• U.S. AND INDIAN MANAGERIAL BOUNDARY SPANNING BEHAVIORS IN GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED SOFTWARE TEAMS

      Wattal, Sunil; Schmidt, Stuart M.; Sinkovics, Noemi; Tandon, Vivek, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This paper explores the construct of Boundaries and Boundary Spanning in software development teams that consist of members located in both the U.S. and in India. Drawing on literature pertaining to boundaries in business, global boundaries, cultural boundaries, virtual team boundaries, and organizational boundaries, two studies were conducted. The first study measured the boundary spanning behaviors of software team managers of 25 teams. These results were analyzed in conjunction with a standard measure of software team output. No support was found for the hypothesis that frequency of team manager boundary spanning behavior had an impact on overall team output. In the second study, interviews were conducted of 20 software team managers to better understand their perceptions of the boundaries to team success. Managers cited several boundaries to team output, such as those of communication and issues of power-distance. Nearly all managers felt that time zone difference, a temporal boundary, was the most impactful to their own team success. Through flexible pattern matching analysis, categories of team boundaries have been proposed.
    • Ultrafast Vibrational Dynamics at the Solid/Water Interface

      Borguet, Eric; Dai, Hai-Lung; Spano, Francis C.; Yodh, Arjun G. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      No doubt, water is the most important liquid on the planet. In addition to the obligatory need for water in life, water is widely used in diverse applications. In most applications if not all, water is interfaced with different materials, at different phases depending on the application. This unique value of water originates from its chemical structure, which is based on hydrogen bonding. Although these chemical bonding in bulk liquid and vapor water have extensively been investigated, in interfacial water are not yet fully understood. This thesis presents an investigation of ultrafast vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonding in interfacial water. In a first chapter, the experimental technique and tools needed for the study of interfacial vibrational dynamics are exposed. In the first part of a second chapter, vibrational coherence dynamics of free OH stretch modes at the alumina/water interface are investigated. And in the second part, vibrational coherence dynamics of hydrogen bonded OH stretch modes at the calcium fluoride/water interface are investigated. To understand the dynamics of vibrational energy flow within an interfacial network of hydrogen bonding, the investigation of vibrational coupling dynamics at the calcium fluoride/water interface takes place in a third chapter. Unlike what has already been reported in this topic, in our work, the vibrational energy will be initially deposited at the second vibrational excited state, through an overtone transition.
    • Ultrafast Vibrational Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Water at Interfaces

      Borguet, Eric; Levis, Robert J.; Strongin, Daniel R.; Lyyra, A. Marjatta (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Over the past two decades, vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) has been applied as a versatile technique for probing the structure and dynamics of molecules at surfaces and interfaces. The excellent surface specificity of the SFG allows for probing different kinds of liquid interfaces with no or negligible contribution from adjacent and much deeper bulk phase. VSFG spectroscopy has provided evidence that the structure of the water at interfaces is different from the bulk. With the ultrafast pulses, VSFG can also be used as a probe of ultrafast vibrational dynamics at interfaces. However, apart from a few pioneering studies, the extension of VSFG into time domain has not been explored extensively. Here VSFG is used as a probe of ultrafast vibrational dynamics of water at silica interfaces. Silica is an excellent model system for the solid phase where one can systematically vary the surface charge via bulk pH adjustment. The extension of the surface electric field, the interfacial thickness and surface accumulation of ions at a charged silica surface were studied using IR pump-VSFG probe spectroscopy. A vibrational lifetime (T1) of about 250 fs, similar to bulk H2O, was observed for the O-H stretch of H2O/silica interface when the silica surface is negatively charged. At the neutral surface, where the thickness of interfacial water is smaller than at the charged surface, the vibrational lifetime of O-H stretch becomes more than two times longer (T1~ 600 fs) due to the decreased number of neighboring water molecules, probed by SFG. The fast T1 at negatively charged surface begins to slow down by screening of the penetration of surface electric field via adding salt which suggests the primary reason for similar vibrational dynamics of water at charged interface with bulk water is the penetration of electric field. By decoupling of OH of HDO in D2O, a frequency dependent vibrational lifetime is observed with faster T1 at the red compared to the blue side of the hydrogen bond spectral region. This correlates with the redshift of the SFG spectra with increasing charged surface and is consistent with a theoretical model that relates the vibrational lifetime to the strength of the hydrogen bond network.
    • Ultrasound induced destruction of emerging contaminants

