• TACTILE AND MULTISPECTRAL BIMODAL IMAGING FOR BREAST CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

      Won, Chang-Hee, 1967-; Picone, Joseph; Obeid, Iyad, 1975-; Pleshko, Nancy; Du, Xiaojiang (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      American Cancer Society estimates that in 2021 nearly 300,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and about 43,600 women will die from breast cancer. While many have access to health care and cancer screening, women from rural or underdeveloped communities often have limited access. Therefore, there is a need for an inexpensive and easy-to-use breast cancer identification device, which can be employed in small clinics to provide support to primary care physicians. This work aims to develop a method to characterize breast tumors and tissue using non-invasive imaging modalities. The proposed bimodal imaging system has tactile and multispectral imaging capabilities. Tactile imaging modality characterizes tumors by esti-mating their depth, size, and stiffness, along with the Tactile Index. Multispectral imaging modality identifies breast asymmetry, texture, and inflammation changes, together with the Spectral Index. These indices are combined with the BCRAT Index, the risk score devel¬oped by the National Institute of Health, to form the Multimodal Index for personalized breast cancer risk assessment. In this study, we will describe the development of the bimodal imaging system. We will present the algorithms for tactile and multispectral modalities. Tactile and Multispec¬tral Profile Diagrams are developed to capture broad imaging signals in a compact and application-specific way. A Tactile Profile Diagram is a pictorial representation of the rel¬ative depth, size, and stiffness of the imaged tumor. A Multispectral Profile Diagram is a representative pattern image for breast tissue superficial optical properties. To classify the profile diagrams, we employ the Convolutional Neural Network deep learning method. We will describe the results of the experiments conducted using tissue-mimicking phan¬toms and human in-vivo experiments. The results demonstrate the ability of the method to classify and quantify tumor and tissue characteristics. Finally, we describe the method to calculate Multimodal Index for the malignancy risk assessment via tactile and multispectral imaging modalities and the risk probability based on the health records.
    • Tactile sensation imaging system and algorithms for tumor detection

      Won, Chang-Hee, 1967-; Picone, Joseph; Biswas, Saroj K.; Darvish, Kurosh; Lin, Shan (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Diagnosing early formation of tumors or lumps, particularly those caused by cancer, has been a challenging problem. To help physicians detect tumors more efficiently, various imaging techniques with different imaging modalities such as computer tomography, ultrasonic imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and mammography, have been developed. However, each of these techniques has limitations, including exposure to radiation, excessive costs, and complexity of machinery. Tissue elasticity is an important indicator of tissue health, with increased stiffness pointing to an increased risk of cancer. In addition to increased tissue elasticity, geometric parameters such as size of a tissue inclusion are also important factors in assessing the tumor. The combined knowledge of tissue elasticity and its geometry would aid in tumor identification. In this research, we present a tactile sensation imaging system (TSIS) and algorithms which can be used for practical medical diagnostic experiments for measuring stiffness and geometry of tissue inclusion. The TSIS incorporates an optical waveguide sensing probe unit, a light source unit, a camera unit, and a computer unit. The optical method of total internal reflection phenomenon in an optical waveguide is adapted for the tactile sensation imaging principle. The light sources are attached along the edges of the waveguide and illuminates at a critical angle to totally reflect the light within the waveguide. Once the waveguide is deformed due to the stiff object, it causes the trapped light to change the critical angle and diffuse outside the waveguide. The scattered light is captured by a camera. To estimate various target parameters, we develop the tactile data processing algorithm for the target elasticity measurement via direct contact. This algorithm is accomplished by adopting a new non-rigid point matching algorithm called "topology preserving relaxation labeling (TPRL)." Using this algorithm, a series of tactile data is registered and strain information is calculated. The stress information is measured through the summation of pixel values of the tactile data. The stress and strain measurements are used to estimate the elasticity of the touched object. This method is validated by commercial soft polymer samples with a known Young's modulus. The experimental results show that using the TSIS and its algorithm, the elasticity of the touched object is estimated within 5.38% relative estimation error. We also develop a tissue inclusion parameter estimation method via indirect contact for the characterization of tissue inclusion. This method includes developing a forward algorithm and an inversion algorithm. The finite element modeling (FEM) based forward algorithm is designed to comprehensively predict the tactile data based on the parameters of an inclusion in the soft tissue. This algorithm is then used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) based inversion algorithm for extracting various characteristics of tissue inclusions, such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. The estimation method is then validated by using realistic tissue phantoms with stiff inclusions. The experimental results show that the minimum relative estimation errors for the tissue inclusion size, depth, and hardness are 0.75%, 6.25%, and 17.03%, respectively. The work presented in this dissertation is the initial step towards early detection of malignant breast tumors.
    • TAILORING DRUG-CARRIER INTERACTIONS IN POLY(SIALIC ACID) MICELLES FOR USE AS CANCER THERAPEUTIC CARRIERS

