• S-Mephedrone: preclinical investigation of a synthetic cathinone against behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine and MDPV

      Rawls, Scott M.; Ashby, Barrie; Kirby, Lynn; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Reitz, Allen Bernard, 1956- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Synthetic cathinones are an emerging class of novel psychoactive substances whose rising rates of abuse have made them a significant public health issue. Recently, synthetic cathinones have emerged as popular drugs of abuse in the United States and Europe. Illicit drug dealers have synthesized stable analogues of cathinones and marketed them via the Internet as “legal high” alternatives to commonly abused psychostimulants. Some adverse effects of synthetic cathinone intoxication include depression, anxiety, myocardial infarction, cardiac dysrhythmias, pulmonary edema, renal failure, stroke and death. Two synthetic cathinones that have gained popularity over the past decade are 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone, MEPH) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). Analogous to other amphetamines and cathinones, MEPH is a chiral molecule with two enantiomers, R-MEPH and S-MEPH. Pharmacological differences can exist between enantiomers. Given the enantiomeric specificity that exists between the enantiomers of MEPH, the overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate potential therapeutic effects of S-MEPH and to determine the reinforcing effects and potential abuse liability of each enantiomer of MEPH. To date, there are no approved medications for psychostimulant abuse despite high rates of relapse even with treatment. The lack of pharmacotherapies suggests that new approaches for psychostimulant abuse remain to be identified. Further exploration into the stereochemistry of MEPH will characterize a new approach to manage psychostimulant abuse during acute withdrawal that causes anxiety and relapse. The first experimental chapter of this thesis (Chapter 2) evaluated the effects of S-MEPH on cocaine and MDPV withdrawal-induced anxiety- and depression-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim test (FST), respectively. EPM and FST were used to test the hypothesis that S-MEPH reduces anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats withdrawn from a 10-day chronic binge cocaine paradigm (10 mg/kg, 3x/day in 1-hr intervals) or binge MDPV paradigm (1 mg/kg, 3x/day in 1-hr intervals). Control animals received saline injections. Both cocaine and MDPV induced heightened anxiety-like behavior on the EPM compared to saline controls. Rats withdrawn from chronic cocaine exposure received treatment with 10 mg/kg S-MEPH (COC SM 10). S-MEPH increased the percentage of time spent on the open arms compared to treatment with saline (COC SAL). Similar efficacy was observed for 10 mg/kg of S-MEPH where rats withdrawn from chronic MDPV exposure and treated with S-MEPH during the drug-free period (MDPV SM 10) increased the percentage of time spent on the open arms compared to treatment with saline (MDPV SAL). Treatment with a higher dose of S-MEPH (30 mg/kg) also produced an increase in time spent on the open arms for rats withdrawn from either cocaine (COC SM 30) or MDPV (MDPV SM 30). However, treatment with 30 mg/kg S-MEPH by itself (SAL S-MEPH) caused a slight, but significant, decrease in time spent on the open arms compared to saline controls (SAL SAL). Cocaine and MDPV withdrawn rats spent more time in the immobile state, indicative of depression-like behavior in the FST compared to saline controls. Subsequent treatment with 10 mg/kg S-MEPH (COC SM 10), following withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure, reduced the time spent in the immobile state compared to treatment with saline (COC SAL). Similar efficacy was observed for 10 mg/kg of S-MEPH where rats withdrawn from chronic MDPV exposure and treated with S-MEPH during the drug-free period (MDPV SM 10) decreased the time spent in the immobile state compared to treatment with saline (MDPV SAL). Treatment with a higher dose of S-MEPH (30 mg/kg) also produced a decrease in immobile state for rats withdrawn from either cocaine (COC SM 30) or MDPV (MDPV SM 30). However, treatment with 30 mg/kg S-MEPH by itself (SAL S-MEPH) caused a reduction in time spent in the immobile compared to saline controls (SAL SAL). The present data suggest S-MEPH has therapeutic potential during early withdrawal from psychostimulant abuse and may be a possible structural and pharmacological template to develop maintenance therapy for psychostimulant abuse. Although dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release is the primary mechanism of action of S-MEPH, in vitro studies assessed the receptor binding and activity of S-MEPH to elucidate a possible secondary mechanism that could contribute to the clinical effects of S-MEPH. Indeed, standard antidepressants (e.g. fluoxetine) have a dual mechanism of action, and not only increase 5-HT levels, but also block 5-HT2C receptors that help to prevent the initial onset of anxiety reported by patients. Binding and functional assays were performed at the National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). For radioligand binding, S-MEPH was screened at 10 μM for binding to a battery of receptors including a range of 5-HT, DA, sigma, kappa opioid, adrenergic, muscarinic, and nicotinic receptor subtypes. It was found that S-MEPH binds to 5-HT2 receptors (2A, 2B, 2C) but showed negligible binding for dopaminergic, adrenergic and nicotinic receptors. Functional assays revealed S-MEPH has no agonist activity. These results suggest that S-MEPH may be a possible structural and pharmacological template to develop a maintenance therapy for addicts with acute anxiety and depression during early withdrawal by enhancing the release of 5-HT and/or through 5-HT2 receptor interactions. Chapter 3 investigated whether S-MEPH can reinstate drug-seeking behavior in rats with a history of cocaine exposure. Using the drug intravenous self-administration (IVSA) model, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.375 mg/kg/infusion) under FR-1 schedule of reinforcement during daily 2-hour sessions for 12 days. Following acquisition of cocaine self-administration, rats were subject to daily 2-hour extinction sessions. After meeting extinction criteria (less than 15 active lever presses), rats underwent drug-primed reinstatement, where non-contingent injections of R-MEPH (10 mg/kg), S-MEPH (10, 20, 30 mg/kg), or cocaine (10 mg/kg) were administered prior to the reinstatement session. S-MEPH (10, 20, 30 mg/kg) prior to the reinstatement session was not efficacious in producing drug-seeking behavior. R-MEPH-prime injection reinstated cocaine-seeking behavior. Rats reinstated responding after cocaine-prime injection. After observing differences in priming injections with R-MEPH and S-MEPH during reinstatement to cocaine-seeking (Chapter 3), we further examined the reinforcing effects and potential for abuse of S-MEPH in Chapter 4. Fixed-ratio 1 (FR-1) (acquisition) and progressive-ratio (motivation) schedules of reinforcement were used to determine the rewarding properties and motivational incentive for R-MEPH, S-MEPH as well as racemic MEPH. Rats were trained to self-administer MEPH (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed ratio (FR-1) schedule in daily 2-hour sessions for 14 days. After acquisition, rats underwent dose substitution to examine effects of R-MEPH (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) and S-MEPH (0.25, 0.5, 2. mg/kg/ infusion). Dose-substitution studies revealed the lowest (0.25 mg/kg/ infusion) and middle (0.5 mg/kg/ infusion) dose of S-MEPH significantly increased the number of reinforcers earned, while the highest (2.0 mg/kg/ infusion) dose decreased the number of reinforcers earned during the two hour sessions compared to acquisition of MEPH. Following the observations that rats readily acquire S-MEPH when a history of MEPH administration is already established, in a separate cohort of rats, acquisition of S-MEPH self-administration was studied using three doses of S-MEPH (0.25, 0.5, 2.0 mg/kg/infusion) and R-MEPH (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed-ratio 1 (FR-1) and progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement using drug naïve rats. In this cohort, 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) were recorded during FR-1 sessions to assess potential stereospecific differences in drug-associated positive affect. Rats were trained to self-administer R-MEPH (0.5 mg/kg/ infusion) or S-MEPH (0.25, 0.5, 2.0 mg/kg/ infusion) for 10 days followed by progressive-ratio for 10 days to determine motivation for drug taking. Rats readily self-administer both enantiomers of MEPH under a FR-1 schedule. Equivalent doses of R-MEPH and S-MEPH did not significantly differ in number of infusions and active lever presses. Self-administration of R-MEPH elicited greater rates of 50-kHz USVs compared to S-MEPH. Progressive-ratio studies determined that R-MEPH- trained rats had significantly higher breakpoints than that of S-MEPH- trained rats, indicating an increase in motivation to work for reinforcer. These data suggest that escalation of S-MEPH intake occurred when a previous history of MEPH was established; rats exposed to MEPH are compensating with escalating their intake of S-MEPH to reach the previous euphoric state during acquisition of MEPH. These findings indicate that rats readily acquire both enantiomers of MEPH, which signify an abuse liability for these drugs. However, these data suggest that R-MEPH, rather than the S-MEPH, is responsible for the rewarding and reinforcing effects seen with the racemic form of MEPH, due to the lack of motivation to work for the S-enantiomer. In conclusion, during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine or MDPV, rats demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior on the EPM and increased depression-like behavior in FST. Binding and functional assays indicate affinity for the 5-HT2 receptors (2A, 2B, 2C) and no agonist activity of S-MEPH. Results show R-MEPH reinstates cocaine-seeking behavior and S-MEPH does not reinstate cocaine-seeking. Furthermore, R-MEPH and S-MEPH both have reinforcing effects, with R-MEPH having significantly greater reinforcing strength compared to S-MEPH. These studies identified unique differences in the behavioral profile of MEPH enantiomers. This data not only expands the body of literature on the stereospecific effects of MEPH, but also developing the pharmacological profile of MDPV in the context of dependence and addiction. Continued research is needed profiling MEPH and MDPV to develop efficacious pharmacotherapeutics for treating psychostimulant abuse to reduce relapse rates.
    • Sacred Spectating: The Late Antique Triconch at the Red Monastery in Egypt