      Suri, Rominder P. S.; Biswas, Saroj K.; Van Aken, Benoit; Singh, Tony S.; Neretina, Svetlana (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      There are many reports indicating the presence of emerging contaminants such as: estrogen hormones, 1,4-dioxane and perfluoro-octanoic acids in the natural environment. Estrogen hormones are considered important emerging class of contaminants due to their endocrine disrupting effects. These compounds are invariably found in the environment originating mostly from natural sources. Trace concentrations of estrogen hormones (low µg/L concentrations) have been detected in municipal wastewater treatment plants and observed in receiving water bodies. 1,4-Dioxane (C4H8O2) is used as an organic solvent and solvent stabilizer numerous in chemical processes. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) has recognized 1,4-dioxane as a toxic chemical and a possible human carcinogen. 1,4-dioxane has been detected as a contaminant in the natural environment, drinking water supplies, superfund sites, public groundwater sources in the United States, Canada and Japan at concentrations greater than the permissible standards. Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) have been manufactured for use in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Due to their environmental persistence, PFOAs have been detected in surface waters at a number of locations at concentrations ranging from pg/L to ng/L. Elevated concentrations of PFOAs have been measured in surface and ground waters near specific point sources. Through this project, successful attempts have been made for the destruction of emerging contaminants using ultrasound. This study deals with the optimization of various process parameters for the destruction of estrogen hormones. The influence of process parameters such as power density, reactor geometry, power intensity, ultrasound amplitude, and external mixing was investigated. Artificial neural network (ANN) approach was used to describe the interactions between optimized parameters. The important findings obtained in the present work for the optimized estrogen degradation can help tackle the challenges of scale up such as operational optimization and energy consumption. The effect of process conditions such as pH and presence of oxidizing agents on the ultrasonic destruction of 1,4-dioxane and PFOA was studied. Acidic conditions favored the destruction of both the compounds. The presence of activated sulfate radicals enhanced the reaction rate kinetics. An innovative technology using electric potential and ultrasound for the removal organic contaminants was developed. The existence of organic contaminants in ionic form under certain process conditions has led to the development of this technology. Applying a low electric potential across the probe enhances the mass transfer of the contaminants into effective reaction zone, thereby enhancing the total destruction. A two-fold increase in the reaction rates was observed. This study shows ultrasound as an efficient and effective treatment technology for the destruction of emerging contaminants.
    • Ultraviolet Photooxidation and O2 Chemical Oxidation of Fe2+ -Smectites and Implications for Mars

      Chemtob, Steven M.; Grandstaff, David E.; Davatzes, Alexandra K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Clay minerals detected in ancient Martian terrains help constrain Mars’ climate and aqueous alteration history. Since Mars’ primordial origin, atmospheric redox conditions have evolved from reducing to oxidizing and clay minerals may record the effects of that transition. Ferrous trioctahedral smectites of varying iron content were synthesized and subjected to oxidation by O2 and by UV irradiation to address these as potential oxidizing agents. UV irradiation (112.77 hours with 450 W Hg lamp) of smectites equivalent to approximately four years of flux on the Martian surface caused incomplete oxidation (Fe3+/ΣFe = 16-18%). O2 experiments (two hour, twelve hour, two day, and five day) produced more oxidation in smectites with higher Fe content at the same exposure times. Photooxidation caused octahedral sheet contraction; however, chemical oxidation allowed more contraction to occur in the high Fe smectites. The mid and high Fe smectites had observable changes in their visible-near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the formation of a nontronite (Fe3+, Mg)2-OH feature at 2.3 µm, even with partial oxidation. With both oxidation experiments, the reflectance spectra lost its initial MMM-OH features (AlAl(Fe2+,Mg) and Fe2+MgMg-OH) and produced a single nontronite-like MM-OH feature. UV irradiation produced a secondary nontronite phase, possibly on the surface of the higher Fe content smectites; however there was no evidence for iron ejection. Ferrous smectites are capable of undergoing UV photooxidation under aqueous conditions and this process could have occurred during early Martian history. Distinguishing between UV and O2 oxidation in smectites cannot be completed exclusively with Martian spectra; however, the lack of secondary oxides may hint at alteration history based on the nature of mineral assemblages detected on Mars.
    • Uncovering Queer Domesticity: Intuition and Possibility as Methods of Intervention Into the Historic House Museum and Archive