      Lelkes, Peter I.; Comolli, Noelle K.; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Har-el, Yah-el; Huang, Zuyi (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Although great progress has been made, cancer still remains one of the most prevalent maladies plaguing mankind. New treatment methodologies using nanoparticles have come to the forefront by allowing for enhanced delivery of therapeutics to the tumor site. The design of the nanoparticle should allow for long circulation times, tumor-specific targeting and efficient release at the site of action. This requires that both the external shell and internal core of the nanoparticle be carefully selected to meet the maximal criteria of each of these steps. Poly(sialic acid) (PSA), a naturally occurring polysaccharide, meets all of the benchmarks of an effective exterior coating yet remains relatively unexplored in the field of drug delivery. Due to stealth properties, natural tumor targeting ability, and inherent pH-responsive elements, PSA has frequently been viewed as a “next-generation” surface coating. Just as important, the internal composition of the carrier should aid in effective drug loading but also rapid release. The selection of the core containing groups as well as therapeutic should be maximized in order to customize the carrier to drug. Here, we have developed PSA micelles composed of various internal groups selected to maximize drug loading and facilitate release. Loading of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin was optimized through variations in non-covalent bonding forces between drug and carrier. Furthermore, PSA micelles composed of internal pH-responsive groups of varying hydrophobicity were also developed to tailor micelle swelling points at conditions analogous towards those found upon cellular uptake. Both of these were effective delivery platforms towards MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells.
    • Taking Care of Heroes: A Cultural Study of Health Policy Formation

      Lazarus-Black, Mindie; Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada Ma. (Inmaculada Maria); Jhala, Jayasinhji; Wray, Matt, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation examines the formation of health policy as a cultural process in a large federal bureaucracy in the United States, namely the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The everyday experience of bureaucrats working in the VA is used to answer the question: why does the VA fail to meet veterans’ needs in the face of a sacred trust, available political will, and robust resources? To answer the question, this project employs ethnographic methods that draw on participant observation at the headquarters office of the VA in Washington DC, archival research, and interviews with current and former VA employees during the Obama administration. I argue that care of veterans during post-war periods are critical moments of intervention that not only improved the population health of veterans but also impacted the ways in which America conceives and responds to health challenges. I also argue that when the VA operates at its best, it is often the leading edge of health reform, setting new standards for care and effectively establishing alternative models of care. Finally, my findings show that institutional factors play an important role in the process of health policy formation in ways that contribute to new understanding about causal conceptions of health. I conclude with a framework that draws on the lessons the VA affords, for health reform and advancing just health for all.
    • Tales of the Gayborhood: Mediating Philadelphia's Gay Urban Spaces

