• Jah in the Flesh: An Examination of Spirit, Power, and Divine Envesselment in Rastafari

      Rey, Terry; Levitt, Laura, 1960-; Johnson, Amari; Neptune, Harvey R., 1970- (Temple University. Libraries, 2020)
      This dissertation examines one of the most significant theological shifts in the Rastafari movement: the transformation of the Rastafari deity, His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I, from Jah in the flesh to the spirit that dwells within the body of each Rasta. Although the belief that Rastas are participants in the divinity of Jah emerged early in Rastafari, it was not until Selassie’s death in 1975 that the theological assertion of Jah dwelling within their bodies as the spirit emerged. Despite the initial claim made by some of the early Rastas that their bodies are the dwelling place of Jah, the notion of Jah as indwelling the spirit remains undertheorized, thus leading to an inadequate view that Rastafari is tenuously an African-derived religion. The aim of this dissertation, therefore, is to make visible the notion of Jah as spirit by focusing on how Rastas conceptualize and ritualize the process of Jah becoming a part of their bodies. The dissertation proposes divine envesselment as a central theoretical and conceptual framework to understand the Rastafari belief that their deity Jah becomes a permanent part of their bodies, thereby imbuing them with divine power, authority, and identity to resist the oppressive state Babylon. By formulating a theory of divine envesselment to account for the indwelling of Jah within the body, this study highlights the social, cultural, and theological factors that enabled Rastas to deify Selassie, continue to proclaim him as God after his death, and distinguish themselves from the oppressive neocolonial state through their ritualization of Jah spirit and power. The study uses an African-centered epistemological approach to argue that the Rastafari belief that Jah dwells within them is not only an embrace of the spirit but an ethos rooted in the history of contestation and creative friction within the Afro-Caribbean religious field. Furthermore, an African-centered epistemology locates the process of divine envesselment (Jah becoming the spirit that dwells in flesh) within the social, material, intellectual, and symbolic world of African people on the continent and in the diaspora. The study asserts that the logic, structure, and nature of Rastafari as an African-derived religion with a conception of spirit become evident when examined through an African-centered epistemological lens.
    • Jail America: The Reformist Origins of the Carceral State

      Thompson, Heather Ann, 1963-; Simon, Bryant; Berman, Lila Corwin, 1976-; Van Cleve, Nicole Gonzalez (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      As policymakers reckon with how the United States became a global leader in imprisonment after World War II, scholars have suggested that the roots of this phenomenon are in conservative backlash to postwar crime or in federal intervention in American cities during the urban crisis. However, historians and social scientists have overlooked the role of jails in the origins story of mass incarceration. Through a close historical examination of Cook County Jail in Chicago, my research addresses how policymakers used reform claims to rationalize the growth of large urban jails from the 1950s through the 1990s. As a massive state building project, mass incarceration was contingent upon branding urban jails as providers of social services and rehabilitation, even though there was proof that jails failed to provide such services and as jail policymakers built bigger and more brutal jails. While activists, lawyers, and prisoners challenged dehumanizing conditions and state violence, jailers responded to public scrutiny by assuring the public that Cook County Jail was in the process of becoming a space that was beneficial to people awaiting trial there. This project locates the emergence of the contemporary carceral crisis in the battle to transform America’s jails.
    • JAPANESE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS’ COGNITION OF THE POLICY OF CONDUCTING ENGLISH CLASSES IN ENGLISH AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE

      Beglar, David; Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Nemoto, Tomoko; Underwood, Paul R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      Drawing on the elements and processes in language teacher cognition (Borg, 2006), this study was an investigation of how four senior high school teachers perceived the policy of conducting English classes in English, the degree to which they conducted English classes that reflect the policy, and how their educational backgrounds, professional coursework, internal factors in the class, internal factors in the school, and external factors affected their cognition and classroom practice.To investigate the above issues, an instrumental, explanatory multiple case-study was employed. The data were collected from interviews with the four English teachers, the four head teachers of the English departments, members of Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education (TMBE), and two members of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). In addition, two Communication English classes and two English Expression classes the four teachers were in charge of were observed and a questionnaire was administered to the students in each class. The findings indicated that the four teachers had favorable opinions about the policy of conducting English classes in English; however, their opinions were not reflected to a large degree in two of the teachers’ classes and were reflected to a moderate degree in the other two teachers’ classes. The discrepancy between their positive opinions of the policy and their classroom practice was attributed to the influence of their educational background, professional coursework, internal factors in the class, internal factors in the school, and external factors. Major factors that prevented them from reflecting the policy were a lack of appropriate teacher training, the presence of university entrance examinations, and the grammar-focused MEXT-approved textbooks. Major factors that helped their teachers reflect the policy were their positive experiences learning English in English communicatively, study abroad experiences, the measures taken by TMBE, the presence of ALTs and their students’ positive attitudes toward learning English in English. The findings of this study suggest that improvements in pre- and in-service training to teach English in English for communicative purposes, reforms of university entrance examinations, and improvements of MEXT-approved textbooks are essential to the implementing of the policy of teaching English in English.  
    • JAPANESE LEARNERS’ MOTIVATION FOR READING ENGLISH

