• K-8 PRINCIPAL’S ROLE IN HIGH SCHOOL SELECTION FOR EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

      McGinley, Christopher W.; McGinley, Christopher W.; Fergus, Edward, 1974-; Burke, Katey (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Students with disabilities are entitled to attend a school of their choice. In order for the rights of students with disabilities to be honored during the high school choice process, principals must create school structures and systems that are alignment to federal policies to lead in the best interest of students. This mixed methods, qualitative dominant study used a survey and semi-structured interviews with current K-8 school principals to better understand the experiences of principals as they support students with disabilities through high school selection. This research study was designed to answers the questions of (1) how do K-8 principals understand and implement their role in the School Selection Process for students with disabilities? (2) how do K-8 principals create conditions and school culture so that students with disabilities have choices in the school selection process?, (3) in what ways are the rights of students with disabilities honored in this large urban district’s School Selection Process? There were several themes that emerged from this research (1) the principal as an advocate for students with disabilities, (2) the principal as an ethical leader in their decision-making, (3) the principal creates organizational structures in their schools based on the knowledge that they have, (4) the principal creates a school culture built on a shared collective efficacy and (5) the principal creates a school culture where families are authentic collaborators.
    • Kant and the Dual Role of the Imagination: Content, Form, and Judgments of Beauty

      Ostaric, Lara; Os?taric?, Lara; Hammer, Espen; Chamberlain, Colin; Clewis, Robert R., 1977- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      In this dissertation, I argue for a novel interpretation of Kant’s faculty of the imagination. In addition to providing the prepared sensible manifold, I contend that the imagination also demonstrates a formal capacity – the ability to provide its own lawfulness. This position I term the ‘Dual Role of the Imagination,’ as a faculty capable of providing both form and content. Although the imagination’s products remain determined by the understanding in regular cognition, I demonstrate that aesthetic judgments provide instances where the imagination provides its own lawfulness inspired by beautiful objects in nature and fine art. These beautiful objects, when interacting with the free imagination engaged in harmonious play represent distinct points where nature demonstrates certain rational signs, thereby providing opportunity for the imagination to shape its own forms that demonstrate the possibility of rationality within an otherwise disinterested nature. That is, beautiful objects give the imagination the occasion to reflect on and produce a view of nature as if rationally ordered, or in accord with Kant’s Principle of Purposiveness. To fully grasp the value of aesthetic judgment within Kant’s Critical framework, I argue, the imagination must be seen in its formal capacity since only a faculty capable of forming its own lawfulness that also remains tied to sensibility can bridge the gap between nature and reason. Therefore, this project serves as a defense of the imagination as a formal faculty towards the end of bridging the ‘incalculable gulf’ Kant indicates in the introduction to the Critique of the Power of Judgment. In addition to the historical research, I turn to contemporary scholarship on Kant in terms of his aesthetics and its value to his theory of cognition. There are two prevailing approaches to Kantian aesthetics in contemporary scholarship – the cognitive approach and the interpretive approach. In the cognitive approach, aesthetics is viewed in terms of its value to future cognitions. That is, aesthetic judgments are useful insofar as they either deepen future cognitions, provide new connections for our cognitions, or reveal sensible content that goes beyond our existing cognitions. Most proponents of the cognitive approach have little to say about the power of the imagination within Kant’s transcendental framework, seeing it as an appendage to our conceptual faculty, the understanding. This provides a deflationary reading of the imagination since its products are only relevant to cognition and are not necessarily considered the results of a free and independent faculty. The interpretive approach favors an expanded view of the imagination, allowing it to exist free from the determination of the understanding in cases of aesthetic judgment. Supporters of this view consider the products of the imagination as exceeding regular cognition and opening new fields of knowledge beyond what we commonly experience. Examples of these new fields include the political, societal, historical, and aesthetic – domains of knowledge we may consider to be of a different kind than yielded through common cognition. While expanding the imagination, I argue that this view is needlessly inflationary, providing far more avenues for inquiry than Kant intended for the imagination. That is, while the imagination can demonstrate the possibility of nature as rationally ordered, and thereby span the gulf between nature and reason, this perspective is merely one amongst many possible perspectives. It does not privilege or emphasize a view that Kant clearly intended for his aesthetics. Further, I argue, that this expansion of the imagination risks severing it into two distinct faculties, since it requires a hard division between its activities in the First Critique and Third Critique. This dissertation provides a moderate path between the two prevailing approaches in Kantian scholarship. I seek to offer a reading of the imagination in its dual role within Kant’s transcendental framework. Rather than limiting the imagination’s aesthetic activities to cognition or expanding its capacities to obscure their true value, I focus on strengthening the connection between aesthetic judgment and its place as a bridge between nature and reason. I do this through the imagination as a formal, as well as sensible, faculty. On one hand, the imagination maintains its position as a faculty capable of touching the sensible world. On the other, it is capable of forming its own lawfulness inspired by this connection through natural and artistic beauty. As such, it is the imagination that is shown to be key to achieving Kant’s goal of the Third Critique, bridging the ‘incalculable gulf’ – opening a view of nature as amenable to our rational ends.
    • Kant’s Proleptic Philosophy of History: The World Well-Hoped