      Darling-Wolf, Fabienne; Kitch, Carolyn L.; Campbell, John Edward; Lowe, Hilary Iris (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Philadelphia, like other major North American cities, has neighborhoods that are informally known as gay neighborhoods. This project examines how Philadelphia's Gayborhood is mediated, and how representations and markings of the Gayborhood are shaped by different discourses, namely tourism and urban development. Marking Philadelphia's Gayborhood justifies the presence of LGBT individuals in the city by linking LGBT lives to economic activity and "positive" urban change. This dissertation reads media texts about Philadelphia's Gayborhood against participant observations of everyday life and events in the Gayborhood, with particular emphasis on the activities of the Philadelphia Gay Tourism Caucus (PGTC). Starting in 2002, the PGTC formed and produced specific tourism materials targeting the LGBT community, including print and television advertising campaigns, the rainbow street signs, and a dedicated map of the Gayborhood. These products highlight the Gayborhood as evidence of Philadelphia's gay-friendliness. Philadelphia's attractiveness for LGBT travelers is rooted in the visible presence of the city's LGBT community; Philadelphia's established LGBT everyday life allows LGBT travelers to come and already belong in the city. To support this message, the PGTC and the Greater Philadelphia Tourism Marketing Corporation market the city to both visitors and locals. New media platforms, namely social media, help promote events, both supporting local organizations, as well as creating visible LGBT everyday life to attract visitors. The meanings of the Gayborhood are then explored through its physical markings and LGBT events that emphasize its location. First, Philadelphia's Gayborhood is placed in the context of visibly and symbolically marking a "gay" city. While visual markers may provide indication of LGBT presence, certain symbols become stereotypical and caricatured, limiting the possible meanings of being LGBT-identified in public. Events such as the Pride Parade also serve to define the boundaries of belonging in the LGBT community. A central tension is the distinction between belonging and access, which are often conflated by an emphasis on legal, anti-discrimination discourses. LGBT history is also a central theme of Philadelphia's LGBT tourism promotion. By examining LGBT history walking tours, this project argues that not only do historical projects highlight stories that might otherwise be unseen, they also produce visibility of absences in contemporary discourse. The Gayborhood also functions as an archive exhibit, ultimately supporting a liberal project of belonging through economic and political activities. Parts of the archive are currently present, but access to the LGBT archive requires further inquiry or participation. By considering the Gayborhood as an exhibit of the LGBT archive, we also can consider aspects of the archive as restricted from the public, or still impossible to articulate intelligibly to the public. This project ends with a reconsideration of what it means to articulate and communicate ideas about LGBT identity in space. Current representations and understandings of the Gayborhood still serve a homonormative and homonationalist project that privileges the activities and everyday lives of wealthy, white, gay men. Returning to thinking about gay men's cruising and public sex, this project closes with an examination of how mobile communication technologies and methods allow for public sex to occur in new ways. Marked LGBT neighborhood spaces still have the potential to change how we understand the relationship between sexual lives and public space.
    • Targeting Calcium-Calmodulin Binding to GRK5 in Cardiac Hypertrophy

      Koch, Walter J; Tilley, Douglas G.; Elrod, John W.; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Schumacher-Bass, Sarah M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Rationale: The pathogenesis and progression of pressure-overload heart failure (HF) encompasses aberrations in gene regulation, leading to maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular remodeling, and contractile dysfunction. The trigger for maladaptation and HF is signaling through the G protein, Gq, and one downstream effector for this pathway is activation of non-canonical activity of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5). This kinase, following hypertrophic stimuli, can translocate and accumulate in the nucleus of cardiomyocytes. The nuclear targeting of GRK5 is mediated by an amino-terminal (NT) domain that can bind calmodulin (CaM), which is required before its nuclear translocation. Objective: This study attempted to thwart GRK5-mediated pathology in pressure-overload maladaptation and HF by cardiomyocyte expression of a peptide encoding the NT of GRK5 (GRK5nt) that includes this CaM binding domain. Methods and Results: In vitro studies in myocytes showed that Gq-coupled receptor mediated hypertrophy was abrogated with GRK5nt expression and this included attenuation of pathological gene expression and NFAT activity. We confirmed that the GRK5nt binds to Ca2+-CaM, prevents its association with endogenous GRK5, and prevents its nuclear translocation. We generated cardiac-specific GRK5nt transgenic mice and showed in vivo that expression of this peptide prevents hypertrophic nuclear translocation of GRK5 and these mice exhibit significantly less cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, and cardiac fibrosis following chronic transverse aortic constriction. Conclusions: Together our data support a role for GRK5nt as an inhibitor of pathological nuclear GRK5 signaling for HF prevention.
    • Targeting CDK9 Reactivates Epigenetically Silenced Genes in Cancer

      Issa, Jean-Pierre; Sapienza, Carmen; Graña-Amat, Xavier; Jacobson, Marlene A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 9 (CDK9) as part of the PTEFb complex promotes transcriptional elongation by promoting RNAPII pause release. We now report that, paradoxically, CDK9 is also essential for maintaining gene silencing at heterochromatic loci. Through a live cell screen, we discovered that CDK9 inhibition reactivates epigenetically silenced genes in cancer, leading to restored tumor suppressor gene expression and cell differentiation, along with activation of endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genes. CDK9 inhibition results in dephorphorylation of the SWI/SNF protein SMARCA4 and represses HP1α expression, both of which contribute to gene reactivation. Based on gene activation, we developed the highly selective and potent CDK9 inhibitor MC180295 (IC50 =5nM) that has broad anti-cancer activity in-vitro and is effective in in-vivo cancer models. Additionally, CDK9 inhibition sensitizes with the immune checkpoint inhibitor α-PD-1 in vivo, making it an excellent target for epigenetic therapy of cancer.
    • TARGETING CFMS SIGNALING TO RESTORE IMMUNE FUNCTION AND ERADICATE HIV RESERVOIRS

      Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay; Langford, Dianne; Kolson, Dennis L.; Wigdahl, Brian (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      While combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has improved the length and quality of life of individuals living with HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has increased and remains a significant clinical concern. The neuropathogenesis of HAND is not completely understood, however, latent HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS) and chronic neuroinflammation are believed to play a prominent role. CNS-associated macrophages and resident microglia are significant contributors to CNS inflammation and constitute the chief reservoir of HIV-1 infection in the CNS. Previous studies from our lab suggest monocyte/macrophage invasion of the CNS in HIV may be driven by altered monocyte/macrophage homeostasis. We have reported expansion of a monocyte subset (CD14+CD16+CD163+) in peripheral blood of HIV+ patients that is phenotypically similar to macrophages/microglia that accumulate in the CNS as seen in post-mortem tissue. The factors driving the expansion of this monocyte subset are unknown, however, signaling through cFMS, a type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), may play a role. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a ligand of cFMS, has been shown to be elevated in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with the most severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia (HAD). M-CSF promotes a Macrophage-2-like phenotype and increases CD16 and CD163 expression in cultured monocytes. M-CSF has also been shown to increase the susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection and enhance virus production. These findings, in addition to the known function of M-CSF in promoting macrophage survival, supports a role for M-CSF in the development and maintenance of macrophage viral reservoirs in tissues where these cells accumulate, including the CNS. Interestingly, a second ligand for cFMS, IL-34, was recently identified and reported to share some functions with M-CSF, suggesting that both ligands may contribute to HIV-associated CNS injury and AIDS pathogenesis. Through immunohistochemical studies using a relevant animal model of HIV infection, SIV infected rhesus macaques, we reported the presence of M-CSF and IL-34 in the brains of seronegative and SIV+ animals, for the first time, and identified spatial differences in the expression of these ligands. Important to our interest in viral persistence in the CNS, we observed the predominance of M-CSF expression in brain to be by cells that comprise perivascular cuffs and nodular lesions, which contain monocytes/ macrophages that have migrated into the CNS. IL-34 appeared to be a tissue-specific ligand expressed by resident microglia. Like M-CSF, we found that IL-34 also increased the frequency of CD16+CD163+ monocytes in vitro. We further investigated the potential of cFMS inhibition as a means to abrogate macrophage-2-like immune polarization using the small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), GW2580. The addition of GW2580 abolished cFMS ligand-mediated increases in CD16+CD163+ monocyte frequency in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as virus production in HIV infected primary human microglia. Furthermore, we found cFMS-mediated upregulation of CD16 and CD163 to be relevant to an additional disease process, high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that M-CSF and IL-34 may be mediators of other neuroinflammatory diseases, as well. We hope these findings will provide insight into the role of altered monocyte/macrophage homeostasis in HIV disease and identify a novel strategy for targeting long-lived cellular reservoirs of HIV infection through restored immune homeostasis.
    • Targeting Parental Accommodation in the Treatment of Youth with Anxiety: A Comparison of Two Cognitive Behavioral Treatments

      Kendall, Philip C.; Olino, Thomas; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gosch, Elizabeth A.; Giovannetti, Tania; McCloskey, Michael S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Parental accommodation refers to the ways in which a parent modifies his/her behavior to avoid or reduce the distress their child experiences. Parental accommodation of youth anxiety is common, and reduction in accommodation is associated with reduced anxiety after treatment. The current study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy program (CBT) designed to address parental accommodation (Accommodation Reduction Intervention; ARI). Sixty children and adolescents (age 7-17) and their parents were evaluated for youth anxiety and parental accommodation before and after 16 weeks of treatment. Thirty youth received ARI and 30 received Coping Cat (CC). Both youth anxiety and parental accommodation were significantly reduced from pre to posttreatment in youth who received ARI as well as those who received CC. No significant difference was found between the two treatment conditions on any measure of anxiety or accommodation. Findings indicate that an adapted CBT that focuses on parent accommodation (ARI) produced favorable outcomes comparable to Coping Cat. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
    • Targeting Parental Overcontrol in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Youth

