• P2PHDFS: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF STATISTIC MULTIPLEXED COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE IN HADOOP FILE SYSTEM

      Shi, Justin Y. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      The Peer to Peer Hadoop Distributed File System (P2PHDFS) is designed to store and process extremely large-scale data sets reliably. This is a first attempt implementation of the Statistic Multiplexed Computing Architecture concept proposed by Dr. Shi for the existing Hadoop File System (HDFS) to eliminate all single point failures. Unlike HDFS, in P2PHDFS every node is designed to be equal and behaves as a file system server as well as slave, which enable it to attain higher performance and higher reliability at the same time as the infrastructure up scales. Due to the data intensive nature, a full implementation of P2PHDFS must address CAP Theorem challenges. This MS project is only intended as the ground breaking point using only sequential replication at this time.
    • Pagan Roman Religious Acculturation? An Inquiry into the Domestic Cult at Karanis, Ephesos and Dura-Europos: The First to Fifth Centuries CE

      Evans, Jane DeRose, 1956-; Bolman, Elizabeth S., 1960-; Betancourt, Philip P., 1936-; Rautman, Marcus Louis, 1955- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The ancient Roman domestic cult is often overlooked and marginalized in favor of state sponsored practices, monuments, and temples; yet it can give us insights into daily life, cultural interactions, and personal identity in the Empire. In my dissertation, I recreate a selection of domestic contexts in order to learn more about private cultic practices, thus illuminating those activities and behaviors that may be far removed from what appears in the literary sources or in monumental reliefs and paintings. Furthermore, the era considered is a crucial period in the history of the western world that included the rise of Christianity and dramatic changes in Roman pagan cults. By concentrating on the Roman East, I produce information relating to these changes outside of Italy and study the impact on cross-cultural exchanges and identities formulated by the Roman colonization of these cities. The Roman domestic cult in Italy invoked specific gods to maintain the well-being of the home in small shrines within the house. Material evidence for these practices survives in the form of statuettes and wall paintings of the gods, incense burners, and altars. Other divinities chosen by the head of the household could join or supplant the traditional domestic deities. These additions to private shrines acted as protective patron gods of the household and they reveal a personal relationship between deity and devotee. One barrier to the understanding of the domestic cult in its original context is the nature of multiculturalism in the Roman Empire. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars tended to equate the Roman Empire with the concept of the modern nation-state. The Empire was seen as a cultural juggernaut that disseminated a uniform Roman identity that was sent out from Italy to the provinces. Evidence for "Romanization" was noted in the introduction of the Roman city plan, and Roman habits were seen in new types of public buildings such as baths or amphitheaters, the adoption of Roman coinage, the toga and the Latin language, and the introduction of Roman cults, especially the cult of the emperor. Most scholars today prefer to view the expansion of the Empire as a process that included reciprocal acculturation between natives and their Roman masters. Using this model, I examine religious cross-currents on a domestic scale, thus contributing to the current scholarly discussion. By exploring the cult in the home, we can get a better indication of the interaction between native and Roman in the private sphere. Scholars agree that we can learn more from smaller, regional studies; it cannot be assumed that the same things occurred in all parts of the empire and at all times. The case-study approach has replaced the sweeping and sometimes vague histories of years past. I have chosen three sites from the Roman East since they have an abundance of material evidence that has not been exploited to its full potential: Karanis (modern Egypt), Ephesos (modern Turkey), and Dura-Europos (modern Syria). The significance of my project is three-fold. I present previously unpublished material from important sites in the Roman East. By looking at these three sites, I expand the dialogue from the singular discussion of domestic religion in first-century Italy, thus enriching it substantially. Through the consideration of acculturation between east and west I contribute to the discussion of "Romanization" in the first to fifth centuries CE. By comparing these sites with those better published, such as Pompeii and Ostia (Rome's port, largely abandoned in the second half of the third into the fourth centuries), I can more clearly show the contrast between the two halves of the Empire. My goals will be to determine how (and if) "Romanization" can be seen in these locations, what the impact of local artistic styles and indigenous deities is, and how the reciprocal relationship manifests in daily religious practices within the home.
    • Paid Your Debt to Society? Legal Financial Obligations and Their Effects on Former Prisoners

      Roman, Caterina Gouvis, 1966-; Ward, Jeffrey T.; Welsh, Wayne N., 1957-; Visher, Christy Ann (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Within the last decade, scholars and practitioners alike have noted a surge in the use of legal financial obligations (LFOs) in criminal justice processing. These include fines, fees, and costs that are applied to defendants’ cases from “upstream” agencies such as police departments to “downstream” agencies including jails, prisons, probation and parole agencies, and treatment centers. Legal financial obligations can be large, and the result is that outstanding balances often accumulate into unwieldy amounts of criminal justice debt. Recently, a small handful of qualitative studies have shown that these LFOs and debts can have adverse impacts on returning prisoners and their families, including increased stress, strained family relationships, worsened depression, and longer periods spent under criminal justice surveillance for those too poor to pay off outstanding balances. In addition, some of this work suggests that these financial obligations can increase the likelihood of returning to crime. This dissertation expands on the major contributions of these recent qualitative works by addressing the lack of quantitative research in this area. Toward this end, longitudinal data from the Returning Home Study (n=740) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are used to test whether LFOs and debt indeed have adverse impacts on key outcomes of interest in reentry research, including family relationships, depression, justice involvement/entanglement, and recidivism. Findings reveal partial support for past research and theory. Legal financial obligations do not appear to have impacts on depression, family conflict, and several measures of recidivism on average. However, outstanding debt owed to community supervision agencies (i.e., probation/parole/mandatory community supervision) significantly increases the likelihood of remaining under supervision, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of returning to prison. Implications for decision-making bodies from state legislatures to corrections agencies are discussed.
    • Painting in Paris: Vincent van Gogh, 1886-1888