      Hammer, Espen; Ostaric, Lara; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Eldridge, Richard Thomas, 1953- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      The aim of this dissertation is to examine and helpfully elucidate Kant’s proleptic philosophy of history by pursuing lines of thought across both his critical and historical body of work. A key motivation for this goal stems from noticing certain repetitive explications of Kant’s philosophy across, among other subjects, history, biology, religion, teleology, culture, and education, which, as precise and careful in their detail, all seem to converge on key Kantian ideas of teleology and morality. Rather than concentrating on any one aspect of Kant’s proleptic philosophy, I set out to (i) investigate seemingly untenable problems with his characterization of reason in history, (ii) to counter what I take as a misreading, if not misattributions, of Kant’s proleptic, and not prophetic, thoughts on historical progress, (iii) to offer an original reflection on Kant’s use of a famous stoic phrase in two of his political essays, and (iv) to an attempt a close exegesis toward tying notions of teleology and hope with that of need. The approach that I take in these chapters is both problem centered and exegetical, and while I attempt to answer concerns in the secondary literature pertaining to Kant’s proleptic philosophy of history, I also stay close to the primary texts by providing references and citations to key claims and passages which reinforce Kant’s forceful portrait of the poietic power of human reason to create a world hospitable to its rational ends.
    • Karst Aquifer Recharge and Conduit Flow Dynamics From High-Resolution Monitoring and Transport Modeling in Central Pennsylvania Springs

      Toran, Laura E.; Muto, Atsuhiro; Grandstaff, David E.; Herman, Ellen K.; Schreiber, Madeline (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Karst aquifers are dynamic hydrologic systems which are sensitive to short-term recharge events (storms) and heterogeneous recharge characteristics (point recharge at sinks, irregular soil thicknesses). These aquifers are highly productive yet also vulnerable to contamination, in large part because the conduit network is a significant unknown for predicting karst flow paths. To address these uncertainties, two adjacent karst springs, Tippery Spring and Near Tippery Spring, were monitored to better understand flow and source mixing characteristics. The two springs in central Pennsylvania’s Nittany Valley have similar discharges and are only 65 meters apart, yet they show unique behaviors in terms of water chemistry and discharge response to storms. First examined for flow characterization in 1971 by Shuster and White, the springs were analyzed in this study using high-resolution logging and new tracers such as rare earth element (REEs) and Ca/Zr ratios. This research contributes to the field of karst hydrology through innovative water sampling and monitoring techniques to investigate karst recharge and flow behavior along with conduit flow models incorporating multiple calibration target datasets such as water temperature and dye tracing. Stable isotope signatures (δD & δ18O) of storm water samples at the two springs varied based on storm intensity, but also due to their unique recharge behaviors. Increased spring discharge preceded the arrival of storm water as conduits were purged of pre-storm water, indicated by no change in isotopic composition on the rising limb. The isotopic signature then became progressively more enriched at both springs, indicating storm water recharge. At Tippery, this enrichment began around peak flow, sooner than at Near Tippery where enrichment began during the descending limb. Thus, isotopes indicated a stronger surface connection at Tippery Spring. Storm intensity also affected the relative contribution of recharging water reaching both springs, with a larger storm producing a larger recharge signature compared to a smaller storm. At Tippery Spring, for a short time the majority of emerging water was storm water, which may indicate a reversal in water exchange between the conduits and the surrounding matrix, an important consideration in karst contaminant transport. Two natural tracers were applied in new ways for this study: Ca/Zr ratios and REE patterns. Both tracers provided additional information about flow paths and recharge sources as they varied during the storm hydrograph. Ca/Zr ratios changed in timing and intensity with storm intensity, and both springs exhibited a decline in Ca/Zr ratios as calcium-rich carbonate matrix water was displaced by zirconium-rich storm recharge water from sinking streams off the clastic upland ridges. Being a storm water arrival indicator in clastic-ridge-fed Valley and Ridge springs, this relationship made Ca/Zr ratios a useful substitute for stable water isotopes while also providing information on source area. In response to storm water recharge, REE concentrations increased with the arrival of storm water. The timing and magnitude of concentration increases were influenced both by the degree of surface connectivity intrinsic to each spring and the intensity of the recharge event. Elevated REE concentrations persisted after other parameters recovered to pre-storm levels, suggesting water which has interacted with either the local carbonate matrix or the upland siliciclastics. These slower flow paths recharging the two springs were not apparent from other geochemical parameters. This study illustrated the relationships among multiple tracers to understand source waters in different periods of storm hydrographs. A flow and transport model using the Finite Element Subsurface Flow Model (FEFLOW) was calibrated using quantitative dye trace and high resolution temperature data to simulate the connection between a sinking stream and Tippery Spring. Dye was injected at the sink and monitored at the spring while temperature data was collected using loggers at both the sink and the spring. FEFLOW was used to simulate the connection between sink and spring through varying conduit geometries, sink and spring discharges, conduit conductivity, conduit cross-sectional area, matrix transmissivity, matrix porosity, and dispersivity. Single conduit models reproduced larger peak and recession concentrations than observed. A forked conduit model diverted flow from the main conduit, reducing the concentration of dye reaching the spring, provided a better match. Latin Hypercube sensitivity analysis indicated that dye concentration breakthrough curves were most sensitive to conduit conductivity and less sensitive to other model parameters. Temperature data from high-resolution loggers at the sink and spring were then incorporated into the model scenarios to reproduce seasonal spring temperature using the conduit configuration fit to the dye trace. Simulated temperature signals at the spring were sensitive to parameters in addition to conduit conductivity, most notably matrix transmissivity and inflow rates at the sink. The dual approach to karst model calibration using a temperature model set up from an initial dye trace results in greater model confidence due to a limited possible range in conduit conductivity. This study improved conceptual and numerical models for karst by examining how data from storm events and tracers can be used to better understand recharge and flow paths.
    • Katharine Drexel: Educational Reformer and Institution Builder