      Bolman, Elizabeth S., 1960-; Hall, Marcia B.; Evans, Jane DeRose, 1956-; Ousterhout, Robert G. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      This dissertation focuses on the Red Monastery church, an early Byzantine monument located in Egypt. A monastic community which came to be known as the Red Monastery joined an ascetic federation led by the nearby White Monastery. In the fifth century C.E., the monks of the White and Red Monasteries commissioned monumental church buildings. The Red Monastery church is a smaller copy of the White Monastery church. Both are triconch basilicas, and their enclosure walls imitate the external profiles of pharaonic temples. The interior elevations of the two church sanctuaries adopt an architectural type called multistory aedicular façades. These kinds of façades adorned elite public buildings in the eastern Mediterranean region. Although a lot of scholarship has been done on the White Monastery and its famous abbot Shenoute (ca. 346-465 C.E.), the Red Monastery church was almost completely overlooked until recently. Between 2000 and 2015, Elizabeth S. Bolman directed a major multidisciplinary project that focused on the triconch sanctuary of the Red Monastery church. Its ensemble of architectural sculpture, polychromy, and figural paintings is virtually intact. Bolman and Dale Kinney have substantially advanced the state of knowledge about monastic visual culture in late antique Egypt by focusing on the Red Monastery church. My dissertation builds on their conclusions. I have identified a different perspective from which to understand the late antique triconch at the Red Monastery. The category of sacred spectating is the interpretive lens through which I view this building.
    • Sacrificio y Retórica en José Antonio Ramos Sucre

