• Rab-Vesicle Trafficking is Required for Ras-Mediated Proliferation

      Goldfinger, Lawrence; Thomas, Gareth; Haines, Dale; Sirover, Michael A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The Ras superfamily consists of over 150 members including the well-known: H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras. We propose to target Ras related proliferation in cancer cells by inhibiting Rab vesicle formation. H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras are carcinogenic; activating mutations in Ras signaling are generally associated with increased proliferation and survival in cancer cells. Ras is mutated in up to 30% of all human cancers and represents an early survival mutation in cancer cells. Vesicle-bound Ras is trafficked to the plasma membrane, which facilitates interaction between Raf, and effector proteins. Previously, farnsesylation inhibitors, (FTIs) and GTP binding agonists of Ras have been tested as potential pharmacological inhibitors of Ras signaling. However, both drug types have proven ineffective in-vivo. Therefore, there are currently no effective pharmacological treatments to target Ras signaling. However, unpublished data from our lab has identified co-localization of Ras and Rab proteins, in vesicles. Rab proteins are associated with vesicle budding, and endosome development. Rab activity is driven by GTP binding and geranylgeranylation. Non-geranylgeranylated Rab is cytosolic, and does not facilitate endosome formation or vesicle trafficking. We propose that by targeting the Rab specific geranylgeranylation via Rab-specific geranylgeranyl transferase II, we will inhibit Ras associated proliferation. We will pursue this hypothesis by testing three objectives. First, we will produce and test Rab-geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT)-shRNA to target Rab specific geranylgeranyl transferase. Second, we will illustrate the effect of RGGT knockdown on a downstream signaling target of Ras, specifically pERK levels. Finally, we will measure the direct effect of RGGT knockdown on Ras mediated cellular proliferation. Our results conclude that RGGT-shRNA is a potential target of Ras mediated tumor proliferation.
    • Race Financial Institutions, Credit Discrimination And African American Homeownership In Philadelphia, 1880-1960

      Jenkins, Wilbert L., 1953-; Kusmer, Kenneth L., 1945-; Collier-Thomas, Bettye; Goldstein, Ira (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In the wake of Emancipation, African Americans viewed land and home ownership as an essential element of their "citizenship rights." However, efforts to achieve such ownership in the postbellum era were often stymied by credit discrimination as many blacks were ensnared in a system of debt peonage. Despite such obstacles, African Americans achieved land ownership in surprising numbers in rural and urban areas in the South. At the beginning of the twentieth century, millions of African Americans began leaving the South for the North with continued aspirations of homeownership. As blacks sought to fulfill the American Dream, many financial institutions refused to provide loans to them or provided loans with onerous terms and conditions. In response, a small group of African American leaders, working in conjunction with a number of the major black churches in Philadelphia, built the largest network of race financial institutions in the United States to provide credit to black home buyers. The leaders recognized economic development through homeownership as an integral piece of the larger civil rights movement dedicated to challenging white supremacy. The race financial institutions successfully provided hundreds of mortgage loans to African Americans and were a key reason for the tripling of the black homeownership rate in Philadelphia from 1910 to 1930. During the Great Depression, the federal government revolutionized home financing with a series of programs that greatly expanded homeownership. However, the programs, such as those of the Federal Housing Administration, resulted in blacks being subjected to redlining and denied access to credit. In response, blacks were often forced to turn to alternative sources of high cost credit to finance the purchase of homes. Nevertheless, as a new wave of African American migrants arrived to Philadelphia during post-World War II era, blacks fought to purchase homes and two major race financial institutions continued to provide mortgage loans to African Americans in Philadelphia. The resolve of blacks to overcome credit discrimination to purchase homes through the creation of race financial institutions was a key part of the broader struggle for civil rights in the United States.
    • RACE, CULTURE AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT: An Historical Overview and an Exploratory Analysis in a Multi-Ethnic, Urban High School

