistivity surveys, and sediment characterization were employed at Crabby Creek, an urban stream in southeastern Pennsylvania, to study hyporheic exchange. Hyporheic exchange is defined by the paths that stream water takes to travel in and out of the saturated sediment of a river. The hyporheic zone is an active region of biological and chemical reactions in streams. This study focused on two reaches that have thin (0.67 m) and thick (2.3 m) streambed sediment. Delineating the hyporheic zone from these contrasting sediment beds is important to understand groundwater-surface water interaction. Hyporheic exchange was hypothesized to be different between the two reaches because sedimentology and therefore permeability were disparate. It was expected that the thick streambed sediment would show deeper hyporheic exchange than the thin streambed sediment. To further understand hyporheic exchange, stream tracer tests were conducted. Sodium chloride was used as the tracer and approximately 57 temporary monitoring wells were installed in the thin and thick sediment reaches. Geophysical time-lapse resistivity surveys, or surveys that represent a change from an initial one, were also used to detect the tracer in the subsurface. Deeper hyporheic exchange, down to 40 cm, was observed in the thin sediment rather than in the reach with thick sediment. The exchange seemed to be limited in the thick sediment due to lower sediment permeability. In the thin sediment reach, the breakthrough curves showed steep rising and falling limbs due to immediate response to the tracer with an average arrival of tracer seven minutes after injection. Uniformity in exchange across most of the sampling wells was also observed. In contrast, the breakthrough curves in the thick sediment reach showed more gradual rise and fall of the tracer and varied arrival times (between 15 and 35 minutes after injection) across the transects. Modeling using One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage (OTIS) found that variation in hyporheic thickness and exchange explained why lag, or delay of tracer arrival time, and shallowing of slope on the rising and falling limbs of the breakthrough curves occurred. The thick sediment reach was found to be composed of poorly graded sediment with abundant fine sediment which can discourage groundwater-surface water interaction. Thickness of hyporheic zone differences also affected exchange and tracer arrival times. Geophysics showed tracer that remained in the hyporheic zone after solute injection was discontinued. This lingering tracer was not apparent from well sampling. Zones of remaining tracer were observed in both sediment reaches. These zones decreased in their conductive change over time but were still present several hours after tracer injection was discontinued. Upwelling and downwelling were located by observing zones of conductive change; downwelling occurred both upstream and downstream of a stabilization structure in the thin sediment reach but only downstream of a stabilization structure in the thick sediment reach. Upwelling and downwelling of stream water was driven by sediment permeability, which was different in the two reaches. Sampling wells helped determine depth to which tracer traveled and conductivity over time, while geophysics helped track the tracer zonation during and after injection was discontinued. Both contributed to understanding the hyporheic zone and its complex characteristics.
    • VARIATION OF THE LOCAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF AORTA

      Darvish, Kurosh; Autieri, Michael V.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Heckman, James L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Understanding the aortic wall deformation and failure during traumatic aortic rupture (TAR), which is a leading cause of fatality in motor vehicle accidents is of great concern. The specific objective of the present study is to develop a material model that can describe the multi layer nature of the aortic wall. Fundamentally, the aortic wall is composed mainly of three layers, tunica intima, media and adventitia, and they are known to have different structures. Understanding the material properties of these layers is essential in order to study the local mechanisms of deformation, force transmission, and failure. The hypothesis of this study is that the tissue's instantaneous shear modulus grows along the radial direction while moving from the intima toward the adventitia. The higher compliance of the tissue near the intima, which is partly due to the concentration of the smooth muscle cells and partly due to the arrangement of collagen and elastin fibers, can explain the nature of aorta failure which is primarily generated from the inside towards the outer layers. A combination of micro- and nano-indentation tests were used to measure the local material properties of porcine aorta at the length scales of 160 µm and 40 µm respectively. The material properties of aorta were investigated in the lateral (left) region in several longitudinal locations of the descending aorta and the observed viscoelastic behavior was summarized in the form of instantaneous shear moduli and reduced relaxation functions. The instantaneous shear modulus was found to generally increase along the radial direction to about 0.6 normalized radial distance and then became almost constant but with higher variability. The reduced relaxation functions were generally independent of the location and test method. Comparing the mechanical results with the histological results obtained through Van-Guisen staining showed that the material properties are partly related to the distribution of smooth muscle cells. The results of this study can be used to explain the mechanisms of failure in aorta and contribute to improve the computational modeling of aorta's deformation which is valuable in a variety of applications including automotive accidents, endovascular grafts, and angioplasty.
    • Veering Triangulations: Theory and Experiment