      Dolan, Therese, 1946-; Silk, Gerald; West, Ashley D.; Singletary, Suzanne (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      In Painting in Paris: Vincent Van Gogh, 1886-1888, Christa DiMarco explores the two-year period Van Gogh lived and worked in Paris. The paintings the artist made in The Netherlands, where he lived prior to Paris, and those he produced in Arles, where he moved afterward, usually receive scholarly attention. The imagery from the artist’s time in the capital is generally marginalized. DiMarco considers how and why the artist used a brighter palette and energetic brushwork while painting in Paris. Considering that his artistic practice spanned only a decade from 1880 to 1890, the artist’s time in the capital represents a significant period of growth in terms of his engagement with the art market, his exposure to avant-garde imagery, and his understanding of Symbolist theory in the visual arts. Van Gogh accomplished significant goals in Paris, though some of his well-developed imagery does not necessarily figure into discussions regarding the canonical paintings of the artist’s body of work. Attention to the Paris-period not only locates Van Gogh’s pictorial development within the context of the Impressionists and Neo-Impressionists, but also establishes the ways in which the artist diverged from the artistic aims of the Parisian avant-garde, such as Claude Monet and Camille Pissarro, as he developed his Symbolic approach.
    • PAIR INTERACTION IN SPANISH LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS THAT ENROLL HERITAGE AND L2 LEARNERS

      Toth, Paul D.; Holmquist, Jonathan Carl; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Bowles, Melissa A. (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      A growing number of studies has shown that collaborative writing tasks facilitate second language (L2) development by providing learners with opportunities to focus their attention on language and to collaborate in the solution of their language-related problems (e.g., Choi & Iwashita, 2016; Storch, 2013; Swain & Lapkin, 1998; Williams, 2012). However, most of these studies have focused almost exclusively on L2 learners, and particularly on English as a second language learners. In an effort to address this gap and drawing from a sociocultural framework, this study investigated the interactions of Spanish heritage language (HL) learners and Spanish L2 learners enrolled in the same class. Twenty-four intermediate-level learners of Spanish, organized in four HL-HL, four HL-L2, and four L2-L2 dyads, participated in the study. As part of their regular class work, they completed four collaborative writing tasks in pairs. Participants were also asked to individually complete a pretest and two posttests. The tasks and tests were intended to elicit the present subjunctive in nominal and adjectival clauses. The interactions between each pair were recorded and coded for the nature of the relationships the learners formed (Storch, 2002) and the quantity and quality of learners’ deliberations about language choice, using Language Related Episodes (LREs) (Swain & Lapkin, 1998) as units of analysis. Results showed that the most common type of patterns of interaction the learners developed was collaboration. Moreover, three pairs displayed a dominant/passive pattern of interaction and two pairs an expert/novice pattern. Results also indicated that overall, participants produced slightly more LREs focused on form than LREs focused on lexis. Furthermore, results showed that whereas all pairs produced morphosyntactic LREs, they were more frequent in HL-L2 dyads. Lexical LREs occurred more often in L2-L2 dyads, and orthographic LREs occurred only in HL-HL dyads. With regards to learning gains, results revealed that six participants obtained high scores in all tests and did not show a score change from pretest to delayed posttest. Five of these participants were identified as HL learners. However, data also showed that 16 participants scored higher on their delayed posttest than they did on their pretest. Overall, considering that most dyads developed a collaborative pattern of interaction and achieved learning gains after task-based interaction, the data suggest that despite the differences in linguistic and cultural backgrounds, learners in mixed and matched pairs provided assistance to one another and produced LREs associated with the target structure. These findings have important pedagogical implications and thus, future studies need to investigate the best practices for teaching HL and L2 learners simultaneously and the types of tasks that encourage collaboration.
    • Paleoindian Chronology, Technology, and Lithic Resource Procurement at Nesquehoning Creek