      Cutler, William W.; Jenkins, Wilbert L., 1953-; Woyshner, Christine A.; McGuinness, Margaret M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Amidst the racial animosity that characterized the nineteenth century, Katharine Drexel, the Philadelphia heiress, believed that education would be the equalizer between white and black America. Grounded in a strong sense of Catholic social justice, Drexel committed her fortune to providing educational opportunities that frequently eluded African Americans. She established a community of Roman Catholics nuns for that specific purpose. By combining their efforts to address the deficiencies in African American education, Drexel's religious congregation reflected the efforts of other nineteenth century groups of women who pooled their efforts to address social concerns of the larger American society.
    • Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Comparison of Sensitization and Autonomy Models and Integration with Emerging Biopsychosocial Theories

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Heimberg, Richard G.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Giovannetti, Tania; Weinraub, Marsha (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Most life stress literature in bipolar disorder (BD) fails to account for the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis states that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, there is a weakening temporal relationship between major life stress and episode initiation (Post, 1992). This process could reflect either a progressive sensitization or a progressive autonomy (i.e., insensitivity) to life stress. The present study aimed to test the kindling model in BD by examining the effect of lifetime mood episodes on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Polarity-specific tests of the model were conducted across the continuum of event severity, with respect to both impact and frequency of life events. Moreover, examination of the kindling hypothesis was embedded in the context of two emerging biopsychosocial theories of BD: the expanded Behavioral Approach System Dysregulation Model and the Circadian and Social Rhythm Theory. Data from 278 participants (146 bipolar spectrum participants and 132 normal control participants) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project. Hypotheses were polarity- and event-type specific and were in line with a stress sensitization model of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD), rather than a stress autonomy model. Results partially supported a sensitization model: there was a decreased frequency and an increased impact of major events, and an increased frequency and impact of minor events. However, results for specific polarities and event types were not fully consistent with a stress sensitization model. Implications of these findings are addressed, followed by a discussion of study strengths, limitations, and promising directions for future research.
    • Kinematics and dynamics of running up granular slopes

      Hsieh, Tonia; Freestone, Amy; Spence, Andrew J.; Flammang, Brooke E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In the natural world, animals encounter terrestrial environments that range from stiff to compliant. Terrestrial locomotion across natural surfaces is highly complex, as animals must overcome substrate heterogeneity to maintain locomotor performance essential for survival (e.g., catching prey, escaping predators). Within these environments, natural substrates such as sand, gravel and cobbles, are known as granular media: a collection of discrete particles varying in material properties and behaviors when exposed to forces of different magnitude. On a single step, granular media alternates between solid and fluid-like states with potentially drastic consequences on running performance. Additionally, granular substrates at different inclinations are ubiquitous in natural environments, such as sand dunes in the desert. At the angle of repose—the maximum angle providing sand dunes their typical shape—granular media will fluidize with the slightest stress, rendering running at these angles extremely challenging. Unlike locomotion through fluids (e.g., swimming and flying), governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, how foot kinematics instigate state changes on granular media is still poorly understood, yet it is critically important for survival. The goal of my dissertation is to determine how foot use affects foot-ground interactions on granular media, with a particular focus on incline locomotion. The objectives of my dissertation are threefold: evaluate the effects of granular inclines on 1) performance and above-surface limb and foot kinematics, 2) sub-surface foot kinematics, and 3) the dynamics of foot-ground interactions using computational simulations. To fulfill these objectives, I examined three lizard species: a sand specialist (Callisaurus draconoides), a desert generalist (Crotaphytus bicinctores), and a fluid specialist (Basiliscus vittatus), selected because they have similarly shaped feet, so that differences detected among performance are due to foot kinematics rather than morphology. I ran these lizard species on a level and inclined granular trackway, while videorecording them at 500 fps using a high-speed video camera (light video) and a bi-planar high-speed fluoroscopy system (X-ray video) for the above-surface kinematics and the subsurface kinematics, respectively. Running trials were used to quantify running speed, basic stride, foot impact, and sub-surface foot kinematics, to implement on computational simulations of foot-shaped intruders entering a volume of particles to quantify force response at the particle scale. Sand specialists not only outperformed non-specialists on the incline, but maintained running speed compared to the level despite presenting some foot slip. While no significant differences across species were found for basic stride and impact kinematics, only sand specialists shifted foot intrusion angle into incline granular media to angles close to perpendicular to the substrate. At the subsurface, sand specialists maintained a stiffer foot similar to generalists, and intruded their feet shallower similar to fluid specialists. However, only sand specialists maintained toe spacings close to 6 mm on level and incline, similar to a study on intruder spacings showing peak force generation. The ground force response exhibited by the sand specialist lizard foot model revealed that by hitting the particles fast (0.7 m/s) and shallow, almost perpendicular to the substrate, toe first, with stiff feet, and toe spacings close to 6 mm, sand specialists are likely taking advantage of the inertial behavior of the particles at the angle of repose. Essentially, by paddling through the substrate’s fluid-like behaving surface, sand specialists run significantly faster than fluid specialists and generalists. My dissertation demonstrates the significance of surface and subsurface kinematics strategies to understand foot-ground interactions, especially on angled yielding substrates, contributing with knowledge to the terradynamics field and elucidating significant applications in bioengineering, bioinspiration and robotics.
    • Knowing More Than the Hero: An Exploration of Nathan Gabriel's 2011 Production of A View from the Bridge