      Futer, David; Stover, Matthew; Taylor, Samuel J.; Champanerkar, Abhijit, 1975- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Certain fibered hyperbolic 3-manifolds admit a layered veering triangulation, which can be constructed algorithmically given the stable lamination of the monodromy. These triangulations were introduced by Agol in 2011, and have been further studied by several others in the years since. In the first part of this work, we obtain experimental results which shed light on the combinatorial structure of veering triangulations, and its relation to certain topological invariants of the underlying manifold. Among other things, our experimental results strongly suggest that typical veering triangulations are non-geometric, i.e., they cannot be realized as a union of isometrically embedded hyperbolic tetrahedra. In the second part, we prove that veering triangulations are in fact generically non-geometric.
    • VEGF-R1 AGONISTS PROTECT CARDIOMYOCYTES AGAINST OXIDATIVE STRESS

      Recchia, Fabio; Rizzo, Victor; Houser, Steven R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      VEGF-R1 Agonists protect Cardiomyocytes against Oxidative Stress Background: Selective agonists of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) display cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects in the failing heart. Since a major determinant of myocardial damage in heart failure is oxidative stress, we tested the hypothesis that VEGFR-1 mediates anti-oxidant mechanisms. Methods: Freshly prepared cardiac tissue slices were obtained from dogs with pacing-induced heart failure that had been previously transduced with the VEGFR-1 selective ligand VEGF-B. Dihydroetidium (DHE) fluorescence was used to monitor the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition, cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were tested with two major mediators causing oxidative stress in the failing heart, namely angiotensin II (10-8 M for 24 hours) and norepinephrine (50 µM for 24 hours). The experiments were performed in the absence or in the presence of the VEGFR-1 agonists VEGF-B and PlGF or of the mixed VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 agonist VEGF-A or of the selective VEGFR-2 agonist VEGF-E. Mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic hydrogen peroxide were measured, respectively, as MitoSox and DCF fluorescence intensity. Results: In fresh cardiac tissue slices, DHE fluorescence indicated that superoxide production was significantly reduced in VEGF-B treated hearts compared to control failing hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, VEGF-B and PlGF, but not VEGF-A or VEGF-E, prevented mitochondrial superoxide and cytosolic hydrogen peroxide overproduction in response to angiotensin II or norepinephrine. These findings were consistent with the induction of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-1 overexpression in VEGF-B-treated cells. Conclusions: VEGF-R1 activation can reduce oxidative stress both in vivo and in vitro. Our results provide insights in the cardioprotective mechanisms activated by VEGF-B gene therapy in the failing heart.
    • Veiled Intentions: Islam, Global Feminism, and U.S. Foreign Policy Since the Late 1970s

      Immerman, Richard H.; Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Farber, David R.; Goedde, Petra, 1964-; Kashani-Sabet, Firoozeh, 1967- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation explores the ways in which Americans constructed a public understanding about gender relations in Muslim countries from the Iranian Revolution through the post-9/11 period that cast Muslims as oppressors of women. It argues that such understandings significantly influenced U.S. foreign policy in recent decades. In the last quarter of the twentieth century, the degree to which women had or lacked rights became one barometer by which Americans judged Muslim societies. Journalists, scholars, women's rights activists, novelists, filmmakers, politicians, and others in the U.S. contributed to public debates since 1979 that cast Muslims as particularly oppressive of women. The pervasiveness of such views and lobbying efforts by women's rights activists pushed policymakers to situate the attainment of rights for women within the constellation of legitimate areas of policy concern regarding the Muslim world. As a consequence, by the 1990s concern for Muslim women's rights sometimes drove U.S. policy, as when President Clinton chose not to recognize the Taliban regime in 1998; at other times, rhetoric about the oppression of Muslim women became a political tool which policymakers could use to provide legitimacy and moral force for their interventions in the Islamic world. This story is both national and transnational and involves both state and non-state actors.
    • Veit Stoss/Wit Stwosz Contextualized within the Polish Tradition of Sculpture in the Late Fifteenth Century