      Stewart, R. Michael (Richard Michael); Hansell, Patricia; Farnsworth, Paul, 1958-; Ranere, Anthony James; Carr, Kurt W. (Kurt William), 1949- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      Nesquehoning Creek (36CR142) is a stratified, multicomponent site situated on a late Wisconsin age terrace in Lehigh Gorge State Park, Carbon County, Pennsylvania. Cultural occupations represented at Nesquehoning Creek include Colonial (late 17th-early 18th century); Late, Middle, and Early Woodland; Transitional, Late, Middle and Early Archaic; and Paleoindian. The Paleoindian component is deeply buried, contextually secure, and produced a Crowfield fluted point with associated radiocarbon dates of 12,422 ± 164, 12,255 ± 177, and 11,398 ± 110 cal BP. This dissertation focuses on: 1) assessing the Paleoindian occupation history at Nesquehoning Creek, 2) analyzing the organization of Paleoindian lithic technology, and 3) examining Paleoindian residential mobility patterns in the Middle Atlantic and Northeast regions. The history of research at Nesquehoning Creek, Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene environmental data, and Paleoindian culture history are reviewed in order to provide background information. By examining the stratigraphy and geomorphology at the Nesquehoning Creek site, this study was able to propose a model of landscape evolution and determine excavation areas with the greatest potential for stratified Paleoindian occupations. A lithic refitting and artifact distribution analysis of these excavation areas was able to identify a single Crowfield Paleoindian occupation zone. The Crowfield component lithic assemblage displayed production and reduction strategies similar to Clovis and later Paleoindian complexes. Lithic raw material types represented in the Crowfield toolkit suggest a relatively small territorial range on the order of 50 km. An evaluation of Early and Late Paleoindian residential mobility patterns in the Middle Atlantic and Northeast showed continuity in the relative occupation span of sites from both periods. This suggests that although Late Paleoindian groups had smaller territorial ranges, they appear to have moved from site to site within those territories about as frequently as Early Paleoindians in the Middle Atlantic and Northeast regions. Detailed analysis of contextually secure Paleoindian assemblages are crucial to identifying similarities and differences between archaeological complexes. This research demonstrates the importance of lithic refitting studies in the assessment of stratified, multicomponent archaeological sites. Detailed examination of the Crowfield lithic assemblage improved our understanding of Paleoindian technological organization in the Middle Atlantic region. The evaluation of Paleoindian residential mobility patterns has complimented previous studies and presented data that may be updated and reassessed in the future.
    • Paleopedology and fluvial sedimentology of the Upper Devonian Catskill Formation, Central Pennsylvania: A test of the distributive fluvial system

      Terry, Dennis O., 1965-; Davatzes, Alexandra K.; Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The Upper Devonian Catskill Formation represents marginal marine and alluvial sediments which prograded into the Appalachian Basin during the Acadian Orogeny. Distributive fluvial systems (DFS) are prevalent in modern actively aggrading basins in all tectonic and climatic regimes and may be common in the rock record. In this study, I reinterpret the Catskill Formation as a prograding distributive fluvial system (DFS) on the basis of up-section variability in paleosols, channel sandstone textural trends, and alluvial architecture. At least three distinct pedotypes representative of prevailing soil forming conditions are identified during deposition of the Irish Valley, Sherman Creek, and Duncannon Members of the Catskill Formation. Increased paleosol drainage is inferred from an up-section transition from hydromorphic aqualfs within the Irish Valley Member to non-calcareous, uderts within the Duncannon Member. Qualitative field observations of channel sandstone morphology show an increase in channel size up-section. Channels occur as small isolated bodies at the base of the section, transitioning to relatively larger, amalgamated channels, and finally, large isolated channel bodies up-section. Sandstones are litharenites and coarsen-upward throughout the Catskill Formation overall. This coarsening upward trend results from increasing paleo-flow competency in larger channels up-section. These results are consistent with deposition of the Catskill Formation by DFS processes and demonstrate the utility of paleopedological analysis in interpreting alluvial depositional processes. Identifying DFS in the rock record has implications for paleosol-based paleoclimatic studies, as paleosols forming on prograding DFS have increased paleosol drainage up-section, which could potentially be misinterpreted as a shift from prevailing humid to arid paleoclimatic conditions. Recognition of DFS in the rock record also has implications for basin analysis and exploration of fluvial aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, as the stratigraphic architecture of DFS are fundamentally different from tributary systems at the basin scale.
    • PALEOPEDOLOGY AND PALEOGEOMORPHOLOGY OF THE EARLY OLIGOCENE ORELLA AND WHITNEY MEMBERS, BRULE FORMATION, WHITE RIVER GROUP, TOADSTOOL GEOLOGIC PARK, NEBRASKA

      Terry, Dennis O., 1965-; Grandstaff, David E.; Davatzes, Alexandra K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Understanding local and regional reactions to the global Eocene-Oligocene climate transition is a continuing challenge. The White River Group in the North American midcontinent preserves dynamic fluvial, volcaniclastic and lacustrine facies that yield to aeolianites. To test whether this shift in sedimentation style was driven by climate change, 20 paleosols from 8 profiles were analyzed from the fluvial-aeolian Orella Member through the aeolian-dominated Whitney Member of the earliest Oligocene Brule Formation at Toadstool Geologic Park, NE. Paleosol morphology and geochemistry were used to assess the balance of aeolian vs. alluvial sedimentation at key stratigraphic intervals and lithologic transitions. Significant loess deposition began at least as early as the lower Orella Member but is masked in most settings by concomitant fluvial deposition. As fluvial influence on landscapes waned across the Orella-Whitney Member boundary, loess deposits predominated and became more recognizable. Paleosols follow different pedogenic pathways in direct response to depositional setting. Whereas all paleosols formed through top-down pedogenesis in alluvial settings, paleosols in aeolian-dominated settings formed though pedogenic upbuilding during aggradational phases and through top-down pedogenesis during depositional hiatuses. The disparity between each style of pedogenic development creates fundamentally different pedogenic associations that must first be understood before climatic interpretations can be drawn from macroscopic paleosol morphology alone. Microscopic analysis of loessic and alluvial paleosols indicates that pedogenic features do not greatly change across the Orella-Whitney Member boundary. Furthermore, results of climofunction calculations from five paleosol Bw and Btk horizons show mean annual temperature (ca. 9.0-10.5 °C) and precipitation (ca. 650-800 mm/y) do not significantly vary across the Orella-Whitney Member transition. Clay mineralogy and the presence of pedogenic carbonate and translocated clay corroborate paleoclimate estimates. However, geochemical paleosol profiles are uniform and do not reflect observed vertical associations of pedogenic features. Constant additions of aeolian sediment, which replenishes base losses through leaching, explain this phenomenon. Interpretations of paleovegetation from root trace morphology and paleosol taxonomy indicate that predominantly open canopy to savanna habitats were in place in the lower Orella Member and continued into the Whitney Member. Evidence for riparian partitioning exists in the lower Orella Member but disappears as fluvial deposits wane in the Whitney Member. Lacking evidence of climate change from paleosol analysis, changes in sedimentation style and vegetative biomes are most likely a reaction to increased aeolian deposition.
    • Paleopedology of the Late Triassic Middle Passaic Formation, Newark Supergroup, Pottstown, PA