      Aldarondo, Hiram; Morell, Hortensia R., 1951-; Moncy, Agnes, 1940-; Miralles, David, 1957- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Sacrificial allusions and themes pervade the works of the Venezuelan poet José Antonio Ramos Sucre (1890-1930). However, the recurrent appearance of these allusions, their utilization as metaphors, the interpretation of historical events as sacrifices, and the great number of characters with ascetic or atoning features, have not been examined up to now. The aim of this dissertation, then, is to examine the rhetorical ways and contexts in which José Antonio Ramos Sucre uses sacrifice as a theme. First, I will offer a brief discussion of René Girard's theory of sacrifice. I will also make a detailed review of what literary critics like Ángel Rama and Guillermo Sucre. Next, I will analyze four texts: "El disidente", "Duelo de arrabal", "La venganza del Dios" y "A un despojo del vicio". In my analysis, I will follow Guillermo Sucre's suggestion about historical references as metaphors. The scapegoat metaphor will allow me to identify the surrogate victims in and of the text. This reading is antisacrificial in that it reveals the surrogate victim mechanism; in addition, it suggests that Ramos Sucre is exploring the problem of the persecution of innocent people. The last section summarizes the essential findings: metaphor and metonymy as the main rhetorical trope in Ramos Sucre's poems, the contradictions between the rhetorical ideal of exactitude and its working in the poems; Ramos Sucre's rereadings of myths, literary works, and historical events in order to reveal the sacrificial crisis and the surrogate victim; and sacrifice as rhetorical device that allows Ramos Sucre to explore conflicts, discriminations, and persecutions.
    • Salary Determination in the National Football League

      Leeds, Michael (Michael A.); Blackstone, Erwin A., 1942-; Dunkelberg, William C.; Andersson, Lynne Mary (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This paper examines salary determination in the National Football League (NFL). The heterogeneity of teams and players in the league leads to thin labor markets. Under such circumstances, the neoclassical model in which labor supply and labor demand uniquely determine wages is too simple. Instead, a competing model of salary determination is tested - McLaughlin's (1994) rent-sharing model. This is the only study of its kind to investigate salary determination at a disaggregated level for all of the non-kicking positions in the NFL. A comprehensive model of salary determination, using many unique variables, is constructed and tested for each position. Quantile regression techniques are employed to examine the bargaining aspects of the model. Although, little support is found for the rent-sharing model, this study lays the groundwork and presents the argument for further investigation.
    • Sample Size Determination for a Three-arm Biosimilar Trial

      Zhao, Zhigen; Iglewicz, Boris; Dong, Yuexiao; Tsong, Yi (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The equivalence assessment usually consists of three tests and is often conducted through a three-arm clinical trial. The first two tests are to demonstrate the superiority of the test treatment and the reference treatment to placebo, and they are followed by the equivalence test between the test treatment and the reference treatment. The equivalence is commonly defined in terms of mean difference, mean ratio or ratio of mean differences, i.e. the ratio of the mean difference of the test and placebo to the mean difference of the reference and placebo. In this dissertation, the equivalence assessment for both continuous data and discrete data are discussed. For the continuous case, the test of the ratio of mean differences is applied. The advantage of this test is that it combines a superiority test of the test treatment over the placebo and an equivalence test through one hypothesis. For the discrete case, the two-step equivalence assessment approach is studied for both Poisson and negative binomial data. While a Poisson distribution implies that population mean and variance are the same, the advantage of applying a negative binomial model is that it accounts for overdispersion, which is a common phenomenon of count medical endpoints. The test statistics, power function, and required sample size examples for a three-arm equivalence trial are given for both continuous and discrete cases. In addition, discussions on power comparisons are complemented with numerical results.
    • SANCTUARY, SOCIAL POWER, & SILENCE: UNDERSTANDING BASEBALL AS A SITE OF CONTESTED ETHNIC AND RACIAL TERRAIN

      Grasmuck, Sherri; Delaney, Kevin; Vila, Pablo, 1952-; Washington, Robert E., 1941- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This research examines connections between race, ethnicity, and professional baseball. I use a multi-method approach looking at secondary source data on player positions and contemporary stacking, media analysis, fan narratives and sport blogs in the two contexts of Philadelphia and Los Angeles. I find that minorities are well represented in leadership positions and portrayed positively by the media, but that some racial inequality still exists. Whites and light-skinned Latinos are more likely to hold leadership roles than blacks and dark-skinned Latinos. In addition, media narratives reinforce the mind/body dualism by emphasizing the character make up of white players while highlighting the physicality of darker skinned players. Despite this evidence, fans from all ethnic and racial groups spoke highly of sport as a space that represented racial progress and a place where they felt comfortable are interacting with others who were different from themselves. These narratives were closely connected to fans' desires to maintain positive emotions within the leisure context of sport. Ultimately, I argue that baseball can serve as a site of racial progress and change but that it does so partially within a narrow cultural context. Baseball thus alters symbolic meanings of race but simultaneously misses important opportunities to make deeper social change at the material level.
    • SANDHI-VARIATION AND THE COMPREHENSION OF SPOKEN ENGLISH FOR JAPANESE LEARNERS