      Wager, Douglas C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In 2011 Nathan Gabriel directed Arthur Miller's A View From The Bridge for his graduate thesis production at Temple University in Philadelphia. In this essay, Gabriel posits that keeping the character of Eddie ignorant about his true feelings for Catherine until the final moments of the play is crucial to making the play work. He supports his argument by pointing to the changes Miller made in the script between the one-act and two-act versions. Gabriel demonstrates how the play followed Aristotle's ideal for a classic Greek tragedy and compares this ideal with Miller's conviction that a true tragedy should not only be sad but should also teach its audience how to better live their lives. He also defends his choice to keep the true sexuality of Rodolpho ambiguous and examines the creative journey of his designers.
    • Knowledge Discovery Through Probabilistic Models

      Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Davey, Adam; Latecki, Longin (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Probabilistic models are dominant in many research areas. To learn those models we need to find a way to determine parameters of distributions over variables which are included in the model. The main focus of my research is related to continuous variables. Thus, Gaussian distribution over variables is the most dominant factor in all models used in this document. I have been working on different and important real-life problems such as Uncertainty of Neural Network Based Aerosol Retrieval, Regression Learning with Multiple Noise Oracles and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for Sepsis Treatment, Clustering Causes of Action in Federal Courts. These problems will be discussed in the following chapters. Aerosols, small particles emanating from natural and man-made sources, along with green house gases have been recognized as very important factors in ongoing climate changes. Accurate estimation of aerosol composition and concentration is one of the main challenges in current climate research. Algorithm for prediction of aerosol designed by domain scientists does not provide quantitative information about aerosol estimation uncertainty. We deployed algorithm which uses neural networks to determine both uncertainty and the estimation of the aerosol. The uncertainty estimator has been built under an assumption that uncertainty is a function of variables used for aerosol prediction. Also, the uncertainty of predictions has been computed as the variance of the conditional distribution of targets given the input data. In regression learning, it is often difficult to obtain the true values of the label variables, while multiple sources of noisy estimates of lower quality are readily available. To address this problem, I propose a new Bayesian approach that learns a regression model from a data with noisy labels which are provided by multiple oracles. This method gives closed form solution for model parameters and it is applicable to both linear and nonlinear regression problems. Sepsis is a medical condition characterized as a systemic inflammatory response to an infection. High mortality rate (30-35%) of septic patients is usually caused by inadequate treatment. Thus, development of tools that can aid clinicians in designing optimal strategies for inflammation treatments is of utmost importance. Towards this objective I developed a data driven approach for therapy optimization where a predictive model for patients' behavior is learned directly from historical data. As such, the predictive model is incorporated into a model predictive control optimization algorithm to find optimal therapy, which will lead the patient to a healthy state. A more careful targeting of specific therapeutic strategies to more biologically homogeneous groups of patients is essential to developing effective sepsis treatment. We propose a kernel-based approach to characterize dynamics of inflammatory response in a heterogeneous population of septic patients. The method utilizes Linear State Space Control (LSSC) models to take into account dynamics of inflammatory response over time as well as the effect of therapy applied to the patient. We use a similarity measure defined on kernels of LSSC models to find homogeneous groups of patients. In addition to clustering of dynamics of inflammatory response we also explored a clustering of civil litigation from its inception by examining the content of civil complaints. We utilize spectral cluster analysis on a newly compiled federal district court dataset of causes of action in complaints to illustrate the relationship of legal claims to one another, the broader composition of lawsuits in trial courts, and the breadth of pleading in individual complaints. Our results shed light not only on the networks of legal theories in civil litigation but also on how lawsuits are classified and the strategies that plaintiffs and their attorneys employ when commencing litigation.
    • KNOWLEDGE TRANSIT: THE CREATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND ORCHESTRATION OF INNOVATION ACROSS SPACE