      Terry, Dennis O., 1965-; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison; Grandstaff, David E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Cyclic stratigraphy has been recognized in the Newark Basin for many years. Each package, referred to as a Van Houten Cycle (VHC), generally has three divisions: shallow lake, deep lake, and subaerial exposure. Van Houten (1964) first proposed that Milankovitch orbital forcing was responsible for the manifestation of these ~21 kyr cycles. Although root traces have been observed in VHCs by others, no detailed paleopedological analysis has been performed that examines the relationship between individual VHCs, orbital forcing, and paleosol development. The Middle Passaic Formation of Late Triassic age is continuously exposed for over 30 meters along a railroad cut that follows Manatawny Creek near Pottstown, PA. Six VHCs were identified at this location and the upper most three were selected for detailed study due to their strong development. Three Van Houten Groups (VHGs), consisting of VHC Division 3, Division 1, and Division 2 respectively, were formed in order to group paleosol profiles (Division 3) with stratigraphically adjacent lacustrine units (Divisions 1 and 2) since the lakes directly affect the paleosurface through inundation and erosion. Petrographic analysis suggests that soils in this section only developed to the degree of Entisols or Protosols. Voids are lined with chalcedony and cored with calcite indicating diagenetic alteration. Molecular weathering ratio calculations proved unreliable due to diagenetic alteration of the strata. Magnetic susceptibility was measured on two intervals of the section, but is not well-suited to fractured, massive rock due to signal attenuation. Paleosol development is greater in instances where the overlying lake is poorly developed. Paleosols that are associated with a shallow lake or no lake likely have more time to develop than paleosols associated with deep lakes as the precipitation filling the lake would saturate the soil, hindering pedogenesis. The VHCs' ~21 kyr interval forces time to be the limiting factor for pedogenesis in this section, ending in either sedimentation or inundation. However, time is also tied to climate as it modulates from relatively moist to relatively drier within a VHC. Orbital forcing is the ultimate controlling factor in soil formation since time, climate, insolation, and precipitation are all interrelated and influenced by it. Relief is independent of orbital forcing and a possible control on soil formation within the Basin. Soils that formed distal from the bounding fault may not have been subject to inundation due to their higher elevation. Further research is needed to establish paleocatenary relationships of soil within the Newark Basin.
    • Palliative Treatment and Euthanasia for Psychiatric Illnesses

      Jones, Nora L.; Morrison, Mary F. (Mary Frances), 1958- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      When looking at the natural course of life, death is the natural conclusion. Majority of the time, people do not choose when and how they die. Death and dying are topics that are difficult to discuss for many individuals. However, when one decides to choose the context of their death, it raises many ethical considerations. Psychiatry, as a field, looks at the psychodynamics of death and dying for individuals. It is also poised to comment on the growing use of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia for psychiatric disorders. Through a review of the literature, theories in psychiatry regarding the dying process are used to better understand an individual's choice for choosing euthanasia as a medical intervention to end their suffering from a long-standing psychiatric illness. The use of palliative care in conjunction with psychiatry is also explored.
    • PALMITATE INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION: THE ROLE OF CALPAIN, AMPK AND ENOS

      Scalia, Rosario; Autieri, Michael V.; Kilpatrick, Laurie; Recchia, Fabio (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide. Consumption of fat rich food is a common cause of obesity. Some of the food components (i.e. saturated free fatty acids (SFAs)) have been identified as inflammatory inducers (Egger G at al., 2010). After a meal, absorbed free fatty acids (FFAs) will be stored in the liver and adipose tissue. On the luminal surfaces of endothelium in adipose tissue microcirculation, lipoprotein lipase hydrolyses absorbed triglycerides into FFAs. Then, in order to be available for adipocyte storage, FFAs have to cross the capillary endothelium barrier, which connected by tight junctions (Stremmel W et al., 2001). Increased leukocyte infiltration is a featured sign of adipose tissue inflammation found in obesity. Endothelial adhesion molecules up-regulation contributes to leukocyte infiltration during inflammation. Some clinical data suggested an increase of leukocyte-endothelium interaction in healthy volunteers after ingestion of high-fat meals (Shimabukuro M et al., 2007). Other lab results also showed that neutrophil infiltration occurred at a very early stage with high-fat feeding in mice (Talukdar S et al., 2012). However, the detailed mechanism of the above phenomena is still unknown. This thesis provides exciting preliminary data which will guide the further study in this area. First of all, we successfully established a stable protocol that CD31 antibody conjugated microbeads were used to isolate primary microvascular endothelial cells from fresh mice lung tissue. After second sorting, CD31+ cells reach 83.3% by FACS analysis. Previous literatures showed that FFAs activate recruitment of inflammatory cells through up-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules via reduced eNOS derived eNO production (Rizzo NO et al., 2010; Davenpeck KL et al., 1994; Ahluwalia A et al., 2004). In this thesis, it was found that SFAs palmitate exposure dose dependently reduced endothelial AMPK thr172 and eNOS ser1177 phosphorylation by western blot. Moreover, our study demonstrated that endothelial calpain, a calcium dependent protease associated with endothelial dysfunction, was activated by palmitate, specifically its μ-calpain isoform. Altogether, these data suggested that a new role of calpain as a key mediator of palmitate induced endothelial dysfunction and indicated both AMPK and eNOS1177 phosphorylation contribute to this pathological process. Further investigations are still needed to explore connections among those molecules. This thesis may also lead to a novel way of clinical treatment for the obese related vascular diseases.
    • Palmitoylation-Dependent Regulation of the DLK/JNK/cJun and the GP130/JAK/STAT Retrograde Signaling Pathways