      Norment, Nathaniel; Abarry, Abu Shardow, 1947-; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This study highlights the salience of race, cultural match between student and teacher, students' cultural conformity and perceptions of opportunity, and teachers' pedagogical perspectives in students' academic achievement, with particular attention to the perpetual achievement gap between African American and European American students. This analysis of a multi-ethnic group of 308 high school students and 23 teachers examines the inter-relatedness of students' and teachers' cultural values, view, and practices and school-based environmental factors that are often absent or dichotomized in explorations of academic achievement across racial/cultural groups. Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test results revealed statistically significantly higher achievement scores among (1) students who shared the same race/ethnicity or shared the same race/ethnicity and culture with their teachers; (2) students who reported cultural perspectives consistent with mainstream cultural views and experiences regarding race, social issues, school-related coping strategies, and school opportunity; and (3) students whose teachers reported pluralistic and multicultural/pluralistic pedagogical styles when compared to their peers. Exploratory analyses of variance supported multiple regression analyses which found each variable to explain from 15% to 23% of the variance in students' academic achievement. This African-centered investigation places the interests of African Americans central to its exploration. It posits the cultural heritage and social-political experiences of its subjects as the driving force of inquiry into the continual lack of "equal" opportunity for and "equal" legitimacy of African American people and culture in public education in America. Therefore, this study is informed by a comprehensive review of the history, culture, and social politics within which America's academic achievement levels and gaps are inextricably rooted. Given the pervasiveness of socially-reconstructed inequality through institutions in America, the roles of race, culture, and cultural conformity are analyzed in a "successful," multi-ethnic high school in the southwest. This analysis helps determine whether dynamics that involve culture and cultural conformity are active in America's classrooms and how they impact students' achievement. It is hoped that this clarification of racial and cultural dynamics within educational institutions will spur stakeholders' motivations and inform policies and strategies to provide equitable educational opportunities for African American students and to improve all students' academic achievement.
    • RACE, PLACE, AND POLICY FORMATION: PUBLIC EDUCATION AND SCHOOL CHOICE DISCOURSE IN THE WASHINGTON POST, 2007-2012

      Chakravorty, Sanjoy; Goyette, Kimberly A.; Sanders, Rickie; Byng, Michelle (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      As the first city with a majority African American population and a school system that has long served majority low-income African American children, DC offers a compelling case study about public education and school choice in an increasingly affluent city. Using The Washington Post archive, this dissertation considers how discourse about one of the most vital public goods evolved between 2007 and 2012, a period of rapid economic, political, and social change in the city. DC is a civically engaged and diverse city and, The Washington Post has one of the most diverse newsrooms in the country. Post leadership and most writers and contributors were critical of policy and rulings that might cause greater racial segregation in American public schools. Yet, there was no discourse in this archive to suggest that encouraging greater racial or economic integration would be a successful campaign. Instead, The Post advocated for school reform and choice for the neediest students while seemingly absolving families with means who chose to opt out of the public school system. Failing to interrogate the school choices made by middle-class families represents a silence in the archive and illustrates how silence can be productive because it contributes toward the maintenance of a segregated public school system.
    • Race-Dependent Modulation of Endothelial Cell Responses to Shear Stress: Implications for Vascular Health in African Americans

      Brown, Michael D.; Park, Joon Young; Rizzo, Victor; Kendrick, Zebulon V.; Roth, Stephen M., 1973- (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      It is known that African American ethnicity is an independent risk factor for exaggerated oxidative stress which is intricately intertwined with inflammation, hypertension (HT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this dissertation study was to examine the racial differences that exist between African Americans and Caucasians in oxidative stress levels at the molecular level using an in vitro model of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). African American HUVECs were found to have significantly higher baseline levels of oxidative stress in vitro compared to Caucasian HUVECs. In order to establish proof of concept, three preliminary studies were conducted. The first preliminary study, an acute exercise protocol was conducted in young healthy adults in order to measure plasma oxidative stress markers in response to a single moderate intensity treadmill exercise bout. In this study, it was found that the treadmill exercise did not elicit a race-dependent responses, but that African American adults had higher level of oxidative stress at all sample times when compared to the Caucasians. A second preliminary study was conducted using a parallel cell culture design to measure basal oxidative stress levels in African American and Caucasian HUVECs without stimulation. These data were shown in relation to the plasma levels of oxidative stress in resting African American and Caucasian adults. This was done in order to show that the common oxidative stress markers measured in human plasma can also be measured in cell culture supernatant and lysate. It was found that both African American adults and HUVECs had heightened oxidative stress and inflammatory markers when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. The third preliminary study was conducted using tumor Necrosis Factor-#945; (TNF-#945;) as an inflammatory stimulant and measuring the oxidative stress response in both African American and Caucasian HUVECs. This was done in order to show that cells of different race respond differently to stimuli. It was found that the response to TNF-α was blunted in African American HUVECs. The final step was to use laminar shear stress (LSS) as an exercise mimetic in order to examine whether HUVECs from different race respond differently. HUVECs from both race were harvested under static condition (no LSS), with low LSS at 5 dyne/cm2, and with a moderate level of LSS at 20 dyne/cm2. It was found that despite the fact that African American HUVECs had higher levels of oxidative stress under static conditions, when LSS was applied, protein expressions and oxidative stress biomarkers adjusted to levels that were similar to the Caucasian HUVEC adaptations to LSS. From this, it appears that African American HUVECs have a larger response to LSS stimulus indicating that aerobic exercise prescriptions may be valuable for this population since the potential exists for large improvements in oxidative stress levels for this population.
    • Racial Authenticity Processes: Evaluations of Authentic Blackness and Self-Esteem

      Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Xie, Hongling; Drabick, Deborah A.; Weinraub, Marsha; Jiang, Xu (Psychologist); Seaton, Eleanor K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Racial authenticity refers to the social evaluation of an individual’s group membership based on their perceived racial similarities to or differences from their racial group. While the criteria for determining racial authenticity may be abstract and mutable, negative outcomes may still occur for individuals based on whether they are perceived as an authentic member of their racial group. Notably, perceptions of racial authenticity may be particularly salient among Black college students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) due to competing behavioral expectations from Black students as well as non-Black students and faculty. The present study contributes to prior research on this topic through a validation and test of a novel measure of racial authenticity defined by one’s perceived racial similarities to their group (racial prototypicality) and their experiences of being mistreated by their racial group due to perceived racial differences (racial othering). Furthermore, the study elucidates racial authentication processes among Black students through an examination of how contextual factors contribute to evaluations of authentic Blackness and the extent to which racial authenticity relates to self-blame and self-esteem. Within the study, a sample of 136 Black PWI students (Mage = 20.27, SD = 4.14; 91.2% female) completed an online questionnaire. A path analysis revealed that Black students who held more negative views about their racial group (low private regard) and who had more friends of a different race experienced more stress from racial othering. Additionally, experiences of racial othering indirectly predicted self-esteem through self-blame coping. These findings have implications for understanding how perceptions of racial authenticity relate to well-being among Black PWI students.
    • RACIAL CONCORDANCE, AUTONOMY, AND JUSTICE: EVIDENCE FOR THE ETHICAL NEED OF DIVERSITY IN MEDICINE

      Jones, Nora L.; Reeves, Kathleen A.; Reeves, Kathleen A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Racial and ethnic minorities in the United States experience health disparities and poor health outcomes at a disproportionate rate in comparison to other groups. One of the many social determinants of health that contributes to these poor health outcomes is mistrust in the medical community. Mistrust is a consequence of a too-long history of unethical experimentation in African American and Latino communities, and has resulted in decreased use of preventive services and screening tools, lack of adherence to medical treatments, and minimal participation in clinical trials. These patterns of minimal utilization of healthcare services have resulted in poor outcomes for numerous health conditions, poor understanding of different diseases and their impact on minority groups, as well as a lack of evidence-based treatments which will benefit these populations. The purpose of this thesis is first to address the historical origins and contemporary consequences of mistrust in medicine within the African American and Latino communities. Second, I address the ameliorating impact that patient-physician racial and language concordance has on both trust and clinical outcomes. Throughout, I reference the ethical principles which warrant the need for greater patient-physician race and language concordance, and I present pipeline programs as a tool to increase the diversity in the medical field, all with the ultimate goal of improving health outcomes in the African American and Latino community.
    • RACIAL DISPARITIES IN HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS PREVALENCE IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER PATIENTS: AN INTERNATIONAL POOLED AND META-ANALYSIS