      Lowe, Hilary Iris; Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Lee, Lisa Yun, 1969- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This thesis is an exploration of queer domesticity, queer possibility and intuitionin historic house museums. It develops a methodological framework intended to intervene in archival, research, interpretive and institutional practices at these sites. Using the Elfreth’s Alley Museum’s podcast The Alley Cast as a case study, I examine how utilizing a framework that understands queerness to be just as possible as straightness; that uses intuition to guide research; and queer and trans theory to denaturalize categories of sexuality and gender can uncover queer domestic patterns that unsettle and disrupt the public’s hetero- and cisnormative assumptions about the past. I argue that this is a framework that can be adopted by historic house museums in order to engage with queer history when evidence may be lacking or whose historical subjects’ gender or sexuality resists easy classification. Finally, I argue that implementing such a framework can only be done successfully if it is engaged as part of a larger institution-wide commitment to creating a socially just and responsive museum that understands the importance of sharing complicated and difficult history with its public and dismantling its own position of power and authority.
    • Uncovering the Role of the Hippocampus in the Transitive Inference Task Utilizing Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulations: Implications for Patients with Schizophrenia

      Gould, Thomas John, 1966-; Olson, Ingrid R.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Giovannetti, Tania; Marshall, Peter J.; Stull, Deborah (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Patients with schizophrenia show a number of cognitive deficits that may be related to abnormal hippocampal physiology and function. One such cognitive deficit is in transitive inference. Simply stated, transitive inference is the ability to infer A > C after directly learning A > B and B > C. The hippocampus has been implicated in transitive inference as lesions of the hippocampus in C57BL/6 mice after initial training and testing impairs transitive inference. Likewise, lesions of the hippocampus in rats prior to training also impair transitive inference. However, lesions of the whole hippocampus are not able to specifically examine the role of the dorsal versus ventral hippocampus in this task. This is important because studies suggest that the dorsal and ventral poles of the hippocampus may be functionally different. The present experiment used reversible inactivation of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to examine the role of these structures in transitive inference. Mice were trained to learn that A>B, B>C, C>D, and D>E during training phases and then were tested to show if they learned that A>E (the novel control pairing) and that B>D (the novel pairing which requires transitive inference) during test sessions. Following these test sessions, cannulae were inserted into the hippocampus and the mice were allowed 5 days to recover. After the recovery period, mice underwent 4 more test sessions. The GABAA agonist muscimol or saline was infused into the dorsal or ventral hippocampus thirty minutes before each test session. The mice which received muscimol infusion into the dorsal hippocampus performed similarly to controls on the novel control pairing (A>E) but were significantly impaired on the novel pairing (B>D) which required transitive inference. The DBA/2 strain of mice have altered hippocampal function and has been used to model schizophrenia. The study also compared performance of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mice in TI, and foreground and background fear conditioning, which both involve the hippocampus. Separate mice were then trained with two different fear conditioning paradigms. For background fear conditioning, mice are trained with two paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus (CS, 30 second, 85 dB white noise) and an unconditioned stimulus (US, 2 second, 0.57 mA foot shock). Mice are then tested the next day for both freezing to the training context. Foreground fear conditioning differed in that the mice were presented with only the shocks during training. DBA/2J mice performed significantly worse than the C57BL/6J in both foreground and background fear conditioning and transitive inference. These results provide further support for the role of the dorsal hippocampus in transitive inference. Moreover, these results may help provide a better understanding of the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.
    • UNCOVERING THE STRUCTURE OF THE MOUSE GAIT CONTROLLER USING MECHANICAL AND NEUROMUSCULAR PERTURBATION OF FREELY RUNNING MICE

      Spence, Andrew J.; Lemay, Michel A.; Smith, George M.; Hsieh, Tonia (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Locomotion is essential to survival in most animals. Studies have shown that animals, including humans, choose a gait that minimizes the risk of injury and maximizes energetic efficiency. Individuals often encounter obstacles and perturbations during normal locomotion, from which they must recover. Despite the importance of understanding the mechanisms that enable recovery from perturbations, ethical and experimental challenges have prevented full exploration of these in legged systems. A powerful paradigm with which to tackle this difficulty would be the application of external and internal manipulation of the nervous system. These perturbations could target how gait is regulated and how the neural systems process sensory information to control locomotion during an unexpected perturbation. Here we present data on the response of female mice to rapid, precisely timed, and spatially confined mechanical perturbations applied by a treadmill system. Our data elucidate that after the mechanical perturbation, the mouse gait response is anisotropic, preferring deviations away from the trot towards bounding, over those towards other gaits, such as walk or pace. We quantified this shift by projecting the observed gait onto the line between trot and bound, in the space of quadrupedal gaits. We call this projection λ. For λ=0, the gait is the ideal trot; for λ=±π, it is the ideal bound. We found that the substrate perturbation caused a significant shift in λ towards bound during the stride in which the perturbation occurred and the following stride (linear mixed effects model: Δλ=0.26±0.07 and Δλ=0.21±0.07, respectively; random effect for animal, p<0.05 for both strides, n = 8 mice). We hypothesize that this is because the bounding gait is better suited to rapid acceleration or deceleration, and an exploratory analysis of jerk showed that it was significantly correlated with λ (p<0.05). To evaluate whether the same structure of gait controller exists when undergoing an entirely different class of manipulation, we applied an internal, neuromuscular perturbation. We directly stimulated the lateral gastrocnemius muscle of mice using implanted electrodes and a custom magnetic headstage. We found that the electrical muscle stimulation caused a significant shift in λ towards bound in trials where the stimulation occurred during the swing phase (linear mixed effects model: Δλ=0.23±0.06 and Δλ=0.28±0.06; for the stride during and after the stimulation, respectively; random effect for animal, p<0.05 for both, n = 7 mice). Understanding how gait is controlled under perturbations can give insight into the neuromechanical basis of locomotion, aid in diagnosing gait pathologies, and aid the design of more agile robots.
    • Under Age: Redefining Legal Adulthood in 1970s America

      Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Simon, Bryant; Farber, David R.; Hart, Daniel (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Between the late 1960s and early 1980s, state and federal lawmakers made a number of unprecedented changes to the minimum age laws that define the legal boundaries between childhood and adulthood in the United States. By altering the voting age and the legal age of majority during the early 1970s, legislators effectively lowered the legal age of adulthood from twenty-one to eighteen, and launched a broader, more wide-ranging debate over other minimum age laws that would preoccupy legislators for much of the decade that followed. These reforms can be grouped into two distinct stages. Early 1970s reforms to the voting age and age of majority placed a great deal of faith in eighteen- to twenty-year-old Americans’ ability to make mature, responsible decisions for themselves, and marked a significant departure from the traditional practice of treating young people as legal adults at the age of twenty-one. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, a second set of reforms revoked much of the faith that legislators had placed in the nation’s young people, raising some key minimum age limits – such as the drinking age – and expanding adults’ ability to supervise and control teenaged youth. This dissertation analyzes political and public debates over the legal boundaries between childhood and adulthood during the 1970s, focusing in particular on reforms to the voting age, the age of majority, the drinking age, and the minimum age laws that regulate teenagers’ sexuality. It seeks to explain how and why American lawmakers chose to alter these minimum age laws during the 1970s, and how they decided which age should be the threshold for granting young people specific adult rights and responsibilities. The dissertation suggests that legislators often had difficulty accessing information and expertise that they could use to make well-informed, authoritative decisions on the subject of minimum age laws. Instead, they often based their choices on broader public images and perceptions of the nation’s young people, and on their subjective experiences of interacting with American youth. Throughout the 1970s, a wide range of lawmakers, activists, and interest groups – including many young people – sought to control the legal boundaries between childhood and adulthood, both by lobbying lawmakers directly and by trying to alter public images and perceptions of the nation’s youth. During the early 1970s, some young activists, liberal lawmakers, and interest groups met with considerable success in their attempts to grant young people greater adult rights and responsibilities at earlier ages, successfully framing eighteen- to twenty-year-old youth as mature, responsible young people who were quite capable of shouldering adult rights and duties. But these positive perceptions of young people were short-lived. By the mid-1970s, they were being supplanted by much more negative and unsettling images of young people who were thought to be exhibiting “adult” behaviors too soon, and were portrayed as being both in danger and a danger to American society. As a result, lawmakers became increasingly focused on protecting and controlling young people in their late teens and early twenties, and on drawing clear, firm boundaries between childhood and adulthood. These shifts demonstrate that images and perceptions of American youth played a key role in shaping 1970s reforms to the legal boundaries between childhood and adulthood. Rather than the product of a sober, careful evaluation of young Americans’ capacity to make responsible decisions for themselves, these reforms were often the product of adult Americans’ visceral, emotional responses to shifting public perceptions of the nation’s youth.
    • UNDER THE PARTY FAÇADE: MILOSLAV IŠTVAN AND THE INNOVATIONS OF THE BRNO SCHOOL IN THE CZECHOSLOVAK SOCIALIST REPUBLIC