      Thomas, Gareth; Soprano, Dianne R.; Ramirez, Servio H.; Son, Young-Jin; Shore, Scott K. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      Palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to protein cysteine residues. This process is best known for its roles in targeting proteins to lipid membranes, including both the plasma membrane and vesicles. Palmitoylation occurs in all eukaryotic cells, but appears to be particularly important in neurons, because genetic mutation or loss of several palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs, the enzymes that catalyze palmitoylation), leads to predominantly neuropathological defects. In addition, a growing number of recent studies have revealed key roles for palmitoylation of specific proteins in neuronal regulation. However, most of these studies have focused on how palmitoylation regulates postsynaptic protein targeting. In contrast, it is far less clear how palmitoylation might regulate the specialized subcellular processes that are important in axons. One particularly important process in axons is retrograde signaling, in which information is conveyed from distal locations back to the cell body. Following injury to axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), retrograde signals are critical to activate transcription of pro-regenerative genes. Key retrograde signaling pathways include the DLK/JNK/c-Jun (Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase/c-Jun N-terminal Kinase/c-Jun) signaling pathway and the GP130/JAK/STAT (Glycoprotein 130/Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway, both of which are activated following nerve injury and are vital to promote regeneration. Though both of these pathways are critical for conveying distal information from the periphery to the cell body, many of their component proteins are predicted to be soluble and diffusible. This raises the question of how these proteins can directionally signal over the long distances that axons extend. Interestingly, bio-informatic and proteomic studies suggested that DLK, GP130, JAK and STAT may be palmitoylated. We hypothesized that palmitoylation could be important for the roles of these proteins in retrograde signaling. Because retrograde signals are initiated in distal axons, a considerable distance from the cell body, we further hypothesized axonally localized PATs might play key roles in the control of retrograde signaling. We find that the retrograde signaling protein DLK is palmitoylated at a highly conserved cysteine residue. This modification is necessary for its localization to motile vesicles and for its interaction with the retrograde signaling protein JIP3. Notably, we also describe a novel role for palmitoylation in regulating DLK’s kinase activity. In addition, our study identifies the first axonally enriched PATs in sensory neurons; DHHC5 and DHHC8. shRNA knockdown experiments in sensory neurons reveal that these axonal PATs control both palmitoylation and surface expression of GP130 and are essential for GP130/JAK/STAT3-dependent retrograde signaling. These findings reveal a novel role for palmitoylation in the control of axonal retrograde signaling, provide key insights into the molecular roles of this modification and identify new potential targets for therapy to improve nerve regeneration post-injury.
    • PAN-AFRICAN STUDIES COMMUNITY EDUCATION PROGRAM: THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF A COMMUNITY EDUCATION PROGRAM

      Keith, Novella Zett; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Jordan, Will J.; Sanders, Rickie (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      ABSTRACT This is a case study of how a community education program became institutionalized at Temple University. The Pan-African Studies Community Education Program (PASCEP) has been located at Temple since 1979. The research illuminates the events that led to PASCEP coming onto Temple University's campus. The main research question was: "Why and how did Pan-African Studies Community Education Program develop from a Community Education Program in North Central Philadelphia to a Temple University campus-based program, and what were the important factors contributing to its development and institutionalization within Temple University?" The research used a qualitative case study method. Data were collected from archival repositories at Temple University and the City of Philadelphia as well as from original documents provided by the Community Education Program and participants in the study. Documents included newspaper articles, letters, reports, and organizational histories as well as transcripts from thirty semi-structured participant interviews. Semi-structured interviews were held with 30 participants who were involved or familiar with the movement and the university between 1975 and 1979. The research indicates that the Community Education Program acted as a local movement center connected with the Civil rights movement. I employed Social Movement theories and Aldon Morris's Indigenous perspective to examine the trajectory of the Community Education Program from the neighborhood to the University. Much of the organizing, mobilizing, and planning done by the members in the Community Education Program/local movement center was managed by Black women. Therefore, the research employed Belinda Robnett's perspective on Bridge Leaders and Toni King and Alease Ferguson's standpoint on Black Womanist Professional Leadership Development to illuminate the leadership styles of the Black women in the local movement center, and their relationships with Temple University faculty and administrators, as well. Results from the inquiry demonstrate that community activism constituted social movement collective action behavior as the Community Education Program and its supporters became an effective local movement center. The study indicates that leadership, political opportunity, resource mobilization, and participation during the tenure in the Program in the community as well as after the introduction of the Community Education Program to the University were indispensable factors in the institutionalization of the Community Education Program.
    • Panic on the British Borderlands: The Great God Pan, Victorian Sexuality, and Sacred Space in the Works of Arthur Machen