      Ragin, Camille; Nelson, Deborah B.; Davey, Adam (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the top ten cancers in the world, and is caused by tobacco use, alcohol consumption and Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV associated HNC patients have improved survival rates compared to non -HPV associated HNC patients. This improved survival is due to HPV- positive tumors favorable response to chemotherapy and radiation. The literature has shown that there is a racial disparity in survival rates between Caucasians and African Americans, with African Americans having poorer survival rates. The aim of this study is to determine if the racial disparity among HNC patients is due to a difference in HPV prevalence between races. HPV prevalence in HNC was assessed by a meta-analysis of published articles (30/247) that reported race specific HPV prevalence. We also conducted a pooled analysis in which authors that assessed HPV in HNC were invited to submit their datasets. Meta-pooled prevalence estimates revealed that 20% of African American HNC patients had HPV-positive tumors, compared to 44% in Caucasians. However for both African American HNC patients and Caucasian HNC patients there was low to moderate heterogeneity between the studies (Q-test p-value = p < 0.001, I2 = 18.87%, and p= 0.008. I2 =65.47% respectively). The prevalence of HPV in African Americans was 60% and in Caucasians it was 39%. African Americans had a risk of oropharyngeal cancer that was no different from Caucasians (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 0.53-3.62) but had an increased risk of death from oropharyngeal cancer (HR: 2.39, 95% CI 1.03-5.55) compared to Caucasians. The results of the pooled analysis does not support the concept that African Americans HNC patients have a lower prevalence of HPV, but substantiates the notion that African Americans have worse survival than Caucasians. However, these are preliminary results as the pooled analysis is still being conducted, the inclusion of more datasets in the analysis could alter these preliminary findings.
    • RACIAL/ETHNIC DISCRIMINATION AS A BARRIER TO SOCIOECONOMIC UPWARD MOBILITY AMONG SECOND-GENERATION IMMIGRANTS: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE AND SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION

      Klugman, Joshua; Bachmeier, James D.; Tesfai, Rebbeca; Jordan, Will J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Today’s second-generation immigrants who are mostly of Hispanic, Afro-Caribbean, and Asian descent face new challenges that prevent them from replicating the high levels of intergenerational upward mobility that were achieved by most European immigrants and their offspring in earlier periods. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the persistent racial and ethnic discrimination against nonwhite children of immigrants constitutes a major barrier to their incorporation into the middle class as such experiences foster a reactive mindset that is detrimental to socioeconomic incorporation. To test this claim, I analyze whether perceived discrimination (PD) has a negative impact on the educational and occupational outlooks, and ultimately on the socioeconomic status attainment of second-generation immigrants. Further, I examine how socioeconomic background and contextual factors influence the risk of PD on the one hand, and its short- and long-term consequences on the other. Drawing from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), which was conducted in three waves when respondents were on average fourteen, seventeen, and twenty-four years old, I include individual-level and school-level data and use school random effects logistic and linear regression modeling to examine the effects of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination on second-generation immigrant incorporation. I find very little evidence for the notion that PD has a negative impact on future outlooks or status attainment; only youth who come of age in relatively privileged socioeconomic circumstances are more likely to have higher educational aspirations than expectations, but this mechanism does not translate into lower status attainment. I discuss possible explanations for the lack of support of segmented assimilation theory’s claims as well as the theoretical and methodological implications of my study.
    • Racing the City: Intentional Integration and the Pursuit of Racial Justice in Post-World War II America

      Farber, David R.; Bailey, Beth L., 1957-; Simon, Bryant; Kruse, Kevin Michael, 1972- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      My dissertation, Racing the City: Intentional Integration and the Pursuit of Racial Justice in Post-WWII America, examines the creation, experience, and meaning of intentionally integrated residential space in the latter half of the twentieth century. Entering into the growing historiographical conversations on post-war American cities and the northern civil rights movement, I argue that with a strong commitment to maintaining residential cohesion and a heightened sense of racial justice in the wake of the Second World War, liberal integrationists around the country embarked on grassroots campaigns seeking to translate the ideals of racial equality into a blueprint for genuine interracial living. Through innovative real estate efforts, creative marketing techniques, and religious activism, pioneering community groups worked to intentionally integrate their neighborhoods, to serve as a model for sustainable urbanity and racial justice in the United States. My research, centered on the northwest Philadelphia neighborhood of West Mount Airy, chronicles a liberal community effort that confronted formal legal and governmental policies and deeply entrenched cultural understandings; through this integration project, activists sought to redefine post-war urban space in terms of racial inclusion. In crafting such a narrative, I challenge much of the scholarship on the northern struggle for racial justice, which paints a uniform picture of a divisive and violent racial urban environment. At the same time, my dissertation explores how hard it was for urban integrationists to build interracial communities. I portray a neighborhood struggling with the deeper meanings of integrated space, with identity politics and larger institutional, structural, and cultural forces, and with internal resistance to change. In that sense, I speak to the larger debates over post-WWII urban space; my research, here, implies a cultural explanation complementing the political and economic narratives of white flight and urban crisis that scholars have crafted over the last two decades. This is at once the story of a group of people seeking to challenge the seeming inevitability of segregation by creating an economically stable, racially integrated community predicated upon an idealized vision of American democracy, and it is the story of the fraying of that ideal.
    • RAD52 DNA Binding Activity Can Be Targeted to Eliminate CML Stem Cells