      Kendall, Philip C.; Drabick, Deborah A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Heimberg, Richard G.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Gosch, Elizabeth A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Many parent factors have been associated with child anxiety, and researchers have examined how parents may be most beneficially involved in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxious youth. Results have been mixed as to whether parent CBT, family CBT, and parent interventions addressing parental anxiety or overcontrol have an added benefit over youth-focused CBT. The present study compared (a) a parent group intervention targeting autonomy granting, (b) a parent CBT skills group, and (c) a parent support control group, all provided in conjunction with individual CBT for anxious youth ages 7 to 17. Randomly assigned group conditions, as well as variance in overall parent attendance across conditions, were examined as predictors of change in parenting behaviors and in child anxiety. No significant differences in youth anxiety outcomes were found across parent group conditions, and parental beliefs and involvement improved most for the support control group. However, youth whose parents attended more group sessions showed a significantly greater decrease in anxiety severity than youth whose parents attended fewer (0, 1) sessions, which was mediated by a significantly greater decrease in parental avoidance of child anxiety. The results suggest that additional parent participation in treatment may have an added benefit, even with an unstructured support group format, but do not offer clarity about the benefit of targeted interventions for parents.
    • Tasker H. Bliss and the Creation of the Modern American Army, 1853-1930

      Immerman, Richard H.; Urwin, Gregory J. W., 1955-; Lockenour, Jay, 1966-; Crofts, Daniel W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      A commonplace observation among historians describes one or another historical period as a time of "transition" or a particular person as a "transitional figure." In the history of the United States Army, scholars apply those terms especially to the late- nineteenth century "Old Army." This categorization has helped create a shelf of biographies of some of the transitional figures of the era: Leonard Wood, John J. Pershing, Robert Lee Bullard, William Harding Carter, Henry Tureman Allen, Nelson Appleton Miles and John McCallister Schofield have all been the subject of excellent scholarly works. Tasker Howard Bliss has remained among the missing in that group, in spite of the important activities that marked his career and the wealth of source materials he left behind. Bliss belongs on that list because, like the others, his career demonstrates the changing nature of the U.S. Army between 1871 and 1917. Bliss served for the most part in administrative positions in the United States and in the American overseas empire. Seeing hardly any combat and spending only a few years commanding troops, Bliss contributed instead to the creation and development of the army's post-graduate educational system, and he was deeply involved in the Elihu Root reforms of the army and the War Department. Thus what makes his career especially noteworthy, more than many of the soldiers on that list of biographies, is that Bliss helped to create the changes that laid the foundations for the modern army. During the First World War, Bliss worked more closely with the Allied leadership than any other American with the possible exception of Edward M. House. President Woodrow Wilson named Bliss as one of the five commissioners leading the U.S. delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference in 1919. In this position he influenced many members of the American delegation who would remain leaders in the foreign policy elite into the 1940s, and he helped to create the Council on Foreign Relations, an important organization for the foreign policy elite. For Frederick Palmer, the author of the family-authorized biography, the Great War and the Peace Conference were the climax of Bliss's career. A substantial modern scholarly literature exists on Bliss's service in the Great War and the Peace Conference, but none of those works present his earlier career in any detail. As a result, when planning this dissertation with the late Professor Russell F. Weigley, we decided to concentrate on Bliss's activities before 1917. Bliss helped shape the institutions the United States needed as it became a world power, and he trained some of the leaders who would exercise that power. He left a legacy of thoughtful consideration of the organizational, political and moral issues that the exercise of power posed for the United States. It was a life that still teaches us how to face the issues involved in the exercise of world power.
    • TATAR FOLK MUSIC AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE FIRST NATIONAL BALLET

      Abramovic, Charles; Schmieder, Eduard, 1948-; De Varon, Alexander, 1961-; Weightman, Lindsay (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      The purpose of this monograph is to introduce Tatar national music to the Western world by focusing on the influence of Tatar folklore on the first national ballet, quite possibly the most beloved and popular musical work of Tatars to this day. The monograph will include a brief discussion of the history of Tatars, as well as historical background of Tatar folk music and its importance to the development of concert music in Tatarstan. An analysis of characteristic elements of the folk music of Tatars and their influences on the music of the first Tatar national ballet will also be discussed. In my study, I rely on available sources, including books, articles, reviews, dissertations, recordings, and musical scores. I hope my monograph will help to promote Tatar national music and spark the interest of English-speaking scholars and musicians.
    • Tatar National and Religious Revitalization in Post-Soviet Kazan, the Republic of Tatarstan