      Beglar, David; Nemoto, Tomoko; Waring, Rob; Saito, Kazuya (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      In this study I addressed three problems related to how sandhi-variation, the adjustments made by speakers to the speech stream, filters comprehension for second language listener processing. The first was the need to better understand proficiency problems encountered by L2 listeners as they decode the speech stream with the phonological features of sandhi-variation, elision and assimilation, by investigating the item difficulty hierarchy of the phenomena. The second was the scarcity of research on aural processing abilities of second language learners in relation to their understanding sandhi-variation in aural texts. The third concerns the lack of research investigating links between learners’ backgrounds and their ability to handle listening texts, especially variations in the speech stream in target aural texts. The purpose of this study was threefold. My first purpose was to investigate the item difficulty hierarchy of sandhi-variation types that learners have in relation to L2 listening proficiency. My second purpose was to evaluate links between aural input containing elision and assimilation and second language aural processing, to provide insight into how learners deal with sandhi-variation as they process such input. My third purpose was to investigate through the use of interviews the aural input that participants have encountered prior to the interventions of this study, to help explain which types of aural input can facilitate intake. Twenty-five first- and second-year Japanese university students participated in the current study. The participants completed a series of instruments, which included (a) a Test of English as a Foreign Language Paper-Based Test (TOEFL PBT), (b) a Listening Vocabulary Levels Test (LVLT), (c) a Modern Language Aptitude Test–Elementary (MLAT-E), (d) a Pre-Listening in English questionnaire, (e) an Elicited Imitation Test (EIT), and (f) a Background and Length of Residency interview. The EIT was used as a sandhi-variation listening test with two component parts (i.e., elision and assimilation) and two sub-component parts (e.g., two different utterance rates), using elicited imitation. Finally, the participants were interviewed about their language backgrounds to gauge their understanding and feelings about English. An empirical item hierarchy for elision and assimilation was investigated, along with the determinants of the hierarchy. Overall, the tendency was for items with elision and assimilation to be more difficult. Results also indicated that the two input rate variables combined with elision and assimilation affected the non-native participants’ listening comprehension. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between two measures of the participants’ language ability, proficiency and aptitude, and their comprehension of items with and without the phonological features of elision and assimilation, were investigated. The results confirmed a positive relationship between language aptitude as measured by the MLAT-E and the comprehension of the phonological features of elision and assimilation. Finally, the results indicated that there were no significant, positive correlations between English language proficiency scores and both the Pre-Listening Questionnaire, which measured the participants’ feelings about second language listening, and the Background and Length of Residency Interview. More research needs to be conducted to determine how learners’ backgrounds are related to listening comprehension in order to better prescribe aural input in second language listening classrooms.
    • Sátira de felice e infelice vida de Don Pedro, Condestable de Portugal (1429-1466): Edición crítica

      Piera, Montserrat; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Soufas, Teresa Scott; Duque, Adriano (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Esta tesis doctoral es una edición crítica de la Sátira de infelice e felice vida, una obra de ficción sentimental, escrita entre 1453-1455 por Don Pedro, Condestable de Portugal (1429-1466). El primer capítulo de esta tesis es la introducción en la cual reseño mis intenciones y el propósito de este estudio. El segundo capítulo trata del trasfondo histórico del autor y el género de la ficción sentimental. Incluí la biografía de Don Pedro para que el lector de la Sátira entienda la conexión que existe entre la obra y su vida. La sección sobre la ficción sentimental es sólo una muestra breve de las opiniones más recientes sobre el género para que tenga una idea de las pautas del mismo. La próxima sección es una investigación de las glosas insertadas en la Sátira por el propio autor y su impacto en la obra. Además, hago unas observaciones sobre una selección de las glosas. Luego, en la última parte del estudio, propongo una lectura fiel a la obra original con la única transcripción moderna de los manuscritos de Madrid y Lisboa. También explica el proceso que seguí al transcribirlos. Al final de la tesis incluí unos apéndices para facilitar la lectura de mi edición. El Apéndice A ofrece muestras de tres de los cuatro manuscritos existentes para darle al lector una idea de cómo se veía el texto original. El Apéndice B es un árbol genealógico de las familias reales relacionadas con Don Pedro para que la audiencia tenga una referencia visual de los personajes involucrados en la vida del autor. El último apéndice es una lista de referencias mitológicas, geográficas o históricas que aparecen en la obra.
    • SCALE, SPECIALIZATION AND PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