      Skorski, Tomasz; Sheffield, Joel B.; Giordano, Antonio, MD; Tuszynski, George P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      BCR-ABL1 transforms hematopoietic stem cells into leukemia stem cells (LSCs) to induce chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Expression of BCR-ABL1 stimulates production of elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce oxidative DNA damage. CML cells accumulate excessive amounts of ROS-induced DNA damage which can be converted to potentially lethal DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). BCR-ABL1 stimulates enhanced Rad51-mediated DSB repair by the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway. In these studies we show BCR-ABL1-transformed cells depend on Rad52-mediated HRR to promote repair of ROS-induced DSBs and that this activity is dependent on Rad52 binding to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Our results show in the absence of Rad52, BCR-ABL1-positive hematopoietic cells accumulated elevated numbers of DSBs as detected by enhanced γ--H2AX foci formation compared to cells with wild-type Rad52 which resulted in a decrease in proliferation and expansion of the Rad52-null LSC population. Expression of wild-type Rad52 in Rad52-null cells decreased the accumulation of DSBs and restored expansion of the LSC population. Inhibition of ROS with the antioxidants Vitamin E or N-acetyl cysteine exerted similar effects on the LSC population of Rad52-null cells as restoration of wild-type Rad52. Our studies also show Rad52's ssDNA-binding activity is required for the proliferation of CML cells as evidenced by the accumulation of DSBs and impairment of clonogenic potential in cells in which the Rad52-F79A ssDNA-binding deficient mutant was expressed. Inhibition of Rad52 DNA binding activity by a peptide aptamer targeting Rad52-F79 resulted in a synthetic lethal phenotype in BCR-ABL1-positive cells due to impairment of the Rad52-dependent HRR pathway, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence and HRR repair assays. Altogether we identify Rad52 as a novel target in the treatment of CML, and other BRCA1- and/or BRCA2-deficient cancers, by showing induction of synthetic lethality in proliferating BCR-ABL1-positive cells in which Rad52 ssDNA-binding activity is inhibited.
    • Radiohead and Identity: A Moon Shaped Pool and the Process of Identity Construction

      Klein, Michael Leslie; Manabe, Noriko, 1960-; Latham, Edward David; Vila, Pablo, 1952- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      This dissertation synthesizes critical theories of identity with music theoretical analysis to explore how listeners use popular music as a means of identity construction. Focusing on Radiohead’s 2016 album A Moon Shaped Pool, the dissertation investigates the various sociological and musical frameworks that illuminate how the songs interact with listener expectations in the process of interpretation. Work on popular music and personal expression is already present in sociology, anthropology, musicology, and other disciplines, though that work rarely engages the close readings of musical processes that I employ in the dissertation. Richard Middleton (Studying Popular Music) and Tia DeNora (Music in Everyday Life), for example, apply a wide variety of methodologies toward identifying the complexities of identity and popular music. For the dissertation, though, I focus primarily on how Judith Butler’s conception of interpellation in Giving an Account of Oneself can be used as a model for how musical conventions and listener expectations impact the types of identity positions available to listeners. For Butler, interpellation refers to how frameworks of social norms force subjects to adhere to specific identity positions. This dissertation will explore both the social and musical conventions that allow for nuanced and critical interpretations of popular songs. Although many theorists have probed Radiohead’s music, this dissertation synthesizes robust analytical approaches with hermeneutics in order to explore how Radiohead’s music signifies, both in the context of their acoustic components and with regard to how this music impacts the construction of listener identities. Radiohead’s music is apt for these analyses because it often straddles the line between convention and surprise, opening several avenues for critical and musical scrutiny. I also argue that listeners interact with this music as if the songs are agents themselves––they have powerful emotional and physical effects on us.
    • RAISING CHILDREN AS BILINGUALS: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF EIGHT INTERNATIONAL FAMILIES IN JAPAN