      Cybriwsky, Roman A.; Kohl, Benjamin H.; Chakravorty, Sanjoy (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      My thesis is about one of the most distinctive cities in the Russian Federation - Kazan. In my thesis I focus on the changes that were unfolding in the landscape and structure of Kazan in the post-Soviet period (1991-2000s). The collapse of the Soviet Union produced an immense paradigm shift as combined revival of nationalism and religion swept over Tatar people who in turn have been actively changing the city. In this work I researched how the Tatar religious and national revival affected the landscape and structure of Kazan. I used data such as landmarks, memorials, establishments, institutions and other symbolic, religious or national elements of the city in order to demonstrate the scope of the Tatar urban revival. Additionally, I tried to understand the actual causes and processes that contributed to the revival. Tatar revitalization of Kazan is a complex social phenomenon which reveals many important political and global processes.
    • TEACH-TIE: A PROGRAM FOR TEACHING A CHILD WITH AND A CHILD WITHOUT AUTISM TO TIE THEIR SHOELACES USING VIDEO PROMPTING AND BACKWARDS CHAINING

      Tincani, Matt; Fisher, Amanda Guld; Axelrod, Saul; Hantula, Donald A.; Dowdy, Arthur (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      This project sought to evaluate the effects of video prompting in combination with backwards chaining to increase proficiency of tying shoe-laces using a changing criterion design. Two children, one diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and one neurotypical were invited to participate in this study. Following baseline, shoe-tying prompt videos and backwards chaining were used to teach shoe-tying. Video prompting plus backwards chaining increased the typically developing participant’s proficiency with performing a larger percentage of steps of the targeted skill independently following intervention. However, the participant with ASD was unable to meet criterion and the study was terminated for him due to challenging behavior. These results indicate that the combination of point-of-view video prompts along with backwards chaining can be effective in teaching children to tie their shoelaces. These results also indicate that children with ASD may need additional supports with this intervention to reach acquisition criterion. Parents reported satisfaction both with the procedures undertaken and with the outcomes of the intervention.
    • Teacher and Mother Inaccurate Beliefs: Exploring Differential Effects on Child Achievement

      Weinraub, Marsha; Steinberg, Laurence D., 1952-; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Gunderson, Elizabeth; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Schmitz, Mark F. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Conceptual development and achievement are embedded in social relationships. Research on self-fulfilling prophecies in the classroom has shown teachers' inaccurate perceptions about a child's ability shape schoolchildren's intellectual development in the direction of the misperception (Jussim & Harber, 2005; Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1968; Sorhagen, 2013). This contrasts with prior research on the influences of parents' misperceptions, which has shown that parents with accurate perceptions of their child's abilities, compared to those with misperceptions, have children with advanced conceptual development and higher achievement (Hunt & Paraskevopoulos, 1980; S. A. Miller, Manhal, & Mee, 1991; Sorhagen, 2014a, 2014b). Taken together, the literature on adult misperceptions of child abilities paints discrepant pictures of how adults' inaccurate beliefs may influence children's achievement trajectories. There is evidence for conditional direct and indirect effects of misperceptions within both literatures. Perhaps if moderating conditions were the same at school and at home, the effects of teacher and parent misperceptions would be the same. The present dissertation used prospective data to address the conflicting evidence on the effects of teachers' and mothers' misperceptions of abilities, focusing on differences in the magnitude and direction of adult misperceptions by the levels of environmental control (i.e. rigidly structured and intrusive versus autonomy-supporting). The results confirmed and extended the prior literature by showing that children's reading and math achievement in high school were differentially affected by the accuracy of adults' perceptions of the children's abilities depending on whether the adult is a teacher or mother. Children's high school performance benefited most when their teachers overestimated their abilities and when their mothers' accurately estimated their abilities in in third-grade. Furthermore, there was evidence for mediation through adults' differential treatment in the reading models. Evidence for moderation was also seen in the reading models, but only for the influence of teachers' misperceptions on teacher attention, which indirectly led to differences in child achievement (i.e. conditional indirect effects). The effects of teachers' misperceptions were more profound at low levels of environmental control compared to highly controlled classrooms. Thus environmental control did not lead to similar influences of teacher and mother misperceptions. This supports the notion that there are different consequences of teacher and mother misperceptions on child achievement. The results of additional analyses found child characteristics (i.e. child birth order, gender, ethnicity, family SES, child social competencies, and prior abilities), as well as teacher's self-efficacy predicted the degree of accuracy of the adults' perceptions of children's reading and math abilities. Furthermore, the results showed that teachers' and mothers' perceptions were often accurate, but when one adult was inaccurate, it was likely that the other adult's perception was similar. As we become increasingly aware of the importance of social influences on cognition, the results of the present dissertation suggest that it is important to consider differences between socializing agents.
    • TEACHER CHANGE: A CASE STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF LANGUAGE