      Banker, Rajiv D.; Atasoy, Hilal; Wattal, Sunil; Potter, Gordon (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      I examine the impacts of specialization and of scale on property performance and chain performance of the hotel industry. I use a large sample of branded lodging companies in the United States from 2010 to 2014 for the analyses. For property performance, I investigate how a hotel company decides on franchising on properties based on its specialization and study the impacts of the combinations of franchising choice and specialization on profitability of hotel properties. I argue that a hotel company is less likely to franchise business units that are in the specialized market segment of the company since it can manage them better with specialized knowledge than franchisees with general knowledge. Consistent with the expectation, the profitability of company-managed properties is higher than franchised properties when properties are in a company’s specialized market segment. I also find that the probability that a company franchises a business unit is lower when the business unit is in the brand’s area of specialization. While prior research focused on the role of monitoring costs in franchising decisions, this study suggests that specialization is a strong alternative determinant of franchising decisions and the resulting organizational performance. Regarding the analysis of chain performance, I explore productivity changes of the hotel industry and identify the characteristics of leaders, followers, and laggards. Using Data Envelopment Analysis, I find that a few hotel chains led industrial productivity growth through technological progress during the period from 2010 to 2012 and that most other chains followed the improvements in the subsequent period. I find that a larger chain was more like to lead the productivity progress of the industry during the sample period.
    • Scaling Innovations in Healthcare

      Wattal, Sunil; Pavlou, Paul A.; Wray, Matt, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This research paper examines the innovation adoption of technology, specifically Artificial Intelligence (AI) implementations in hospitals by exploring the capabilities that enables AI innovations using the dynamic capabilities (sensing, seizing and reconfiguring) framework and clinicians’ intentions to use AI innovations for patient care by applying the technology adoption/acceptance framework Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) utilizing qualitative case study analysis and quantitative survey methodology respectively. This multi-disciplinary research has considerable relevance to both healthcare business leaders and clinical practitioners by identifying the key factors that drives the decisions to adopt innovations to improve healthcare organizations' competitiveness to enhance patient care as well as to reduce overall healthcare costs. The main findings are: (1) On an organizational level, healthcare organizations with strong and versatile dynamic capabilities, who build on their existing knowledge and capabilities are better able to integrate the innovations into their internal operations and existing services. The identified barriers provide a clear sense of organizational barriers and resistance points for innovation adoption (2) On an individual level, the impact of quality of care and organization leadership support are the key factors that facilitates the adoption of innovation among the clinicians. (3) Current trends and key impact areas of AI technology in the healthcare industry are identified Key words: Innovation, Innovation Adoption, Dynamic Capabilities, Healthcare, Artificial Intelligence, AI, Technology, Strategic Management
    • Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Measurements of Superconductor/Ferromagnet Hybrids

      Iavarone, Maria; Iavarone, Maria; Gray, Alexander X.; Forster, Dieter, 1938-; Novosad, Valentine (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The focus of this thesis work is the study of the nanoscale electronic properties of magnetically coupled superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (LT-STM/STS) under ultra-high vacuum conditions. There are a number of novel effects that can occur due to the non-homogenous magnetic field from the ferromagnet, which directly influence the global and local superconducting properties. These effects include the generation of vortices/anti-vortices by the non-uniform magnetic stray field, local modulations in the critical temperature, filamentary superconductivity close to the transition temperature, and superconducting channels that can be controlled by external magnetic fields. Prior to this dissertation the subject of superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures has been mainly studied using global measurements (such as transport and magnetization) or scanning probe techniques that are sensitive to the magnetic field. Scanning tunneling microscopy probes the local electronic density of states with atomic resolution, and therefore is the only technique that can study the emergence of superconductivity on the length scale of the coherence length. The novel results presented in this dissertation show that magnetically coupled superconductor/ferromagnet heterostructures offer the possibility to control and tune the strength and location of superconductivity and superconducting vortices, which has potential for promising technological breakthroughs in computing and power applications.
    • Scheduling Policies for Cloud Computing

      Wu, Jie, 1961-; Ji, Bo, 1982-; Tan, Chiu C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Cloud computing focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared resources. Cloud resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but are also dynamically reallocated per demand. This can work for allocating resources to users. This leads to task scheduling as a core and challenging issue in cloud computing. This thesis gives different scheduling strategies and algorithms in cloud computing. For a common cloud user, there is a great potential to boost the performance of mobile devices by offloading computation-intensive parts of mobile applications to the cloud. However, this potential is hindered by a gap between how individual mobile devices demand computational resources and how cloud providers offer them. In this thesis, we present the design of utility-based uploads sharing strategy in cloud scenarios, which bridges the above gap through providing computation offloading as a service to mobile devices. Our scheme efficiently manages cloud resources for offloading requests to improve offloading performances of mobile devices, as well as to reduce the monetary cost per request of the provider. However, from the viewpoint of data centers, resource limitations in both bandwidth and computing triggers a variety of resource management problems. In this thesis, we discuss the tradeoff between locality and load balancing, along with the multi-layer topology of data centers. After that, we investigate the interrelationship between the time cost and the virtual machine rent cost, and formalize it as the parallel speedup pattern. We then design several algorithms by adopting the idea of minimizing the utility cost. Furthermore, we focus on the detail of MapReduce framework in Cloud. For different MapReduce phases, there are different resource requirements. We propose a new scheduling algorithm based on the idea of combining map shuffle pairs, which has better performance than the popular min-max time first algorithm in minimizing the average makespan of tasks in the job matrix. Directions for future research mainly focus on the large scale implementation of our proposed solution. There are a wide variety of open questions remaining with respect to the design of algorithms to minimize response time. Further, it is interesting and important to understand how to schedule in order to minimize other performance metrics.
    • SCHIZOPHRENIA AND STIGMA: AN OUTLOOK ON THE MEDICAL, LEGAL, AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF LIVING WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