      West, Ashley D.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Veit Stoss (ca. 1438/1447-1533), a contemporary of Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), was one of the most prominent limewood sculptors of the late fifteenth-early sixteenth century in Central Europe. Stoss worked in Nuremberg for a majority of his career, commissioned by its leading patrician families to make various pieces of limewood sculpture for the city's churches. His work in Nuremberg was interrupted by a nearly twenty-year stay in Krakow, Poland, from 1477 until 1496, where he undertook two monumental sculptural projects that remain his earliest extant works today, the multi-winged altarpiece of the Dormition of the Virgin Mary (1477-1489) done in limewood and the red marble tomb effigy for King Casimir IV Jagiellon (1492). Previous scholarship on Stoss has focused on the commission of the Dormition of the Virgin Mary, but has ignored the importance of this work both within the artist's large artistic development and within the already existing tradition of wood sculpture in late-fifteenth-century Poland. What is more, many twentieth-century German and Polish art historians have mobilized Stoss's career anachronistically within modern nationalist frameworks to support their own political agendas, choosing to ignore the cosmopolitanism of Krakow's mixed population and the dynamic hybrid nature of his works' iconography and artistic style. This thesis seeks to move beyond the limiting and distorting lens of earlier nationalist agendas with the aim to restore Stoss to his historical context as an artist who borrowed stylistically from painting, prints, and sculpture, and who met the demands of diverse patrons, both in Germany and in Poland, by creating a dynamic hybridity of styles, local and foreign.
    • Veteran Narratives and the Collective Memory of the Vietnam War

      Kusmer, Kenneth L., 1945-; Urwin, Gregory J. W., 1955-; Hilty, James W.; Katz, Stanley Nider (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This dissertation is a comprehensive study of the content, author demographics, publishing history, and media representation of the most prominent Vietnam veteran memoirs published between 1967 and 2005. These personal narratives are important because they have affected the collective memory of the Vietnam War for decades. The primary focus of this study is an analysis of how veterans' memoirs depict seven important topics: the demographics of American soldiers, combat, the Vietnamese people, race relations among U.S. troops, male-female relationships, veterans' postwar lives, and war-related political issues. The central theme that runs through these analyses is that these seven topics are depicted in ways that show veteran narratives represent constructed memories of the past, not infallible records of historical events. One reoccurring indication of this is that while memoirists' portrayals are sometimes supported by other sources and reflect historical reality, other times they clash with facts and misrepresent what actually happened. Another concern of this dissertation is the relationship of veteran memoirs to broader trends in public remembrance of the Vietnam War, and how and why some books, but not others, were able to achieve recognition and influence. These issues are explored by charting the publishing history of veteran narratives over a thirty-eight year period, and by analyzing media coverage of these books. This research indicates that mainstream editors and reviewers selected memoirs that portrayed the war in a negative manner, but rejected those that espoused either unambiguous anti- or pro-war views. By giving some types of narratives preference over others, the media and the publishing industry helped shape the public's collective understanding of the war.
    • Vietnamese Existential Philosophy: A Critical Appraisal

      Gordon, Lewis R. (Lewis Ricardo), 1962-; Alperson, Philip, 1946-; Gjesdal, Kristin; Hawkesworth, M. E., 1952- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      In this study I present a new understanding of Vietnamese existentialism during the period 1954-1975, the period between the Geneva Accords and the fall of Saigon in 1975. The prevailing view within Vietnam sees Vietnamese existentialism during this period as a morally bankrupt philosophy that is a mere imitation of European versions of existentialism. I argue to the contrary that while Vietnamese existential philosophy and European existentialism share some themes, Vietnamese existentialism during this period is rooted in the particularities of Vietnamese traditional culture and social structures and in the lived experience of Vietnamese people over Vietnam's 1000-year history of occupation and oppression by foreign forces. I also argue that Vietnamese existentialism is a profoundly moral philosophy, committed to justice in the social and political spheres. Heavily influenced by Vietnamese Buddhism, Vietnamese existential philosophy, I argue, places emphasis on the concept of a non-substantial, relational, and social self and a harmonious and constitutive relation between the self and other. The Vietnamese philosophers argue that oppressions of the mind must be liberated and that social structures that result in violence must be changed. Consistent with these ends Vietnamese existentialism proposes a multi-perspective ontology, a dialectical view of human thought, and a method of meditation that releases the mind to be able to understand both the nature of reality as it is and the means to live a moral, politically engaged life. This study incorporates Vietnamese existential philosophy from 1954-1975 into the flow of the Vietnamese philosophical tradition while also acknowledging its relevance to contemporary Vietnam. In particular, this interpretation of Vietnamese existentialism helps us to understand the philosophical basis of movements in Vietnam to bring about social revolution, to destroy forms of social violence, to reduce poverty, and to foster equality, freedom, and democracy for every member of society. By offering a comparison between Vietnamese existential thinkers and Western existentialists, the study bridges Vietnamese and the western traditions while respecting their diversity. In these ways I hope to show that Vietnamese existentialism makes an original contribution to philosophical thought and must be placed on the map of world philosophies.
    • Violent Content in Film: A Defense of the Morally Shocking