      Casanave, Christine Pearson, 1944-; Beglar, David J.; Childs, Marshall; Simon-Maeda, Andrea, 1951-; Mimura, Chieko (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      This study is a qualitative inquiry of eight mid-career second language (L2) teachers’ identity evolution. These teachers have or had full-time or tenured teaching experience in secondary schools in Japan. Since they were mid- and later career teachers, they have explored their development, what they are now, and why they keep growing. They have all made meaningful voluntary changes in their professional lives. To make meaningful voluntary changes at moments of transitions, the teachers have made choices and negotiated, or juggled, their identities. They are successful teachers who have tenaciously pursued what matters to themselves professionally throughout their lives. One unfilled niche in the L2 teacher development and education is research on redefining L2 teachers who began their careers in secondary education in Japan, make meaningful voluntary changes in mid-career, and make apparently difficult work situations negotiable. The three purposes of this study are to (a) explore why and how L2 teachers’ identity evolution and their professional growth at mid-career happen; (b) learn more about the complexity of teacher change mechanisms at mid-career, and; (c) highlight ways that teachers whose professional development has stalled can grow out of their stagnation by examining the lives of successful mid-career and later career teachers. Eight L2 teachers participated in this study, recruited between 2005 and 2010. Interviews are the main source of data collection. I triangulated the data with email exchanges, class visits, and public documents such as Curriculum Vitae, syllabi, and curriculum descriptions given to students in a current or former class, handouts used in class, and published research articles. The data analysis was grounded in Riessman’s (2008) thematic and structural narrative analysis for identity evolution. Using these frameworks, I analyzed the data by(a) looking for stories and events in the telling as well as searching for identity negotiation and evolution with the participants with thematic analysis, which applied to all the participants, and (b) seeking contextual, discursive, and interpersonal cohesion and meanings with structural narrative analysis, which was applied to one participant. What each participant deemed important determined what kind of L2 teacher they wanted to become. With their efforts to keep evolving as L2 teachers through reflection, action, and negotiation they became consciously aware of what mattered to them. Their conscious awareness prompted them to exercise agency to plan meaningful changes.
    • Teacher education and its association with decision-making: An investigation of the classroom management decisions of incoming education majors, graduating education majors, and expert teachers

      Byrnes, James P.; Woyshner, Christine A.; Farley, Frank; DuCette, Joseph P.; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This study investigates the value of a teacher education program by comparing freshman education majors and senior education majors in their ability to make decisions about classroom management issues. Participants (N = 137) responded to a vignette style interview schedule and responses were coded and analyzed. Senior education majors were found to make significantly better decisions than freshman education majors and two groups of non-education students. Implications for improving and evaluating teacher education are discussed.
    • Teacher Educators' Perception of Character Education in Jamaica

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954-; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      This was a multi-case qualitative study, designed to investigate teacher educators’ perception of character education in Jamaica and how they enact character education in their classrooms. The study provided a localized version to the vast amount of research that has been conducted on character education in developed countries. Against the background of the significant role of teacher education, the study provided important insights regarding how teacher educators perceived, and enacted character education. Given the abstract nature of character education, a seven-point Likert scale questionnaire and two short cases were used to guide the interviews with the fifteen teacher educators’ who were purposively selected to take part in the study. Artifacts provided by the teacher educators, provided additional data for study. The responses on the questionnaire ranged from strongly agree through to strongly disagree. The data were analysed using the thematic approach. The data generated from the instruments were collated and attributed to the themes and major research questions to which they were aligned. The findings revealed that teacher educators’ perception of character education was closely aligned to the authoritative perception. The commonly shared view among participants was that character education is a means of instilling in children and young people the traditional values of the society and teaching them good manners. It was found that the older participants hold that character education is the process of teaching young people to be respectful, caring and to have good manners, especially to their elders. The younger participants hold that character education should focus on teaching young people the values and attitudes that will help them to live successfully in community, where there is mutual respect between all members of that community. They explained that the goal of character education should therefore be to equip young people with the ability to make right decisions and excel at what they do, rather than become obedient, subservient members of the society. All fifteen respondents strongly agreed with the authoritative perception, that people do not naturally develop good character and are therefore in need of correction. Twelve of the fifteen participants also revealed that their belief that human beings do not naturally develop good character is further supported by the experiences they have gained observing and relating to other human beings. The findings also revealed that except for Guidance Counselors, teacher educators did not formally teach character education. The teacher educators described their character education activities as informal and reactive. Informal because they did not usually go to their classes with a plan to teach character education, and reactive because many of their explicit character education actions were in response to the undesirable or inappropriate behaviours of their students. Their character education actions included correcting undesirable behaviours and modeling appropriate behaviours. Most of the teacher educators supported the direct didactic approach as the more effective approach to the teaching of character education and believed that pre service teachers are inadequately prepared for the task of character education.
    • TEACHER EFFICACY AND INSTRUCTIONAL ATTENTIVENESS: EXPLORING PERSPECTIVES OF ACADEMIC ADVISING AT A TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN JAMAICA