      O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948-; Brivic, Sheldon, 1943-; Caserio, Robert L., 1944-; Ford, Talissa J. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      From the late Victorian period to the early twentieth century, Arthur Machen's life and his writing provide what Deleuze and Guattari argue to be the value of the minor author: Contemporary historical streams combine in Machen's fiction and non-fiction. The concerns and anxieties in the writing reflect developments in their times, and exist amid the questions incited by positivist science, sexological studies, and the dissemination and popularity of Darwin's theories and the interpretations of Social Darwinism: What is the integrity of the human body, and what are the relevance and varieties of spiritual belief. The personal and the social issues of materiality and immateriality are present in the choice of Machen's themes and the manner in which he expresses them. More specifically, Machen's use of place and his interest in numinosity, which includes the negative numinous, are the twining forces where the local and the common, and the Ideal and the esoteric, meet. His interest in Western esotericism is important because of the Victorian occult revival and the ritual magic groups' role in the development of individual psychic explorations. Occultism and the formation of ritual magic groups are a response to deep-seated cultural concerns of industrialized, urban modernity. Within the esoteric traditions, the Gnostic outlook of a fractured creation corresponds to the cosmogony of a divided cosmos and the disjointed realities that are found in Machen's late-Victorian literary horror and supernatural fiction. The Gnostic microcosm, at the local level, and the mesocosm, at the intermediary position, are at a remove from the unified providence of the greater macrocosm. The content of the texts that I will analyze demonstrates Machen's interest in the divided self (with inspiration from Robert Louis Stevenson), and those texts consider the subject of non-normative sexuality and its uncanny representations, natural and urban, as a horror that is attractive and abject--a source of fascination and a cause of disgust. The view that I state is that Machen wrote late-Victorian, post-Romantic Gothic literature that is not dependent upon either the cares of Decadence for artificiality or the disavowal of Gnosticism of the worth of mortal life and experiences in the material world. Machen's outlook is similar to Hermeticism, and like the Hermeticists he enjoyed many of the pleasures available in the world and in the narratives of ecstatic wonder that he found: the power of archetypal myth and local lore; good food and drink; travel between country and city; and close associations with friends and family, modest in number and rich in quality. The Great God Pan, The Three Impostors, or, The Transmutations, "The White People," and the autobiographies Far Off Things and Things Near and Far are the primary sources in my study. The enchantment of place and the potential and active horrors of the countryside and the city of the late Victorian and Edwardian periods inform Arthur Machen's life and his literary world. The influence of Machen's childhood in his native county of Gwent, in South Wales, and his adult residency in everywhere from low-rent to more-desirable areas of London feature prominently in two volumes of his fiction, which appeared in the influential Keynotes Series published by John Lane's Bodley Head Press in the 1890s: The Great God Pan and the Inmost Light (1894), and The Three Impostors, or, The Transmutations (1895). Those works of fiction indicate a major pattern in Machen's outlook and imagination. For instance, the The Great God Pan presents Machen's late-Victorian re-invention of Pan, the classical rustic Arcadian god of Greek mythology. The Pan demon--or sinister Pan--evidences an aspect of threatening vitalistic nature that appears at the indefinite center of sexual concealment. Male characters act in secrecy by necessity due to the Labouchère Amendment to the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885. Machen uses the more beneficent, affirming aspects of the Pan figure for the short story "The White People" (1899) in the long middle section titled The Green Book. However, threats to female adolescence and sexual sovereignty, and contending principles of female and male energies, unpredictably strike through the more sinister and in the more beneficent of Machen's tales, which include the prose poems of Ornaments in Jade. These factors sometime destroy life, and seldom conceive or sustain its creation. Yet the presence of esoteric concepts in those same narratives offers non-rational alternatives to the attainment of gnosis. The Three Impostors, the second of Machen's Keynotes volumes, with its plot of conspiracies and dark secrets not only suggests Machen's interest in the criminal underworld and involvement with the ritual magic groups of the late-nineteenth century, but also his caution about the dark attraction of that glamour and how those occult groups and leaders operated. The Horos case and trial of 1901 and the Charles Webster Leadbeater scandal of 1906 provide support for Machen's circumspection. However, as a skeptic of the occult in practice, but as a reader and writer who had a deep interest in the esoteric as a subject of study, Machen's literary writing presents a variety of tensions between belief in the idealism of spiritual realities and the necessity for clear and grounded reason in consideration of preternatural phenomena. The interest in the abnormal functioning of bodies, a convention of Gothic fiction, appears in Machen's work in correspondence to the status of Sexology and the proliferation of studies of human sexuality in the late Victorian period. Especially important is the concept of sexual inversion, a term for homosexuality that was popularized in the works of the scientific researchers Richard von Krafft-Ebing, in Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), and Havelock Ellis, in Sexual Inversion (co-authored by John Addington Symonds), which is the first volume of Ellis's series Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897). The final chapters of Machen's The Great God Pan are set in 1888 in London, and there is a direct reference to the White Chapel murders (i.e., the Ripper crimes). Therefore, I analyze Machen's fiction for its gendered focus on abhuman qualities, abnormal behavior, and violence: the abhuman as understood by Kelly Hurley, and violence in London as a version of Walkowitz's London as City of Dreadful Delight. Another historical context exists because the year before Machen finished the first chapter, "The Experiment," the Cleveland Street affair and its scandal occurred and included a royal intervention from the Prince of Wales to halt any prosecutions (1889). In The Great God Pan, Helen Vaughan, who passes from salons in Mayfair to houses of assignation in Soho, represents a dynamic, unified force of being and becoming that draws from and revises the multiple but fractured personality of Stevenson's Jekyll. Likewise, The Green Book girl in the short fiction "The White People" experiences a communion of gnosis that separates her from the social life and conditions of her father, a lawyer, and his middle class world of the British Empire's materialist legal structures. The esoteric and otherworldly, and the physical and material, combine, fragment, and transcend in the local world and the greater cosmos imagined by Arthur Machen.
    • PARA TODOS TODO: ‘UNEXPECTED’ OUTCOMES OF URBAN GREENING POLICIES IN SANTIAGO, CHILE