      Mudambi, Ram, 1954-; Lahiri, Nandini; Winston Smith, Sheryl; Cantwell, John, 1955- (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      The desegregation of global value chains has accelerated the development of a fabric of connectedness between firms, locations, and inventors. The modern global business world is now characterized by these connections, which serve as conduits of high value knowledge between specialist repositories, or centers of excellence. The properties of knowledge repositories are a function of the co-evolution of their constituent firms and the locations themselves. Thus, it is of great interest to scholars of international business, economic geography, and innovation studies to understand the roles and characteristics of the firms and locations that participate in global value chains. This dissertation explores the movement of knowledge from seemingly disparate locations and firms as it coalesces into ideas, and then follows the path of transformation into a commercialized product or service. In the first chapter, I laid the theoretical groundwork for the dissertation and review how the different studies contribute to the our understanding of how firm and location characteristics interact with global innovation connectedness, and vice versa. Three chapters that study innovation dynamics at within global value chains then follow. In the second chapter, I explore the characteristics of orchestrating firms, high order specialists that coordinate the movement of knowledge and activities in global value chains. With evidence from the pharmaceutical industry I find that not all orchestrating firms are created equal: a core insider group, known as “majors”, possess a unique legitimacy that enables the absorption of risk and grants access to greater resources that are required to control the value capture from market-defining innovation. In the third chapter, I discuss the interdependencies of orchestrating firms and industrial change by examining the Detroit auto cluster. I argue that the very forces that led to significant manufacturing loss in the Detroit area may also be behind the resilience of its knowledge production, a finding underwritten by significant innovation connectedness to other auto clusters. In the fourth and final chapter, I find that knowledge connectivity is a crucial driver of exploration into new technological areas, and that firms may be connected both internationally and domestically. Further, I find that the operational footprint of the firm is a vital amplifier of its connectivity efforts.
    • Korean Students' Motivation to Pursue Higher Education in the United States

      Farley, Frank; DuCette, Joseph P.; Kaplan, Avi; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The purpose of the study was to investigate the motivation of South Korean college students who come to the United States to study. Does the motivation of these students differ based on their perceptions of values for pursuing higher education? The focus of this study is on what Korean students value in their decision-making. Thus, their perceptions of educational values are presumably influenced by their societal and cultural context. In this study, an expectancy-value perspective is employed to investigate in depth the intentions of the Korean students. In addition, personality cannot be excluded from decision-making. To make the decision, some South Korean students may take high risks; thus, the Type-T personality trait is examined. A mixed-methods design, both quantitative and qualitative, was applied. A survey in the quantitative study explored motivation factors for pursuing college education in the United States, for attaining well-being in a new environment, and for taking risks. To investigate the intentions and decision-making of Korean students, in-depth individual interviews in the qualitative study explored how they perceive a higher education in the United States, whether the tendency of public opinion in South Korea influenced their decision to study in the United States, and what they expect from their choice in the future. The findings have implications for future research and for considering whether Korean “education fever” is on the right track in terms of psychological well-being.
    • Krylov Subspace Methods with Fixed Memory Requirements: Nearly Hermitian Linear Systems and Subspace Recycling

      Szyld, Daniel; Seibold, Benjamin; Xue, Fei; Parks, Michael L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Krylov subspace iterative methods provide an effective tool for reducing the solution of large linear systems to a size for which a direct solver may be applied. However, the problems of limited storage and speed are still a concern. Therefore, in this dissertation work, we present iterative Krylov subspace algorithms for non-Hermitian systems which do have fixed memory requirements and have favorable convergence characteristics. This dissertation describes three projects. The first project concerns short-term recurrence Krylov subspace methods for nearly-Hermitian linear systems. In 2008, Beckermann and Reichel introduced a short-term recurrence progressive GMRES algorithm for nearly-Hermitian linear systems. However, we have found this method to be unstable. We document the instabilities and introduce a different fixed-memory algorithm to treat nearly-Hermitian problems. We present numerical experiments demonstrating that the performance of this algorithm is competitive. The other two projects involve extending a strategy called Krylov subspace recycling, introduced by Parks and colleagues in 2005. This method requires more overhead than other subspace augmentation methods but offers the ability to recycle subspace information between cycles for a single linear system and recycle information between related linear systems. In the first project, we extend subspace recycling to the block Krylov subspace setting. A block Krylov subspace is a generalization of Krylov subspace where a single starting vector is replaced with a block of linearly independent starting vectors. We then apply our method to a sequence of matrices arising in a Newton iteration applied to fluid density functional theory and present some numerical experiments. In the second project, we extend the methods of subspace recycling to a family of linear systems differing only by multiples of the identity. These problems arise in the theory of quantum chromodynamics, a theory of the behavior of subatomic particles. We wish to build on the class of Krylov methods which allow the simultaneous solution of all shifted linear systems while generating only one subspace. However, the mechanics of subspace recycling complicates this situation and interferes with our ability to simultaneously solve all systems using these techniques. Therefore, we introduce an algorithm which avoids this complication and present some numerical experiments demonstrating its effectiveness.
    • La auto-modelación y el sujeto femenino en La Celestina de Fermando de Rojas y en La Farsa de la Costança de Cristóbal de Castillejo