      Abramovic, Charles; Lindorff, Joyce, 1950-; Folio, Cynthia; Zohn, Steven David, 1966- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The innovative compositions of Miloslav Ištvan (1928-1990) and his influential theoretical writings contributed to the creation of the modern composition school in Brno, capitol of Moravia in the present Czech Republic. Through the vehicle of his three piano sonatas (unpublished, but composed in 1954, 1959, and 1979), this monograph places Ištvan and his music against the political background of ideological repression in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. The unique blend of Moravian folk music and fierce pride in Czech culture are clearly evident throughout Ištvan’s compositional oeuvre and specifically in his piano music. In particular, his sheer creativity and courage to create his own voice under severe artistic deprivation combine to create a body of work that remains one of the most prominent influences in the present-day compositional scene in Brno. Each of the six chronological sections in this monograph employs a single year as a frame of reference. These years were selected both for their political significance and to represent an important event in Ištvan’s personal or musical life. In addition to the biographical details, political context and analysis of the piano sonatas, other significant compositions and contemporary writings are considered to trace the developmental thread of Moravian music. Ištvan’s search for artistic expression brings the lineage of his direct predecessor, Brno compositional giant Leoš Janáček, into the avant-garde New Music movement of the 1960s. Ištvan’s further work as a composition professor and writer of theoretical texts in the 1970s and 80s continues to influence the current generation of composers in the Czech Republic. This monograph calls attention to a composer and his rich body of work, created during politically turbulent times, that remains virtually unknown outside his country of origin.
    • Under which conditions does reading attitude most influence reading achievement?

      Booth, Julie L.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Farley, Frank; Ikpa, Vivian W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Reading is an essential skill for academic and workforce success; however, recent data-driven accountability initiatives have led to schools’ overreliance on reading achievement data for tracking and placement purposes. Such limited data do not give a comprehensive representation of the reader, and instructional decisions based on this narrow view can undermine students’ motivation and weaken achievement. Attitude has been associated with achievement, but using reading attitude data could be more useful if the relationship between reading attitude and reading achievement were better understood. This study sought to expand on the reading attitude-reading achievement relationship by exploring specific teacher and student gender related conditions. The study culminated in investigation of the strength of the relationship between reading attitude and reading achievement for girls and boys with gender matched and unmatched teachers. The findings revealed that reading attitude only predicted reading achievement for students with gender matched teachers. The strongest link was for boys taught by male teachers.
    • Undergraduate student retention in context: An examination of first-year risk prediction and advising practices within a college of education

      Byrnes, James P.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Fullard, William; Sachs, Michael L.; Schifter, Catherine (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This study examined the use of an institutionally-specific risk prediction model in the university's College of Education. Set in a large, urban, public university, the risk model predicted incoming students' first-semester GPAs, which, in turn, predicted the students' risk of attrition. Additionally, the study investigated advising practices within the College of Education via semi-structured interviews with the College's advising staff and a document analysis of students' advising notes in an attempt to find thematic links between undergraduate retention and usage of an advising center. Data were analyzed to determine the accuracy of the risk model in the College of Education. The results of this study are used to inform the College of Education's administration, faculty, and staff about the implications of risk prediction and to suggest potential treatments to increase retention rates. Furthermore, recommendations for future research are discussed for this study's institution and for the field of education.
    • Underground Banks: The Perspectives of Chinese Illegal Immigrants in Understanding the Role of Chinese Informal Fund Transfer Systems in the United States

      Goldkamp, John S.; Haller, Mark H., 1928-; Auerhahn, Kathleen, 1970- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      The financial link in the process of illegal immigration is a little researched domain in the literature. This research is the first exploratory study to examine the role of Chinese-operated informal fund transfer systems in the U.S. in the lives of Chinese illegal migrant workers and their families who remained in China. The primary source of data was in-depth interviews with thirty illegal immigrants in New York City and Philadelphia. The findings show that the emergence of underground banks in the U.S. coincided with the largest waves of Chinese illegal immigrants smuggled into the U.S. since the later 1980s. They served as a preferred means of fund transfer among Chinese illegals due to their unique service, not necessarily because of the clients' illegal status, or any coercive actions by human smuggling groups. Through inductive analysis based on the narrative data, this research is able to trace the trajectory of the evolution of Chinese underground banks over the past decades. The evidence seems to suggest an indirect role played by these illegal fund transfer systems in sustaining transnational illegal labor migration achieved through human smuggling. The research also suggests a declining importance of underground banks and a shift away from their use toward legitimate fund transfer channels among Chinese illegal immigrants since the mid-1990s and a seemingly new role of formal institutions in filling in the vacancy left by underground banks. Finally, the findings suggest that underground banks may have been forced to and have adapted to a narrower and more illicit use.
    • UNDERSTANDING AND MODELING THE SORPTION ON ANION EXCHANGE RESINS USING POLY-PARAMETER LINEAR FREE-ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS AND PHASE CONVERSION