      Hayes-Conroy, Allison, 1981-; Sweet, Elizabeth L.; Pearsall, Hamil; Rosan, Christina; Meninato, Pablo (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This research analyzes how a continuum of socio-economic and political structures since colonization, what I defined as colonial legacies, has affected the development of greening policies and other broader urban realities in contemporary Santiago, Chile’s capital city. I connect these colonial legacies with the current outcomes of urban green areas in several ways: 1. How Santiago’s spatial organization and planning have excluded working-poor, indigenous, and non-white people from fair access to services and spaces of privilege. 2. How Augusto Pinochet’s military dictatorship (1973-1990) increased geographical and economic disparities across wealthy and non-wealthy municipalities. 3. How neoliberal economic policies not only decreased public services while increasing social exclusion and economic segregation for everyday people but also prioritized economic outcomes for municipalities in detriment over social and environmental. In dialogue with the literature on green space in Santiago, this research brings together a de-colonial theoretical framework, intended to make visible hidden and often oppressive realities affecting everyday and marginalized people, and a Global South epistemology urban scholarship, intended to validate the production of knowledge that comes from spaces in the margins, to also understand: 1) to what extent are urban greening policies at the municipal level excluding/including residents from participating in urban green area development, and 2) how are residents (everyday, low-income, and marginalized) rethinking urban green spaces (and the urban in general) in the wake of massive social unrest across the Latin American region. I offer answers to these inquiries by using qualitative methods (open-ended interviews with municipal authorities and residents of six municipalities, participatory observation, content analysis, and visceral data collection) to show how the access and development of these public spaces have been shaped by structural systems that have continued the ideas in which Santiago was organized since 1541. An expert-residents’ disconnection, were ideas and the understanding of urban green areas (as well as the urban in general) from authorities does not replicate what everyday and marginalized people need and asked for, emerged as a major theme to explain the realities of green areas across wealthy and non-wealthy comunas. This research concludes that this disconnection has become fundamental to clarify why other oppressive urban realities, beyond green areas development, have remained invisible and unaddressed by the state and elite group in Santiago, a situation that generated massive social unrest in the country.
    • Paradoja

      Greenbaum, Matthew, 1950-; Klein, Michael Leslie; Brodhead, Richard, 1947-; Sparks, Tram (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra consists of three contrasting movements: slow, fast, slow (Paradoja = "paradox," Sp.). These movements are framed by a motif that opens and closes each of them, and connects them all. This framing motif is based on an alternation between a rhythmical pattern in the bass drum, and a melody sung by a boy mezzo-soprano, both over a string pedal. The first movement, Lamentos (Sorrows), is dramatic in character; it goes from simple to complex in its orchestration, harmony, texture, dynamics and tempo changes. The second movement, Algarabía (Tangle), reflects a festive affection; it presents a contrast to the first in character, tempo and spirit. The third movement, Sosiego (Serenity) provides a peaceful ending to the piece; it is lighter than the other two movements in texture and orchestration. The general harmonic language of Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra is non-tonal yet centric, with surface references to functional harmony. However, the pitch content varies from movement to movement. The first movement is highly chromatic and based in the twelve-tone collection. The melodies are created by a combination of small pitch-class sets and sometimes are broken down and distributed among different instruments. Harmony is the result of the juxtaposition and counterpoint of these melodies, which vertically reiterate the same cells or creates new sets. The second movement is based on smaller collections than the first, and it is less chromatic. Contrast is often created by changing the collections or simply transposing them. The third movement is the most homophonic and the least chromatic of all three. It is based on a combination and juxtaposition of diatonic and non-diatonic collections that interact with each other. Paradoja: Concerto for Orchestra is examined in two broad categories. The first is a structural analysis, which includes details of form and pitch selection such as pitch collections, set classes and motives. The second is a stylistic analysis, which includes aspects of style such as rhythm, orchestration. The conclusion refers to the influence of historical models and aspects of the compositional process. Both the structural and stylistic analyses demonstrate how I have tried to merge diverse stylistic music elements to obtain a new personal idiom.
    • PARENT AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL PERCEPTION OF THE PRACTICE OF SCHOOL-BASED BODY MASS INDEX NOTIFICATION

      Gross, Steven Jay; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Sanford-DeShields, Jayminn; DuCette, Joseph P. (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      School districts are charged with the task of providing America’s youth with the most well-rounded education so that they can grow into the most productive adult citizens. However, school funding cuts and the unending demand to make AYP often push students out of the center of that focus. As a result, matters like school-based Body Mass Index notifications have been moved to the backburner and are often simplified to only what the law requires. Although researchers have sought the best practice to address this cause, it still remains that those not directly involved in the process are designing and implementing regulations. The perceptions of parents and school personnel are not being addressed. As a result, this exploratory, single-case, qualitative study, researched the best school-based body mass index notification practice according to the perspective of eleven total parents and school personnel. These participants were from a school in Southeastern Pennsylvania, whose process is mandated by the state. Based on the findings, it is recommended that schools collaborate with parents to establish the most informative notification letter that meets their needs, rather than simply address the requirements of the state’s mandate. This collaboration must be inviting and easy to enter into and the findings need to be implemented, instead of just gathered and recorded. Prior notification must also be improved and supplemental materials need to be included in the mailing.
    • Parent Satisfaction with School Services for their Internationally Adopted Child