      Childs, Marshall; Schaefer, Kenneth G.; Beglar, David J.; Zimmerman, Suzi; Bostwick, Michael (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Eight families with Japanese mothers and English-speaking fathers were followed from the 1990s to 2007 as they strove to raise their children as bilinguals. The issues that were investigated were: (1) the language environments afforded; (2) factors influencing family decisions in creating those language environments; and, (3) conclusions about the efficacy of different language environments for raising bilingual children. Parental sacrifice was evident. Some mothers suppressed their native Japanese language and culture as they tried to afford their children solid backgrounds in what they considered a high-prestige language (English), while some fathers changed jobs in order to spend more time at home. Some families also moved in order to be near desirable schools. An optimal English environment at home was the key to success. Fathers spent quality time with their children every day, reading English books, doing homework together, talking about school activities, and reading bedtime stories. Families provided children with many English videos, DVDs, and other audiovisual sources. Summer travel to the father's country for summer camps and other enjoyable activities, especially spending time with English-speaking cousins, promoted positive images of English language and culture. Mothers faced issues of identity, power relations, and gender roles. The mothers' own experiences of learning English played a crucial role in the choices they made in raising their children as bilinguals. Typically, power relations between husbands and wives were determined by the wives' self-perception of being subordinate to their husbands. The results indicated that different theories of bilingual child-raising, no matter how stringently followed, did not seem to matter; what mattered was balancing the time the child spent with each parent. Usually before parents expected it, the child's own identity asserted itself in the pursuit of particular language environments, and progress toward fluency was sometimes erratic, as in the case of one boy whose development in both languages appeared to be delayed but who later was viewed as having native-speaker proficiency in both languages. Overall, more important than any particular method or theory, sustained sincere efforts and flexibility can produce bilingual children.
    • RAMIFICATIONS OF SARBANES-OXLEY CORPORATE GOVERNANCE LEGISLATION ON INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS OF RESEARCH-INTENSIVE FIRMS

      Mudambi, Ram, 1954-; Kumaraswamy, Arun; Krishnan, Jayanthi; Dunkelberg, William C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of July 2002 was created to address the financial malfeasance revealed during the investigations of several large firms by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The Act required public companies traded on U.S. exchanges to provide increased transparency in financial statements. Key portions of the legislation required firms to create internal financial controls and placed personal accountability with top executives. SOX mandated and standardized a greater degree of self-regulation. In the years following SOX, firms experienced significantly higher compliance costs, but they also benefited from the reduction of statement errors and fraud, increased accuracy in reporting, and greater investor confidence. After the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002, anecdotal evidence suggested that SOX impeded small, research intensive firms. We looked at research intensive firms going public before and after SOX to determine if there was a change in volume and quality of research intensive firms post-SOX. We found that firms that went public after SOX were fewer and had lower patenting activity. In the case of small and medium size firms, the cost of SOX compliance is likely to divert funds from research investments. We speculate that highly research intensive firms are more likely post-SOX to divert their IPO to non-U.S. exchanges, delay going public, or dismiss the idea of going public, as proposed in a “3Ds” model. The 2002 SOX US Congressional Act levied millions of dollars in new compliance costs on each foreign or domestic firm that went public on U.S. exchanges. Funding for regulatory expenditures must come from somewhere. We proposed that one likely candidate was research budgets, as research efforts have a more distant, less immediately visible, long term effect on firm performance. We suggested that large firms more easily absorbed the additional costs of SOX with a reduced effect on research and development budgets, while small firms were less able to maintain research budgets after SOX. In the aftermath of SOX, research spending did go down, most visibly in Biotech and Electronics. As the total number of IPO firms decreased dramatically after SOX, these two research intensive industries, plus Computer Software, were the only industries with a large enough sample size to evaluate. We saw that research intensive firms diminished dramatically, along with many non-research intensive firms, from IPO events after SOX. Where we had sufficient sample size, in computer software, biotechnology, electronics, and “other”, we noted that research-intensive firms generally resisted the temptation to raid research budgets, finding funding for compliance elsewhere within the company or from the additional cash flow at time of IPO. Where firms did appear to greatly reduce research budgets was in the non-research intensive industries, where research budgets might be more of a discretionary expense. Firm size was not a factor in whether research intensive firms could better absorb the costs of SOX, although smaller firms tended to spend proportionally more on research in an effort to grow faster. After the enactment of SOX, we observed an indication that the markets valued research intensity even more than prior to SOX, perhaps understanding the vulnerability of research budgets being diverted to compliance costs. Overall, the data suggested that the effect of SOX was underestimated in this study, as the firms that were deterred from going public on U.S. exchanges were not in the sample evaluated. We only analyzed those firms prepared to accept the higher costs of SOX. The data set consisted of survivors, selected firms still willing to pay for SOX compliance as well as for research programs.
    • Raphael's Galatea and the Villa Farnesina: Going Viral in Text, Paint, and Print in the Sixteenth Century