      Piera, Montserrat; Pueyo Zoco, Víctor; Soufas, Teresa Scott; Delbrugge, Laura, 1968- (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      This thesis examines the concept of self-fashioning in the Spanish texts La Celestina and Farsa de Costança. Greenblatt's theory of self-fashioning in English Renaissance literature can also be applied to the analysis of these Medieval and Renaissance works of the Iberian Peninsula. Self-fashioning is a literary technique of constructing a public persona – that is perhaps different to one's true self, or private persona - in order to satisfy the demands imposed by society. This implies duplicity and disguise in the literary discourse. This study focuses mainly on the analysis of the female characters; special attention is given to the go-between. The characteristics of the medieval bawd and its Greco-Roman antecedents appear again in the new literary character of the female Spanish pícara of the XVI century. As in the case of the bawd, the pícara knows how to manipulate people regarding love, sex and greed. Through these marginal characters the authors voice their opinion regarding politics, religion and social conditions. Rojas, a converso living in Spain during the Inquisition, expresses his views in a veiled manner by criticizing and finding fault with Christian values. On the other hand, Castillejo, as in the case of Rojas, attacks the corruption of the Catholic Church and ridicules the sacrament of matrimony. Finally, these authors follow the traditional misogynistic views conceived by the church fathers.
    • La distopia en las novelas de Ana Maria Shua

      Morell, Hortensia R., 1951-; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Aldarondo, Hiram; Schmidt-Cruz, Cynthia (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation focuses on the influence of political and social history in the novels of Ana María Shua, an Argentine author who critiques her own contemporary society based upon her nation’s history and her Jewish ancestry. It examines the relationships between individuals, such as parents and children, spouses, or friends to demonstrate that people are unable to change their own situation: the circularity of time and the repetition of the past will always haunt the inhabitants and marginalize them. This work analyzes Shua’s five novels: Soy paciente (1980), Los amores de Laurita (1984), El libro de los recuerdos (1994), La muerte como efecto secundario (1997), and El peso de la tentación (2007). These selected works explore the transformations of the protagonists through their interactions with their environment in order to prove that the individual will remain isolated within the hierarchies and institutions created by contemporary society. The introduction offers an overview of Shua’s biography and literary works as well as an exploration of the connections between the history of Argentina and the author’s novels. Chapter 1 focuses on the influence of history in the present and future of the protagonists in Los amores de Laurita, El libro de los recuerdos, and La muerte como efecto secundario. Chapter 2 makes use of Michel Foucault’s system of power to explore the way in which society victimizes the protagonists. The chapter studies: Los amores de Laurita, La muerte como efecto secundario, and El peso de la tentación. Chapter 3 analyzes the hierarchies established in the institutions and how they convert the body of the individual into a jail. The novels studied include: Soy paciente, La muerte como efecto secundario, and El peso de la tentación. Chapter 4 demonstrates how the history of Argentina is represented in the political and social institutions of El libro de los recuerdos, Soy paciente, and El peso de la tentación. It connects the contemporary desire of a utopian future with Jewish tradition and the hope of a messiah. The conclusions recapitulate the pessimistic, dystopian future that remains for each of the protagonists.
    • La novela erótica latinoamericana contemporánea: Cristina Peri Rossi, José Donoso, Griselda Gambaro y Mario Vargas Llosa

      Morell, Hortensia R., 1951-; Lorenzino, Gerardo; Piera, Montserrat; Ossa, Luisa Marcela, 1972- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Esta investigación examina cuatro novelas latinoamericanas de las últimas dos décadas del siglo XX con el fin de demostrar la forma en que establecen evidencia textual y contextual que valida su inclusión bajo la categoría de textos literarios eróticos y su exclusión de los "infiernos" eróticos.
    • Labeling Adult Sex Offenders and Sexually Violent Predators: The Impact of Registration and Community Notification