      Gjesdal, Kristin; Feagin, Susan L., 1948-; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Carroll, Noël, 1947- (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Violent content in film has been extensively debated from a myriad of different perspectives, and both within and across a number of different disciplines. Oftentimes, the more violent the content that a film contains, the more likely such content is considered to negatively detract from the value of the work in question. However, this dissertation provides an argument to the contrary with respect to a specific set of cinematic examples and a particular way in which violent content is represented within them. In what follows, I argue that there are grounds to believe in the philosophical value of engaging with works that “morally shock” their audiences through the representation of violent content. First, by analyzing a combination of works ranging from the more conservative American classic Deliverance (1972) to the more controversial French avant-garde Irréversible (2002), I provide a case for reclassifying violent films into different genres, only one of which contains films which elicit a particular kind of response that I single out for further examination. In considering the implications of our responses to these “morally shocking” films, I provide a foundation against which such films can be considered to have a distinct kind of philosophical value by exploring their significance with respect to: (1) issues of interpretation and value in the philosophy of film, (2) recent developments in research on moral judgment, and (3) arguments both for and against the idea that film can be thought of as a kind of philosophy. Ultimately, I argue that our response of moral shock to the content of these films has the subversive effect of destabilizing our moral orientation and consequently motivating philosophical reflection in innovative ways.
    • Violin Performance practice in twentieth century Moldova

      Latham, Edward David; Schmieder, Eduard, 1948-; Abramovic, Charles; Stanley, Robert J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The purpose of this dissertation is to document the evolution of Moldavian violin performance practice from the middle ages through the twentieth century and examine the major influences and significant musicians that shaped its development over time. My primary sources include excerpts from anthologies, textbooks, and periodicals, as well as audio and video clips; in most cases, the original language is Romanian or Russian and I will provide a translation if none is given in the original source.I will begin by investigating the emerging role of the violin in medieval musical ensembles and exploring the origins of Moldovan musical folklore in art, literature and culture. A discussion of lăutari (a class of musicians) is fundamental to understanding the cultural and societal roots of the taraf (a group of lăutari) and the muzica lăutărească (music of the lăutari) to help differentiate this style of music and the musicians who played it from Romanian peasant music and other folk music traditions in the region. I will show how the movement of the lăutari into cities helped familiarize people with the muzica lăutărească, normalizing and establishing it in popular culture and bringing notoriety to exceptionally talented lăutari. Next, I will examine the professionalization of violin education beginning in the last decades of the nineteenth century and the ways in which the establishment of musical societies expanded exposure to professional performers and opportunities for education through the founding of public and private music schools. This process created a hierarchy of skilled foreign performers and teachers who raised up a generation of local musicians who became performers and teachers in Moldova and whose students became performers and teachers all around the world, some of them attaining international acclaim. I will highlight the societies, schools, teachers and performers who were most influential in helping to grow this performance practice architecture. Nineteenth and twentieth century geopolitics – changing national borders and colonial influences in the region – shaped the development of violin performance practice in Moldova which came to favor Eastern European technique and style. The characteristics of muzica lăutărească, and the centuries in which the lăutari refined their skills and abilities primed them to prefer Eastern European music. I will share examples that illustrate this preference in both audiences and performers of the time. Finally, I will focus on contemporary Moldavian violinists whose careers demonstrate the culmination of these factors that have shaped the evolution of Moldavian violin performance practice. These award-winning, internationally famous violinists are actively exporting a centuries-in-the-making home-grown performance practice that is both diverse and unique, taking its place among the best performance practice traditions in the world.