      Rocco, Providenza Loera (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      Schizophrenia is a disease which presents many challenges. Medically, legally, and socially, afflicted individuals face obstacles that decrease their overall quality of life. Some of these are sequela of the disease and its decrease in social functioning, or symptoms of paranoia and disorganization. However, others are placed on these individuals by society. This has created a lifestyle which is marred by comorbid medical conditions and a resistance to receive treatment. It also creates frequent contact with the legal system, leading to a disorganized home life, and a significant amount of time spent behind bars, and being victimized by others. Finally, many schizophrenic patients are unable to find jobs, and report being without significant supportive relationships in their lives, creating stress both on themselves and their families and caregivers. These difficulties in life can be inseparable from their disease and place schizophrenic patients at a further disadvantage.
    • SCHOOL BELONGING AND L2 MOTIVATION OF FIRST-YEAR STUDENTS AT FOUR JAPANESE UNIVERSITIES

      Sick, James; Beglar, David; Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Kikuchi, Keita (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      In this study, I explore the dynamic relationships between how students feel about their school, school belonging, and to what extent they feel motivated to study a second language, L2 motivation. School belonging, which has rarely been studied in the field of applied linguistics, is widely discussed in educational psychology, and its relationship with academic achievement has been examined. However, the relationship between school belonging and L2 motivation has hardly been investigated. The first purpose of this study is to fill this gap by verifying the existence of a sense of school belonging as a psychological factor among first-year Japanese university students in an English as a foreign language context, and then to investigate its relationship with L2 motivation. I employ a convergent mixed method design in which the quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted at the same time. Quantitative data were collected through surveys from 540 first-year students in four Japanese universities, including higher- and lower-ranked universities. The qualitative data were collected through self-reflection from 176 students, comments from 413 students, and interviews with 11 students. The interviewees were selected based on their willingness to participate. The quantitative data and qualitative data were collected three times in 2018 and 2019: the first time in May and June 2018, the second time in September and October 2018, and the third time in January and February 2019. Validity evidence for the surveys was gathered through a pilot study. In the main study, school belonging was verified as one large factor mainly using Rasch analysis. The general relationship between school belonging and motivation to learn English and the changes of those relationships over the course of the year were assessed by calculating the responses to the questions with structural equation modeling (SEM). Details of students’ feelings toward their school and their connections to English learning motivation were investigated through analyses of the qualitative data. The quantitative results showed that a sense of school belonging that varies among first-year Japanese university students exists and that the relationship between school belonging and L2 motivation and their changes over the course of the year can be explained in a model in which individual differences in school belonging and L2 motivation and their changes are explained. The qualitative results support the finding that school belonging and L2 motivation are related to each other and also show that students change their school belonging and L2 motivation dynamically for a variety of reasons. Students can change their perceptions of school and language learning from positive to negative or negative to positive, and their changes can be uneven when looked at through the lens of sub-components of these constructs. By merging quantitative results and qualitative results, differences were found between the two types of data analyses. School was found to predict changes in school belonging and L2 motivation in the quantitative analyses, while different types of students, such as those who have positive school belonging and negative L2 motivation and those who have negative school belonging and positive L2 motivation were found in the same school in the qualitative analyses. Moreover, concepts of school belonging and L2 motivation were validated as hypothesized in the quantitative analyses, while unexpected ideas, such as belonging to multiple groups and loss of L2 motivation due to technological developments, were revealed by the result of the qualitative analyses. These results imply that fostering school belonging among university students can lead to studying English harder.
    • School Characteristics and Their Relationship to Intervention Fidelity and Student Outcomes in Autism Support Classrooms

      Farley, Frank; Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Stahler, Gerald; Mandell, David S., 1968- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Given the rising prevalence of children diagnosed with autism and the emergence of evidence-based autism interventions, schools are now faced with the challenge of delivering high quality instruction to this unique population. Comprehensive packaged curricula have been developed to address this growing need and to allow educators to transport research-based instruction into their classroom settings. However, there is a dearth of research examining the factors associated with intervention effectiveness with children with autism in public schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between school level factors, the fidelity of interventions, and student outcomes within autism support classrooms. Data were gathered from 171 students with autism spectrum disorders in kindergarten-through-second grade classrooms across 40 schools in the Philadelphia School District. Correlational analyses and linear regression with random effects analyses indicated that school level factors were not associated with and were not moderators of intervention fidelity and student outcomes. The findings suggest that autism support classrooms are like islands within the school building, such that the practices and outcomes within these classrooms were unrelated to the school context. This study indicates that when transporting an evidence-based practice into a public school classroom, it may be more necessary to focus on the classroom context rather than the school building. Future research is needed to fully delineate these relationships between school building level factors and the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children with autism within a classroom setting.
    • School Choice and Segregation: How Race Influences Choices and the Consequences for Neighborhood Public Schools