      Fiorello, Catherine A.; DuCette, Joseph P.; Farley, Frank; Lynch, Amy; Laurence, Janice H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      International adoption continues to be a popular method of growing a family in the United States. The effects of institutionalization prior to adoption can be seen across developmental areas including cognitively, socially, emotionally, and physically. Although much research has been conducted on the effects of institutionalization, abandonment, and neglect on a child’s development, less time has been given to the quality of services a family can receive after the adoption has been finalized and the family begins their new life together. One significant resource for these families is the school system. The purpose of this study was to explore the variety of services a family receives through their child’s educational setting as well as parent’s satisfaction with these services. It was hypothesized parents of internationally adopted children are not completely satisfied with the services received in their child’s educational settings due to non-expertise regarding adoption-specific issues. It was also hypothesized that there are significant differences in services offered between school settings, with the most services offered in public schools but the highest satisfaction of services found in private schools. This study surveyed 67 parents from 28 states regarding their internationally adopted child and the experiences they have had with their school. The analysis found that there was not a significant difference in services offered or satisfaction with those services among types of school, with the exception of behavioral services.
    • PARENTAL RESISTANCE IN COGNITIVE BHAVIORAL THERAPY FOR ANXIOUS YOUTH

      Kendall, Philip C.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Fauber, Robert L.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Giovannetti, Tania; Heimberg, Richard G. (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      Objective: Resistance is a therapeutic process variable that can play an important role in treatment. The present study examined whether observer-rated parental resistance during parent-only sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious youth predicted the number of parent-reported between-session exposures completed, posttreatment outcome, and 36-week follow-up. Method: Participants (N = 272) were parents or adult caregivers of youth (age 7 to 17 years old) who received CBT for an anxiety disorder as participants in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal study (CAMS). Parent-only therapy sessions were rated for resistance by observers. Measures of anxiety and overall symptom severity were completed at posttreatment and 36-week follow-up. Mediation analyses examined the indirect effect of the number of parent-reported exposures completed on the relationship between parent in-session resistance and therapy outcomes at posttreatment and 36-week follow-up. Additionally, resistance levels in participants in the CBT-only condition of CAMS were compared with resistance levels for participants in the CBT plus sertraline condition. Results: Analyses demonstrated that there was no significant difference in mean resistance scores between the CBT-only group and the CBT plus sertraline group. None of the 12 mediation tests found statistically significant indirect effects of the number of parent-reported exposures completed on the relationship between parent in-session resistance and therapy outcomes at posttreatment and 36-week follow-up. A significant relationship was found, however, between number of exposures completed and posttreatment Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) total scores, indicating a significant relationship between number of parent-reported exposures and posttreatment therapy outcomes. Conclusions: Parental resistance is not associated with outcomes for youth receiving CBT for anxiety. Number of exposures was significantly associated with one measure of posttreatment therapy outcomes.
    • Parenting and Child Behavior Problems throughout Middle Childhood and Adolescence: Examining Predictors of Parenting across Child Development

      Drabick, Deborah A.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Olino, Thomas; Giovannetti, Tania; Taylor, Ronald D., 1958-; Xie, Hongling (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Parenting behaviors have long been understood to play a key role in youth development across middle childhood and adolescence. However, questions remain regarding changes in parenting behavior profiles throughout these developmental periods as parents respond to the changing developmental needs of their children, and how these profiles are associated with parent, child, and contextual factors. Additionally, a further understanding of how these factors impact stability and/or change in parenting profiles over time is needed. To address these gaps, the current dissertation investigated stability and change in parenting behaviors during childhood and adolescence. Person-centered analyses were used to identify classes of caregivers who differed in frequency and quality of parenting behaviors across three time points (child ages 10-12, 12-14, and 16; Times 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Cross-sectional differences between classes on a number of parent, child, and contextual variables also were examined. Stability and transitions among parenting classes then were explored, and caregiver depression, youth temperamental positive mood, caregiver stress, and family relationship variables were examined as predictors of stability and transition among classes. Results revealed the presence of a Positive Parenting class at each time point. A Low Warmth/Low Communication class was observed at Time 1 only, and a Poor Supervision class was seen at Times 1 and 2. Additionally, an Adequate Parenting class and Consistent Discipline Only class were seen at Times 2 and 3. Classes differed on a number of variables, including caregiver depression, youth temperamental positive mood, youth externalizing behavior problems, and youth marijuana and hard drug use. Latent transition analyses revealed stability across each time point within the Positive Communication class, and within the Adequate Parenting class from Time 2 to Time 3. Transitions to other classes were consistent with developmentally expected changes in caregiver supervision and caregiver-child communication. Finally, child temperamental mood was the only significant predictor of transition between parenting classes, and only from Time 1 to Time 2. Results indicate that the quality and quantity of parenting behaviors differ depending on the age and related developmental stage of the child, and identified classes differ in terms of a number of child, caregiver, and broader contextual factors. These parenting behaviors and associated factors may be potential targets for enhanced and developmentally sensitive prevention and intervention efforts.