      Elwood, James Andrew; Beglar, David; Childs, Marshall; Schaefer, Edward; Petchko, Katerina (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The present study is an exploration of multiple dimensions of L2 learners’ reading motivation and its relationship with L2 reading achievement. Based on theories of motivation and L1 and L2 studies, nine dimensions of motivation (Curiosity, Involvement, Challenge, Importance of L2 Reading, L2 Reading Self- Confidence, Instrumental Orientation, Recognition, Compliance, and Intrinsic Motivation for L1 Reading) were hypothesized to influence L2 reading achievement, and their dimensionality was examined using an L2 reading motivation questionnaire and statistical procedures. The participants, 1,030 students from nine Japanese universities, completed a 69-item Reading Motivation Questionnaire and a reading comprehension test. The questionnaire and test scores were statistically analyzed using the Rasch rating scale and dichotomous models, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. The findings indicated that L2 reading motivation was multidimensional, consisting of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. This result was consistent with previous studies conducted in L1 and L2 reading. Intrinsic motivation for L2 reading (Interest and Involvement in L2 Reading and Desire to Read L2 Materials) and one types of extrinsic motivation (Instrumental Orientation) exerted greater influence on L2 reading motivation than the other types of extrinsic motivation (Importance of L2 Reading, Recognition, and Compliance). That is, internally controlled motivation is more influential than externally controlled motivation with an exception of Instrumental Orientation. Another important finding was that L1 reading motivation and L2 reading motivations were similar to some extent because five of the eight factors (Intrinsic Interest and Involvement in L2 reading, Desire to Read L2 Materials, Importance of L2 Reading, Recognition, and Compliance) were found both in L1 and L2 reading motivation. However, three L2 specific factors (Instrumental Orientation, L2 Reading Self Confidence, and Intrinsic Interest in L1 Reading) were also identified. Thus, the study showed that there were some similarities as well as fundamental differences between L1 and L2 reading motivation. In terms of the relationship between L2 reading motivation and text comprehension, the L2 Reading Motivation and Comprehension Model demonstrated L2 reading motivation is significantly related to L2 text comprehension. Concerning individual differences between male and female students, the study showed that their profiles were similar although, on the average, the female students were more motivated to read as has been repeatedly found in L1 reading. Differences in the motivational profiles due to L2 proficiency showed that Recognition, the desire to be recognized by others by performing well, was a factor that differentiated the high and low groups. However, because the relationship between L2 Reading Motivation and L2 Reading Comprehension was not significant for both groups, it is possible that there was a problem with the reading test that was used to make the groups. In summary, the present study has demonstrated the vital role of L2 reading motivation in L2 reading, and pointed to the need to incorporate motivational support into L2 reading pedagogy as has been successfully practiced in L1 reading. This study is significant to the domain of L2 instruction and research for several reasons. First, it extends the knowledge base in L2 reading by identifying the influence of L2 reading motivation on L2 reading behavior. Second, the results of the study contribute to designing research-based reading instruction aimed at enhancing L2 reading motivation and performance. Finally, it is hoped that this study provides individual educators with practical suggestions on how to improve L2 reading instruction in their individual teaching contexts, focusing on both affective and cognitive aspects of L2 learners.
    • Japanese students' development of self-regulated learning during the transition to college

      Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Beglar, David J.; Kikuchi, Keita; Martin, Ron R. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      In this case study, I investigate the development of first-year Japanese students’ self-regulated learning skills and the role of language learning advising in their transition to college. A great deal of research on the first-year experience has focused on a sense of belonging and the quality of friendships, but few researchers have investigated how learning habits influence first-year students’ successful adjustment to college life. Meanwhile, research on language learning advising has largely focused on learner strategies, a framework that has been met with increasing criticism (e.g., Dörnyei, 2005). Accordingly, for this study I adopt Zimmerman’s self-regulated learning (SRL) framework to examine the participants’ ability to transition to independent learning during their first year at a junior college in Japan. Furthermore, I aim to investigate the relation between SRL and foreign language learning and explore how advising in language learning can help learners to self-regulate their learning. The participants are 15 first-year students enrolled in a women’s junior college in Japan. The data were collected by conducting interviews, recording advising sessions, and obtaining documents. A series of four semi-structured interviews were conducted with each participant over the course of eight months in their first year. Advising sessions with seven participants were also recorded. Each advising session lasted for half an hour and the number of advising sessions varied from one to eight times depending on the participant. Documents related to the college and materials relevant to the participants’ self-study were also collected. In addition, key administrators and faculty members were interviewed. The data were analyzed using three coding methods in two cycles: Eclectic Coding, Hypothesis Coding, and Axial Coding (Saldaña, 2013). Following this analysis, single-case and cross-case analyses were conducted (Yin, 2014). The findings suggest that there was a great variance in the level of SRL skill development among the participants. Some learners had already developed some SRL skills prior to entering college and built on their skills in their first year in college. Others experimented with strategies and eventually developed skills based on their mistakes. However, there were many participants who were able to observe and emulate their peers’ learning skills, but failed to utilize these skills independently in other contexts. These behaviors were observed more among the lower proficiency learners. It was also shown that the students who utilized effective SRL skills were good at managing their language studies. Several factors affected their SRL skill development. Emerging demands due to novel academic assignments, new living environments, and additional social obligations proved particularly challenging. Students with less developed self-regulated skills found themselves in a riskier position because in many cases it was difficult for them to understand the demands that new tasks presented. Consequently, they tended to take on more tasks beyond their abilities. The cases of two participants who visited the advisor repeatedly suggested that giving advice only on language learning strategies was insufficient, and pointed to the need for more SRL training. The rich description of the multiple cases in this study contributes to our understanding of the many challenges that students face in their transition to college, and the various strategies, some successful and some less so, that they use in their attempts to address these challenges. This study also provides insight into the processes of SRL development in the Japanese context. In particular, this study elucidates the difficulties that lower proficiency students have in adjusting to college life and developing SRL skills. The importance of understanding the context is re-emphasized and more flexibility on the part of advisors is recommended in order to support the varying degrees of preparedness for self-regulated learning with which first year students come to college.
    • JAPANESE UNIVERSITY ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS' SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS: A MIXED-METHODS EXPLORATION