      Hall, Marcia B.; Cooper, Tracy Elizabeth; Pon, Lisa (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This dissertation examines Raphael's Galatea (1512-13), located in the Villa Farnesina in Rome, and the role of viral transmission in relation to the iconic status and exclusivity of this fresco, and how its meaning and reception was shaped over time by its subsequent dissemination through print. The approach considers how human motivations and sensibilities drive and shape response, proposing that printed image and text participated in and amplified a process of social transmission. As such, prints can be examined, along with the objects they seek to interpret or mediate, using the contemporary notion of going viral. Printed images and text leave us traces of how ideas traversed time, place, audience, and culture, decontextualizing and then re-contextualizing works of art for distant audiences. Along the way, they shaped thoughts about those works as creators and consumers pursued agendas of their own. These portable objects offer us artifacts of the nuanced process of viral transmission that often includes a response to the original space and the insider discourses concealed on the larger market. As many details fell away, others solidified and remain with us today. Itself a response to predecessors in both literature and art, Raphael's Galatea inspired interpretations by others and became a work apart. After exploring the stories that evolved about the Villa Farnesina, its patron Agostino Chigi, and Raphael, this case study then turns to the creation and experience of the frescoes in the Loggia of Galatea. It sheds new light upon Raphael's fresco as a remarkable response to the holistic experience of Agostino Chigis villa and the intertextual and intermedial dialogue taking place amongst the various works. The final content chapter offers a re-evaluation of related engravings by Marcantonio Raimondi, Marco Dente, Hendrick Goltzius, and others, from the more familiar to the more obscure. This examination reveals an insider dialogue lost over time, illuminating how viral transmission shaped attitudes about art and artists, ultimately contributing to the formation of a canon.
    • Rapid Detection of Biogenic Amines using Capillary Electrophoresis and Gradient Elution Isotachophoresis

      Shackman, Jonathan G.; Spano, Francis C.; Strongin, Daniel R.; Nicholson, Allen W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      The metabolism of amino acids produces important chemical signaling molecules called neurotransmitters, which are responsible for carrying out important actions within the human body. There are approximately one hundred identified neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter study is important due to their involvement in biological, physiological, pharmacological, and pathological functions. Commonly employed methods for neurotransmitter detection are mainly based upon microdialysis. However, the methods suffer from disadvantages. Microdialysis fails to determine the absolute concentration of analytes and therefore requires it to be tied in with an analytical technique such as high performance liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis. Although high performance liquid chromatography is the most powerful analytical technique to date, it necessitates high maintenance and suffers from poor temporal resolution. While capillary electrophoresis affords more rapid separations than high performance liquid chromatography, it suffers from poor concentration limits of detection and requires large sample dilutions of highly conductive samples, such as biological fluids. Consequently, research is focused on detection of various amino acids and neurotransmitters employing novel analytical techniques along with traditional capillary electrophoresis. First, a method was developed using traditional capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection to detect two major excitatory neurotransmitters, glutamate and aspartate in planaria. The method was later applied to detect several biogenic amines using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser induced fluorescence detection in planaria to study the effect of feeding on the levels of biogenic amines within individual planaria homogenates. The concentration sensitivity issue of capillary electrophoresis led to the use of a new method for sensitive neurotransmitter measurements, gradient elution isotachophoresis. Gradient elution isotachophoresis is an efficient capillary-based enrichment and separation technique based on balancing hydrodynamic counter-flow against electrophoresis. Enrichment is achieved with the aid of high concentrations of leading electrolyte in the counter-flow solution that creates an ionic interface near the capillary inlet. Discrete electrolyte spacers or carrier ampholyte mixtures are used to separate analyte zones. The method was applied to the enrichment and separation of physiologically relevant concentrations of aspartate and glutamate labeled with dansyl chloride, phenyl isothiocyanate, or carboxyfluorescein, succinimidyl ester in artificial cerebrospinal fluid using ultraviolet absorbance detection. Finally, gradient elution isotachophoresis was combined with capillary zone electrophoresis to eliminate the use of spacers and provide rapid separations and enrichment. The technique was applied for the detection of biogenic amines in a glass microfluidic device.
    • (Re) Constructing the Subject: A Strategic Model for Acquisition of Africana Liberation Through Children's Books