      Zhang, Huichun; Suri, Rominder P. S.; Van Aken, Benoit (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Priority organic and emerging contaminants are a growing concern for drinking water treatment due to their increasing presence in the environment. This study developed a predictive model for the sorption of anionic organic contaminants from drinking water on three anion exchange resins: a strong polystyrenic (IRA-910), weak polystyrenic (IRA-96), and a strong polacrylic (A860). The model quantifies the individual mechanisms of sorption using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs) and the feasibility of phase conversion (e.g., an ideal gas phase as the reference state) for ionic species was examined. To develop the model, a training set of isotherms was obtained using aliphatic and aromatic carboxylates, phenols, anilines, nitrobenzene, and ibuprofen. These compounds were chosen as model organic contaminants in the environment. The training set and 1-3 test compounds (3-methyl-2-nitrobenzoate, phenol, and 4-nitroaniline) were accurately predicted using the created model for each resin. An understanding of the effects of resin structure on sorption interactions was also developed that focused on ionic functional groups, resin matrix, and hydrophilicity (i.e. water content). It was shown that greater sorption efficiency was achieved when electrostatic (ion exchange) and nonelectrostatic (adsorption) interactions were present together to create a synergistic addition. However, sorption on ion exchangers was poor if the pH of the system approached levels lower than the sorbate pKa. Additionally, weak base exchanges lose exchange capacity as pH levels approach resin pKa (IRA-96 pKa = 6.0). Additional contributions to the sorption mechanisms were observed by studying various electron donating/withdrawing functional groups on the contaminants. It was concluded that π-π and H-bonding interactions contributed a greater amount to the nonelectrostatic mechanisms than cavity formation forces and nonspecific forces. A comparison between the three resins showed that IRA-96 (weak base polystyrenic) had a greater removal capacity than IRA-910 (strong base polystyrenic), followed far behind by A860 (strong base polyacrylate). This is due to differences between the resins, such as the hydrophilicity, the density of the ion exchange group, and the presence of aromatic rings within the matrix structure. Although the modeling method accurately predicted the phase change from aqueous to sorbent phases, it was shown that the SPARC calculated aqueous-gas ion transfer energies were poor estimations of the transfer energy to the ideal gas phase and further study is necessary to accurately determine this value. This modeling methodology is believed to be applicable to emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals in water systems and helps further new water treatment technologies while developing a mechanistic understanding of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in general. This can be applied to additional separation processes such as chemical purification and chromatographic separation.
    • Understanding Black Undergraduate Females' Sense of Belonging at a Predominantly White Institution

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Schifter, Catherine; Witham, Keith; Brooks, Wanda M., 1969- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      As college and university continue to recruit and enroll more diverse student populations and maintain institutional priorities of diversity and inclusion, it is imperative we understand the distinct experiences of our minority populations. This research will specifically focus on the experiences of Black undergraduate females. To ensure the success of our Black females students, it is imperative we understand their need for a sense of belonging on a predominantly White campus in order to achieve higher-level opportunities of classroom and campus success. Sense of belonging is defined as the ability to connect, feel validated, accepted, and matter. This understanding is key to Black undergraduate females’ ability to successfully integrate academically and socially in their college environment. Existing research provides insight into the Black male experience, not limited to the challenges Black males face, as well as variables needed to enable Black males’ educational success. However, there is a general lack of awareness and attention to the nuanced experiences of our Black female students on predominantly White campuses. What challenges do Black females face and what factors can enable their educational success? This missed opportunity of understanding of their experiences limits faculty, staff, and administrators from creating an environment where Black females can succeed both inside and outside the classroom. This research gives voice to the experiences of this seemingly silent minority and challenges campus environments to address their operating norm of campus rituals and culture. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine the experiences of nine Black undergraduate females at one predominantly White urban institution located in the North East. Through the use semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to understand in what ways Black female students’ understanding of self, relationship development, and engagement with their campus environment aids in the creation of their sense of belonging to their institution. Findings from this study demonstrate key components of belonging are rooted in understanding of self, and self in relation to others; the impact of participating in institutional programs; and the ability to navigate rules of engagement, both in the classroom and social environments. Participants demonstrate varying levels of belonging but provide key insight for higher education administrators to reflect upon their institutional programs, services, and opportunities to provide intentional space and place of support and ultimately find a place where they matter; their place of belonging.
    • Understanding Bulimia Nervosa from a neuropsychological perspective: Impulsivity and binge-purge behavior in adolescent and young adult women

      Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Fullard, William (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      According to the biopsychosocial model of bulimia, neurobiological mechanisms called endophenotypes cause eating disordered behavior. Impulsivity has been identified as a possible endophenotype for bulimia nervosa, and individuals with bulimia who present with multiple forms of impulsive behavior are known to have worse prognoses. Executive dysfunction in impulse control purportedly manifests as behavioral under-regulation in binge-purge episodes. Neuropsychological assessments were used to analyze the relationship between impulsivity and symptoms of bulimia. Twenty-eight inpatient adolescent and young adult women with bulimia completed the D-KEFS Color Word Task, which is a version of the Stroop that contains four trials including the classic Stroop and a switching Stroop, as well as the age appropriate versions of the BRIEF rating scale and a Type-T Survey of thrill-seeking. Performance on these measures was correlated with measures of bulimia symptoms, including the EDI-3, EDE-Q, and variables of illness severity. Delay of gratification was assessed by offering subjects a choice of compensation that was either immediate and smaller or delayed and larger. Mixed results were found. The sample did not differ from the D-KEFS normative sample on total number of errors or on speed of task completion for the switching Stroop, and the sample demonstrated faster performance than the normative sample on the classic Stroop. However, a tendency to favor speed over accuracy of performance was identified. On the BRIEF rating scales, the sample self-reported significantly higher rates of executive dysfunction compared to the normative data. Additionally, some variables of impulsivity, including greater frequency of errors on cognitive tasks and self-reported deficits of executive functioning, were significantly correlated with variables of bulimia symptom severity, including self-reported bulimia symptomatology on the EDI-3 and frequency of bingeing and purgeing. Risk-taking was also found to be correlated with symptoms of bulimia. Differences were found between subjects who chose the immediate prize versus those who chose the delayed prize, including differences in cognitive task performance and symptom severity. Differences were also found for subjects with a comorbid disorder of impulse control, including bipolar disorders and substance abuse. In conclusion, a unilateral deficit of impulse control was not found to be characteristic of this sample; however, a multi-impulsive cohort was identified as having deficits of cognitive impulse control.
    • Understanding Educational Choice Processes of Retired Professional Hockey Players

      Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Kaplan, Avi; Davis, James Earl, 1960- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the processes and influences that underlie the choice of retired elite athletes to further their education and assume the adult learner role. In the current study, focus was applied specifically to professional ice hockey players who were in a period of retirement from active play. Elite athletes often retire at a time when most other professions are just beginning or reaching a level of stability. Research suggests that many retired elite athletes experience a difficult transition to an early retirement from athletics that is fraught with depression and unemployment. A select number of these elite athletes choose to further their educations after their careers have expired. The literature suggests that some of these retired elite athletes find educational programming a valuable coping strategy in the often traumatic post-athletic career adjustment. Unfortunately, this choice is made by only few athletes. It would be desirable to encourage more retired athletes to consider and engage in educational activities; however, currently, there is only very little knowledge on the processes underlying athletes' choice to participate, or not to participate, in education in their retirement years. Using a theoretical framework that includes adult learning theory and adult development theory, in conjunction with expectancy-value theory of motivation, the impact of individual characteristics and environmental opportunities on post-athletic career choices made by professional athletes may be better understood. The primary instrument for data collection was a personal interview with ten retired professional hockey players, conducted over a consecutive six-month period resulting in significant data. Utilizing the constant-comparative method for data analysis, common themes were identified as indicators of educational engagement: Informal Mentorship, Head Injury Related Retirement, and Pre-Transition Planning. In addition to these themes, the findings reflected an alternative adult developmental model possibly unique to professional hockey players. The findings of this study are valuable to the larger conversation regarding adult learners, adult development, and elite athlete career transition.
    • UNDERSTANDING FACTORS AFFECTING ADHERENCE IN A TELEPHONE-BASED INTERVENTION TO REDUCE SECONDHAND SMOKE EXPOSURE TO CHILDREN: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