      Goyette, Kimberly A.; Elesh, David; Saporito, Salvatore; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964- (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      This dissertation examines the relationship between school choice and race. I examine whether the racial composition of schools influences choices and whether choices of private and public choice schools lead to greater segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. I improve on existing research by adopting the theoretical framework used in neighborhood preferences literature to distinguish between race and race-associated reasons as motivations for avoiding racially integrating schools. This study utilizes geocoded data from the Philadelphia Area Study (PAS) and elementary school catchment maps to examine families' preferences and behaviors in the context of the actual conditions of their assigned schools. Catchment maps are integrated with Census data to determine whether choice schools have a role in white flight and segregation and stratification in neighborhood schools. The findings suggest that families are most likely to avoid neighborhood schools with high proportions of racial minorities. However, attitudes regarding racial climates are more consistent predictors of preferences than the actual racial composition of local schools. Highly segregated neighborhood schools satisfy families who desire racially homogeneous school climates, as do private schools. Families who seek diverse environments are more likely to look to charter and magnet schools. The white flight analysis shows that whites are more likely to leave schools that have modest proportions of black students, and less likely to leave schools that are already integrated. These results suggest that whites react especially strongly to schools with low levels of integration, and those who remain in the few racially balanced schools do so out of a preference for diversity or because they do not have the resources to leave. Public choice schools spur white flight in urban areas, but actually reduce flight in suburban schools. Finally, I find that choice schools do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups are spatially segregated from whites, and they also do not uniformly affect the degree to which racial groups attend more or less disadvantaged schools than whites. This suggests that segregation and stratification are two distinct aspects of racial inequality and should be considered separately when evaluating the effectiveness of choice programs.
    • School Leadership for a Diverse Society

      McGinley, Christopher W.; Laurence, Janice H.; Haviland, Joseph; Smith, Michael W. (Michael William), 1954- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Given the increase of language minority students in school districts across Pennsylvania, school leaders are faced with the demand to address the unique needs of students learning English. Previous research suggests that state initiatives to simply assimilate students may not have been successful in meeting their needs. Furthermore, research and theory also suggest that leaders demonstrating cultural proficiency may be more effective in meeting the needs of English learners who are also ethnic minorities. The approach leaders take may be a function of the ethical paradigm that informs their decision-making. In order to understand the extent to which elementary school principals in one school district display cultural proficiency and to investigate the ethical paradigms that inform their decision-making, I conducted interviews with five principals in one large diverse school district in Pennsylvania. Drawing on a framework of Cultural Proficiency, I found in general there to be an over-appreciation of diversity and under-appreciation of cultural proficiency at the conclusion of this study. Additionally, there was an observed tendency for these school principals to view their leadership role as one that functions primarily within the confines of executing district policies at the building-level. Though each participant expressed the importance of advocacy for their students, they did not pursue policy creation or change within a broader political context. Despite the similarities among participants, my analysis suggested variations in the participants’ concepts of their role as school leaders to support English Language Learners and language minority students.
    • School Leadership Response to External Evaluation: A Case Study of the National Education Inspectorate in Jamaica

      Stull, Judith C., 1944-; DuCette, Joseph P.; Richards, Elizabeth (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The study was conducted using a qualitative case study design. It examined the perceptions and responses of leadership to the National Education Inspectorate (NEI) inspection process in a selected high school in central Jamaica that had been found to be operating at an unsatisfactory level since March, 2011. The assessment was done by collecting data from multiple sources, specifically structured and semi-structured interviews of the leadership of the institution to gain their perspectives, class observations and school documents. In addition, interviews were conducted with other important stakeholders such as parents and students to ascertain their views on the issue being studied. The findings of the study were then used to evaluate the impact of the NEI on the progress of the institution. From the findings, eight recommendations have been made relating to practice, policy and further research.
    • SCHOOL LEADER’S ROLE IDENTITY FORMATION: NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVES ON THEIR MOTIVATED ACTIONS REGARDING CHRONIC ABSENTEEISM