      Mazama, Ama, 1961-; Asante, Molefi Kete, 1942- (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Children of African descent gather information about the world from various sources such as school, television, toys, and books. This research focuses specifically on books as an educational tool. The dominant focus of this work is to evaluate the ideas communicated to black children in books. Additionally, this is an Afrocentric work that is invested in black children's books that teach black children to resist white supremacy by achieving academic excellence, valuing their African culture, and having high self-esteem. Ultimately, these acts will lead children of African descent to reach their full potential. However, this cannot be done if the books read to and by black children have negative or minimal depictions of black people. To this point, this work demonstrates the efficacy of constructive representations of black people in children's books. It also examines how the authors' and illustrators' views about blackness are conveyed throughout the books. The ramifications of negative or positive ideas about black people illustrated in children's books are powerful and must be analyzed critically. This thesis explains why and how reading for black children should be utilized as a resource for development.
    • (Re)conceptualizing Intellectual Histories of Africana Studies: Preliminary Considerations

      Norment, Nathaniel; Carr, Greg (Greg E.); Carr, Greg (Greg E.) (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      The overarching objective of this thesis outlines the preliminary rationale for the development of a comprehensive review of the sources that seek to understand disciplinarity, Africana Studies, and Africana intellectual histories. It is the conceptual overlay for an extended work that will eventually offer a (re)conceptualization of Africana Studies intellectual genealogies.
    • (Re)inscribing Meaning: An Examination of the Effective Approaches, Adaptations and Improvisational Elements in Closing the Excellence Gap for Black Students

      Abarry, Abu Shardow, 1947-; Norment, Nathaniel; Wonkeryor, Edward Lama; Watkins, Valethia (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      From great African nations like the Ancient Kemites, Akan and Gikuyu, the world witnessed the development of the most powerful social structures, governance systems, ground breaking innovations in science and technology, and systems of thought that still exist today. Hence, in looking at the low performance levels of Black students today, the question becomes, how do the descendants of those who created writing, mathematics, and science; and then in the face of episodic disruptions laid their lives on the line to read, write, and built public schools, Sabbath schools, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities, close the excellence gap between their actual performance and deeply rooted cultural expectations? The present study reviews the essential questions and proposed solutions for closing the excellence gap that have been offered by previous generations of scholars. Africana Studies methodological framing questions were used to examine the long-view experiences of African people as well as a three tier critical ethnographic research methods approach. The study revealed that Black students gained a level of excellence in the face of disruption through: (1) Collective Training, (2) Spiritual and Moral Balance, and (3) Content Mastery. The prerequisite for sustaining educational excellence was found to be in the individual roles female and male representatives play as the primary educators of Black children. Secondly, nurturing a sense of identity through a spiritual understanding of social order and moral responsibility to the collective is also a requirement. Nevertheless, what unites and emerges as the chief element is content mastery. The ability to retain and keep content through listening and reading; and present a level of mastery on that information through speaking, writing and action to solve problems, completes the reciprocal process of educational excellence.
    • Re-envisioning the 1876 Centennial Exhibition: New Exhibit Solutions for an Old Interpretive Problem

      Bruggeman, Seth C., 1975-; Winling, LaDale (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This paper takes a fresh look at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 and exhibits that interpret it, and suggests new exhibit strategies to re-interpret this complicated moment in American history.