      Auerhahn, Kathleen, 1970-; Harris, Philip W.; Hiller, Matthew L.; Zakireh, Barry (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      When released from prison, sex offenders are typically required to register with designated law enforcement officials as a condition of their parole. These officials can warn local community members, organizations, and establishments of the offender's incoming presence. Research indicates that community notification can adversely affect sex offenders in terms of their interpersonal and family relationships, employment opportunities and housing, and can lead to offender harassment that extends to the family members of sex offenders (Burchfield & Mingus, 2008; Levenson & Cotter, 2005a, 2005b; Levenson, D'Amora, & Hern, 2007; Tewksbury, 2004, 2005; Tewksbury & Lees, 2007; Zevitz & Farkas, 2000b). The current analysis seeks to build on and extend the existing literature by investigating the consequences of sex offender registration and community notification from the perspective of registered sex offenders and sexually violent predators in Pennsylvania. Using multiple methods of data collection (i.e., survey and interview research) and analyses, the present study contributes to the current understanding of how sex offenders experience registration and community notification and focuses on the positive and negative effects (e.g., unintended and unanticipated consequences) of being labeled and subject to community notification. Data for the present study were collected in collaboration with four providers of sex offender treatment. These treatment facilities are non-profit mental health organizations that provide both outpatient examinations and treatment services for sex offenders. All treatment providers are located in Pennsylvania, and will remain anonymous in the current study. The survey sample consists of 200 adult male sex offenders. For the purposes of making comparisons, 181 of the sampled sex offenders were further classified as the following three subsamples: (1) registered sex offenders (RSOs) (n = 121), (2) sexually violent predators (SVPs) (n = 13), and (3) non-registered sex offenders (and non-sexually violent predators) (n = 47). Nine of the SVPs elected to participate in the face-to-face interview portion of this research where topics focused on the impact of active community notification, the process whereby the state police are required to mail out letters to community members about an offender's physical description and home address. The age of the interview sample ranged from 35 to 63, and the average was 49.22 years old. Descriptive results of the complete survey sample reveal that most sex offenders are White or African American, middle-aged, and not married, and have relatively little formal education. Most sex offenders are working in some capacity, self-identify as "working class," and earn less than $20,000 per year. The majority of the total sample of sex offenders has been convicted of indecent assault/indecent sexual assault (24.6%) followed by possession of child pornography (12%) and then rape (11.4%). Overall, most victims are minor-aged females who were known by - but not related to - the offender. Findings from the anonymous survey also indicate that over 40 percent of the sampled RSOs are restricted by a 1,000-foot-rule, have primary group members who sustained some type of harm, and have had meaningful, personal relationships severed. Sexually violent predators experienced job loss, denial of employment, loss of housing, and denial of a place to live, and were treated rudely in public, and had primary group members who experienced emotional harm and, separately, had personal relationships severed at a higher rate (i.e., at least 10 percentage points) than RSOs. None of the SVPs were physically assaulted, whereas six RSOs (i.e., 5 percent of 120 RSOs) were physically assaulted. Using only a combination of two of the three subsamples of sex offenders (i.e., RSOs and SVPs), the multivariate contingency table analyses assessed how sex offenders' selection of victim-type, relationship to victim, and race influenced the fifteen different economic, residency-related, and harassment outcomes. Specifically, if offenders victimized a child (i.e., victims from age 5 to 17), as opposed to an adult (i.e., 18 or older), they were significantly more likely to be restricted by a 1,000-foot-rule, as expected. Offenders who victimized children were also more likely than offenders who victimized adults (by at least 10 percentage points) to experience job loss and receive harassing telephone calls, and to have primary group members who sustained some form of emotional harm and, separately, have personal relationships severed. Findings gleaned from the interviews indicate that SVPs are experiencing several of the problems identified in the previous and related literature. Specifically, six of the interviewees (66.67 percent) indicated that, since the notification process began, they have had a difficult time locating and obtaining affordable housing. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effect of sex offenders' socio-demographics, offender characteristics, victim characteristics, and negative experiences resulting from registration and/or notification on self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965), mastery (Pearlin et al., 1981; Pearlin & Schooler, 1978), stigma (Link, 1987; Link et al., 1997), and depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The multivariate regression results were quite unexpected. After controlling for sex offenders' sociodemographics, offender characteristics, and victim characteristics, none of the scales devised to measure the impact of registration and/or community notification significantly predicted any of the four outcomes. The significance of these findings for criminological theory, and offender rehabilitation and reintegration are discussed.
    • LAJKONIK OF TUCSON - A PIECE OF TRUE POLAND: CONSTRUCTING POLISH - AMERICAN IDENTITIES IN AN ETHNICALLY HETEROGENEOUS SOCIETY