      Patterson, Timothy; McGinley, Christopher W.; Brandt, Carol B.; Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      What does it mean to be a school leader trying to improve chronic absenteeism at the high school level? Intervening with chronically absent high school students entails adapting existing practices designed for students in attendance, finding alternate ways to motivate students who simply are not there, and affording educational opportunity equitably to students whose voices and stories have largely been silenced, all against a landscape of increasingly rigorous and conflicting accountability pressure associated with chronic absenteeism, graduation rate, suspension rate and student achievement. While scholarship and dialogue pertaining to leadership responses to chronic absenteeism at the high school level generally support an emphasis on outreach and engagement with families, building relationships with students, affording students opportunities to recover credit, and connecting them to experiences that relate to the world of work after high school, scarce research focuses on the complex, dynamic role identities of the school leaders who innovate and implement these ad hoc responses, often without guidance from policy, and in turn, influence the experiences, outcomes and possibilities for chronically absent students. This current study investigated the ways that role identity components influenced the motivated actions of school and district leaders towards chronic absenteeism at the high school level. The study’s guiding questions were: (a) how do school leaders’ role identity components (i.e.., ontological and epistemological beliefs; purpose and goals; perceived action possibilities; self-perceptions and definitions) emerge and interact with each other to inform their actions regarding chronically absent high school students? (b) to what extent do the beliefs and perceptions of school leaders about supporting chronically absent students compare and contrast to the lived experiences of adults who were chronically absent students in high school? (c) to what extent do the beliefs and perceptions of school leaders about supporting chronically absent students compare and contrast to the lived experiences of parents and guardians of adults who were chronically absent students in high school? The guiding theoretical frame for this study is the Dynamic Systems Model of Role Identity (DSMRI; Kaplan & Garner, 2017). The DSMRI conceptualizes motivated action to be influenced by an actor’s dynamic and contextualized interpretation of his or her social cultural role, or role identity. According to the model, four multi-elemental components comprise an actor’s role identity: ontological and epistemological beliefs, purpose and goals, perceived action possibilities, and self-perceptions and definitions. These components are interdependent, irreducible, and reciprocally influencing each other, the behaviors and their meanings to the actor, and the future iterations of the actor’s role identity system. The study employed a narrative approach to investigate the school and district leaders’ motivated actions and the meanings they made of high school student absenteeism. Using Seidman’s (2013) protocol, I interviewed nine school leaders, five former students, and three parents who operated at a small, urban public school district in the Tri-State area about their past and present social-cultural roles concerning the meaning of they made of chronic absenteeism at the high school level. Additionally, I observed the nine school leaders and they provided artifacts and documents relating to chronic absenteeism. Transcribed interviews and the student focus group, as well as observations, documents and artifacts, were analyzed utilizing Saldana’s (2013) pragmatic eclecticism approach and Kaplan and Garner’s (2016) DSMRI Codebook and Analysis Guide. The results demonstrate how each school leader’s meaning of working with chronically absent students at the high school level, amidst an array of accountability pressures, has been incorporated into their dynamic role identity system within the sociocultural context, guiding their experiences, perceptions and actions. Despite their nuanced role identity systems - the participants come very different backgrounds with varied lived experiences and expertise in the domain, and reference different prior role identities and future role identities - the findings also highlighted common processes and content across Participant Roles (e.g., school leader, parent or student). This manifested distinctly in the themes reflecting school leaders’ actions changed in response to the system’s control parameter of accountability pressure, the ways school leaders communicated to parents and students about absenteeism, and the very different cultural meanings that students and parents gave to absenteeism and attendance than the cultural meanings and characteristics that school leaders largely experienced. These findings illuminate a complex, turbulent landscape comprised of school and district leaders, with myriad accountability systems to which they are beholden and their chronically absent students and families, all operating with multiple role identities that integrate with one another. The insights from this study can inform the work of educational leaders, educators and researchers who endeavor to intervene with the elusive problem of chronic absenteeism at the high school level. It may further guide educational leaders and policymakers who made decisions about the utility value of social-emotional learning that emphasizes exploration of identity for students, teachers, and leaders alike, as well as how outreach efforts are regarded and measured in school system outputs such as educator evaluation systems and professional development offerings. Importantly, this research aims to provide leaders with a tool for reflection on the importance of role identity as a lens to view their own professional practices and responses to challenging, complex problems in the domain such as chronic absenteeism. Moreover, when school systems were pressed to shut physically and adapt school services and instruction due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the existing, multidimensional consideration of attending school manifested in new meanings and barriers for students, parents and school leaders grappling with the issue of chronic absenteeism in a changing context. Finally, this research aims to contribute, in a small way, to improve educational opportunity for all students, including those experiencing complex barriers to attending school.
    • SCHOOL PERSONNEL ESTABLISHING FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION TRAINING BASED ON A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS WITH AUTISTIC STUDENTS IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SETTING TO REDUCE PROBLEM BEHAVIORS

      Axelrod, Saul; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Rosenfeld, Joseph G.; Connell, James; Farley, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Autism is subset of the special education population that seems to be growing at an alarming rate. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), one of the three main deficits found in someone diagnosed with autism is a "qualitative impairment in communication". However, language skills are very difficult for autistic children to learn and are often associated with disruptive behaviors. Research has shown a strong correlation between problem behaviors and difficulties with communication. This study uses techniques (i.e. functional analysis and functional assessment) to determine the function of these problem behaviors and their communicative intent. This study also demonstrates that an experimental approach such as a functional analysis can be done in a public school setting by public school personnel. Once the function is determined, treatments incorporating Functional Communication Training (FCT) can be applied to reduce these problem behaviors while increasing communication. Research has shown that FCT that replaces each function of a problem behavior will reduce problem behaviors in autistic children. Therefore, functional analysis results allow for the reduction of problem behaviors while identifying optimal situations/settings to teach language. Three male autistic students, attending a public school, were involved in the study. All subjects exhibited one or more problem behaviors that interfered with their everyday functioning at school. Initially, functional assessment data were collected via a descriptive analysis using Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (A-B-C) data. The A-B-C data were taken throughout each subject's school day in various environments. The data for each subject were graphed and analyzed by a school psychologist. Based on the results, the school psychologist developed a hypothesis for each subject regarding the function of his problem behavior. Subjects were exposed to various functional analysis conditions using a single subject multielement manipulation design based on the A-B-C data. These functional analysis sessions were conducted in each student's current public school placement. Functional analysis conditions were implemented until stable levels of problem behaviors were obtained or a clear pattern provided evidence as to the function of the problem behavior. Data from all sessions were graphed in a multiple baseline across subjects and visually assessed. Based on the data from the functional analysis, the function of the student's problem behavior was hypothesized. The experimenter, who was also a school psychologist, designed and implemented a function based treatment package to successfully reduce each student's problem behaviors. The treatment for each subject was individually designed based on that subject's functional analysis. Each treatment also incorporated a FCT component. As a result, problem behaviors were successfully reduced for each subject using functional assessment methodology by a school psychologist in a public school setting.