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Tucker, Gregory Mistrot (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of academic advising at a tertiary institution in Jamaica and how it has influenced teacher-efficacy and instructional attentiveness among student teachers. The participants included twelve student teachers and four lecturers who have been intimately involved in academic advising. The student teachers selected have been engaged in academic advising for two to four years while the lecturers have been advising for ten to sixteen years. This qualitative study explored how academic advising is related to teacher efficacy and instructional attentiveness among a set of second to fourth year student teachers at a teacher training college in Jamaica. All participants were actively receiving and giving academic advising in a government-owned teacher training institution. The primary source of data was unstructured interviews with student teachers and lecturers. Data were acquired over a two-month period by means of unstructured interviews and field notes. These tools afforded the opportunity to extend the conversations and generate meaning from the responses thereby providing rich descriptive notes of the phenomenon. Data were prepared using triangulation matrices, data coding and the Constant Comparison Approach to generate categories showing patterns and relationships of meaning. The findings on the perspectives of the study participants indicate academic advising has significantly influenced teacher-efficacy among the student teachers as their level of confidence increased, appreciation of teamwork blossomed, instructional competency broadened and misbehaviors controlled. Additionally, their valuing of self and acceptance of other personalities grew immensely which positively affected their relationship with various tiers of staff in the learning environment. The interview data garnered from student teachers indicate that instructional attentiveness improved through the use of multiple teaching methods which included authentic assessment, field experience and student-centered learning. Other factors that boosted instructional attentiveness were good relationships with advisors who were understanding of their differences and commended simple efforts. As a result of the academic advising received, there are several implications for practice and policy which need to be addressed in order to help student teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses, remain on task, avoid drop out and maintain equilibrium between academic and social experiences as they navigate their way through college.
    • Teacher Leaders: Demonstrating the Ethic of the Profession

      Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Caldwell, Corrinne A.; Schifter, Catherine; DuCette, Joseph P.; Partlow, Michelle Chaplin, 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      This case study investigated the ethic of the profession, one of the four ethical frameworks used for ethical decision-making in education. Typically, this line of research is applied to school administrators; however, this investigation extended this research to teacher leaders by examining their daily practice. Out of a pool of thirty-six respondents, nine teachers were chosen to participate in the study. These teacher leaders were employed in urban, exurban, and suburban school districts, with experience levels varying from three to thirty-three years. Participants were required to complete the following: the Self-Assessment to Assess Readiness for Leadership, creation of personal code of ethics, and the creation of professional code of ethics. An in-depth interview to discuss the codes, and clashes between codes was conducted, as well as a second interview to address an ethical dilemma identified by the participants. Categorical analysis was used to recognize recurring themes. A conceptual model of the decision-making process was developed to explain the phenomena observed in these data. In addition, recurring themes were identified through analysis of the interview data. Themes included a prevailing concern for fairness, student welfare, educational equality, safety, and student discipline. When responding to critical events that triggered ethical dilemmas, these participants habitually used their personal and professional codes of ethics to determine a course of action. Participants exhibited a sophisticated decision-making approach which moved participants past the reliance on one ethical frame of justice, critique, or care, into the use of multiple paradigms to solve ethical dilemmas. In the final analyses, the ethic of the profession was demonstrated by these nine teacher leaders through reflection and reliance on personal and professional codes of ethics, and by placing students at the center of the ethical decision-making process.