      Garrett, Paul B., 1968-; Akinnaso, Festus Niyi; Romberg, Raquel; Williams-Witherspoon, Kimmika (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      Tucson, Arizona is a site of a lively Polish-American community. Initially associated with a political organization ("Solidarity Tucson"), which actively supported the Solidarity Movement throughout the 1980s, the Polish diaspora has gradually transformed into an ethnic community very much focused on maintaining its distinctive heritage. Recent formation of the Polish folkloric dance group Lajkonik was directly stimulated by the local multicultural establishment, which promotes ethnic diversity in the Old Pueblo. Having become an integral part of the Southwestern society, Lajkonik has developed a collection of identity practices, which despite diverse influences continues to reproduce Polish cultural traits. In my ethnographic account, I examine ways, by which members of the Lajkonik group construct their diasporic identities. First, I focus on the core activities of the group, which include the practice of Polish traditions, learning folk dances and songs in a wide cultural context, and negotiating the speaking of Polish. Additional analyses, based on video recordings, of Polish classes and dance rehearsals, which show the actual mechanics of the production processes, as well as the narratives of the teacher and parent of performers, further support the account of the ethnographer. Secondly, I look into the development of Polishness for public consumption, which involves negotiation of multiple images in accordance with specific cultural events, creation of engaging stage programs, and presenting the essence of Polishness to festival audiences in Tucson. Regardless of the particular purpose of identities' productions, either for integrating community or public display, these processes simultaneously involve the quest for authenticity, building ethnic pride, and negotiations of diverse traditions.
    • Land Acquisition for Special Economic Zones in India

      Chakravorty, Sanjoy; Kohl, Benjamin H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      This study is an exploration of land acquisition for Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in India. Land acquisition has become one of the most well known problems confronting the SEZ policy and other policies that encourage private investment in infrastructure. Land acquisition for SEZs has caused widespread popular mobilizations and resistance, which have in turn led to cost overruns, delays, and project failures. This study examines India's land acquisition framework, particularly the evolution of the Land Acquisition Act 1894, in order to understand the factors contributing to acquisition problems when the state uses its power of eminent domain, as well as when private developers attempt to acquire land through consensual market transactions. It uses two SEZs spanning over 14,000 hectares of land near Mumbai--Navi Mumbai SEZ and Mumbai SEZ--as cases through which to examine the land acquisition process.
    • Landscape Phenomics of the Human Face

      Rockwell, Christie; Weitz, Charles A.; Henry, Kevin A.; Nelson, Frank (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      The study of human cranial morphology has a long and contentious history. This study is the first large scale analysis of ecoregion specific human cranial modularity and integration. It utilizes an analysis of morphometric craniofacial variation and ecoregion affinity to better understand the environmental contribution to biological shape. This study tested three hypotheses. First, that there was variation in craniofacial shape that was linked to an individual’s ecoregion. Second, that there were ecoregion specific patterns of cranial modularity. And third, that the patterns of cranial integration (or the level of covariation between any two modules) were also associated with an individual’s ecoregion, and that different environments would result in different patterns of modular dependence and independence. Three-dimensional scans of 298 human crania were collected from museums, representing four higher level ecoregions and 11 lower-level ecoregions. Each cranium was mapped and placed within two hierarchical ecoregions. By examining ecoregions, instead of individual climatic variables, this analysis gives a more complete picture of how the environment is influencing cranial variation. Modules, or relatively independent morphological regions of the crania, were identified and their level of integration was assessed for every ecoregion. Modular integration is an analysis of the relative strength of the covariation between any two modules, and previous research theorized that changes in integration reflected changes in modular independence during development (Bastir and Rosas, 2005; Hall, 2005; Raff, 1996). The variation in strength between modules, both intrapopulation and interpopulation, were assessed and various explanations were explored. This analysis found that each ecoregion exhibited significantly different craniofacial shape from one another. Patterns of integration were also variable by ecoregion, suggesting that the ecological shape variation observed was solidified early in development. This study also identified the presence of a nasal module in each ecoregion. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate that human crania are variable by ecoregion and that environmental conditions have led to ecoregion specific patterns of cranial modular integration.
    • Language and Identity among Adolescent Heritage Spanish Students

      Lorenzino, Gerardo; Holmquist, Jonathan Carl; Toth, Paul D.; Flores-Ferran, Nydia (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      This dissertation describes the language and identity trajectories of twelve purposefully selected heritage Spanish adolescents who were currently studying in a heritage language program within an urban high school in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. These twelve students represented six sibling groups and five different nationalities, specifically Dominican, Ecuadorian, Puerto Rican, Salvadorian, and Venezuelan,. The research questions were: 1) How do Hispanic heritage students negotiate their bicultural/bilingual identities?; 2) What is the role of the heritage language in those negotiated identities?; 3) Do these negotiated identities influence their investment to maintain the heritage language?; 4) What are the linguistic manifestations of the Spanish spoken by these bilingual students? Findings of the study revealed that 1) the study participants negotiate their bicultural/bilingual identities in a variety of ways, 2) for some of these students, the heritage language is part of their `out of school' identities, 3) the dominant language ideologies of the school system have had a significant impact on the heritage students' investment in HL practice, and 4) although each participant's identity and linguistic trajectories are distinct, they each have maintained, to a greater or lesser degree, the aspectual preterit/imperfect contrast, and, at the same time have displayed some level of incomplete acquisition of the subjunctive mood. The implications of these findings as they relate to the fields of bilingualism, languages in contact and the developing theory of Heritage Language Acquisition are addressed in the concluding remarks.