      Coffman, Donna L.; Collins, Bradley N.; Lepore, Stephen J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Background/Purpose: The Kids Safe and Smokefree (KiSS) trial aimed to reduce secondhand smoke exposure to children. The study used a multifaceted approach that included a pediatric clinic-level intervention, individual behavioral counseling and community services for nicotine dependence. This secondary analysis focuses on the individual behavioral counseling portion of the intervention. The purpose of this cross-sectional, secondary analysis is to investigate the factors that affect adherence in a telephone-based intervention to reduce secondhand smoke exposure to children among a low-income population of women. Methods: Of those enrolled in the KiSS study, 163 cases assigned to the intervention group were used in these secondary analyses. After reviewing the literature, 15 variables of interest were identified as potentially having an association with adherence. A Lasso regression was used to select out variables that were insignificant or “unimportant” to predicting the outcome variable, total missed phone sessions. These variables were then used in a Poisson regression to determine if there was any significant correlation with the outcome. Results: Of the 15 variables in the Lasso regression, six variables were found to potentially have an association with total missed phone sessions. These six variables include: education level, total household occupants, total household smokers, life stress score, program support score and smoking self-efficacy score. The Poisson regression determined that three of these variables did have a significant correlation with missed phone sessions. Lower education level, greater program support and smoking cessation self-efficacy related to greater number of missed phone sessions. Conclusion: Those with higher education may complete more phone sessions because they may be more familiar with the importance of not exposing their children to secondhand smoke. Greater reported program support may be related to more missed phone sessions because the participant may feel that they received the support they needed from one or two of the phone sessions and no longer needed to participate. Another reason for this relationship could be that because the participant felt so supported by the phone session counselor, if they had exposed their child to secondhand smoke, their motivation to please would hinder their adherence. Another analysis would be needed in order to confirm this hypothesis. Lastly, the participants confidence in refraining from smoking may have lead them to miss more phone sessions because they felt that they already had the tools to refrain from exposing their children to secondhand smoke exposure. This analysis confirms that there are many barriers involved in good adherence and that adherence is influenced by many factors. There is a lack of conclusive data about what affects adherence. If research could identify what improves or stunts adherence behaviors, the effectiveness of any treatment could be maximized.
    • Understanding Incarcerated Women's Motivation to Exercise

      Sachs, Michael L.; Jordan, Jeremy S.; Butcher-Poffley, Lois A.; Patterson, Freda (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Women make up only 7% of the incarcerated population (Guerino, Harrison, & Sabol, 2012). However, this number is rising exponentially. The female prison population has increased eight-fold since 1980 (Carson & Gionelli, 2013). Up to 70% of women who are incarcerated will recidivate (Mallik-Kane & Vischer, 2008). A major contributor to this rapid increase and high rate of recidivism is that women's physical and mental health needs are not met while they are incarcerated. Creating gender sensitive programming that addresses women's physical and mental health needs while they are incarcerated and that can influence their lives after they leave could help decrease recidivism and increase the quality of life of thousands (Bloom, Owen, & Covington, 2003). While structured exercise programs are being offered with more frequency in women's prisons to help address these mental and physical health problems, attendance has been low and program staff struggle to retain participants. This research examined women's motivation to exercise, what they felt were benefits of engaging in physical activity, and what they perceived the barriers to physical activity are while incarcerated. The study was conducted in conjunction with an indoor cycling class being offered at the Philadelphia County Women's prison. Twenty-four women enrolled in the study and completed pre-program interviews and pencil and paper measures. Twelve women completed a follow up test; six graduated from the cycling program; six dropped out. Results show that women who build connections (relatedness) with instructors and peers are more likely to adhere to a structured exercise program, and that the basic psychological needs laid out by Self-Determination Theory are related to adherence. Additionally, women can internalize a range of reasons for and benefits of exercise that can help them overcome a range of institutional, individual, and environment barriers evident in a correctional setting.
    • Understanding Infant Feeding Choices among Hmong-American Women in Saint Paul, MN

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Kontopoulos, Kyriakos M.; Swartz, Teresa Toguchi; White, Sydney Davant (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      To understand infant-feeding patterns among Hmong women in St. Paul, MN, this qualitative study used a convenience sample of 21 Hmong mothers who had at least 1 child under the age of 2. Drawing on interviews and questionnaires, this researcher explored (a) how participants described their traditional and American cultural traditions, beliefs, and values, (b) their infant-feeding practices, and (c) how their infant-feeding practices are shaped by adaptations to traditional and American cultures. In this sample, those women who had recently immigrated to the United States were more likely to exclusively use formula. Interviews suggest that American norms of breastfeeding in public, hectic lifestyles in a new country, and lack of cultural knowledge about pumping and storing breast milk influenced 1st- and 1.5-generation participants to exclusively use formula. For 2nd-generation participants, the awkwardness of breastfeeding in public was also cited as an important influence on their decision to use formula. However, quite different from 1st- and 1.5-generation women, 2nd-generation women were more educated and more likely to be employed in less segregated and professional occupations, which exposed them to mothers of different backgrounds who were breastfeeding. This exposure to breastfeeding mothers appeared to influence breastfeeding initiation among 2nd-generation Hmong. This study also found that negative social support from participants' mothers and mothers-in-law, and positive social support from sisters and sisters-in-law had a strong impact on their infant-feeding decisions. Unlike previous research among Hispanic immigrants, this study revealed that 2nd-generation Hmong immigrants were slightly more likely to include some form of breastfeeding in their infant-feeding method. This study also revealed the importance of social support and the role of the ethnic community in infant-feeding choices. More research is needed, however, to further clarify the relationship between acculturation and social support on breastfeeding initiation and duration among various immigrant populations.