      Beglar, David; Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Irie, Kay, 1966-; Burrows, Lance; Elwood, James Andrew (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      This study is an investigation of Japanese university English language teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Research has established that teachers' self-efficacy has considerable influence on a wide variety of teaching practices. However, in the English as a Foreign Language domain, and more specifically at the university level in Japan, self-efficacy beliefs have hardly ever been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' self-efficacy beliefs based on the teachers' native language, teaching experience, contract and tenured status, and gender. Furthermore, the sources of these beliefs, how they are strengthened, and how they are challenged were also explored. In order to provide answers to these questions, the Japanese University Language Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs Scale (JULTEBS), a new instrument measuring language teacher self-efficacy was validated using the Rasch rating-scale model as well as a confirmatory factor analysis. A triangulation strategy mixed-method design was employed in which the collection and analysis of data from the quantitative survey was completed in addition to the collection and analysis of data from qualitative open-ended interviews. A profile analysis, a special application of a MANOVA, was conducted to check the hypotheses for parallelism, levelness, and flatness of the self-efficacy scores among the various groups of respondents. The four self-efficacy variables that were measured were Efficacy in Student Engagement, Efficacy in Instructional Strategies, Efficacy in Classroom Management, and Efficacy in Dealing with Superiors. Semi-structured interviews were also employed to help determine what potentially strengthens and weakens the self-efficacy beliefs of English language teachers. The results showed that native English language teachers perceived themselves to be more efficacious than Japanese English teachers across all four self-efficacy variables. Additionally, more experienced teachers exhibited higher self-efficacy beliefs than less experienced teachers. Tenured teachers and limited-term contract teachers showed similar levels of self-efficacy on all variables except for Efficacy in Dealing with Superiors, where tenured teachers rated themselves higher than contract teachers. Furthermore, male and female teachers showed no statistically significant differences across all four self-efficacy variables. Finally, four themes (Autonomy, Colleagues, Money, and Students) emerged as qualities that could support teachers' self-efficacy, whereas three themes (Administration, Students, and Limited-term Contracts) surfaced as qualities that could weaken teachers' self-efficacy. The findings of this study not only highlight the importance of teacher self-efficacy, but also provide valuable insights into the beliefs of English language teachers, as well as the current state of affairs for these teachers at Japanese universities.
    • JAPANESE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' WILLINGNESS TO USE ENGLISH WITH DIFFERENT INTERLOCUTORS

      Beglar, David; Jones, Andrew; Ross, Steven, 1951-; Sawyer, Mark; Kozaki, Yoko (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      Willingness to communicate (WTC) arose out of the search for a construct to explain why some people are more likely to speak in a particular communication situation than others facing the same situation (MacIntyre, Dörnyei, Clément, & Noels, 1998). This study investigated the extent to which 1,789 Japanese university students' willingness to speak and write in English to a Japanese student, an international student, a Japanese teacher of English, and a foreign teacher of English varied inside an EFL classroom. Using the L2 WTC Questionnaire (Weaver, 2005), it was found that the students' level of L2 WTC varied significantly according to their level of self-perceived ability to speak and write in English. At the group level, students in the highest self-perceived speaking ability group were more willing to speak in English to an international student or a foreign teacher of English. In contrast, students in the lowest self-perceived ability speaking group were more willing to speak in English to a Japanese student or a Japanese teacher of English. At the individual level, the average student from the different self-perceived ability groups displayed distinctive patterns of willingness to speak in English to the different types of interlocutors. For example, the average student from the low self-perceived ability group was more willing to speak in English to an international student or a foreign teacher of English in speaking situations/tasks requiring a limited or controlled use of English. In terms of writing, the average student from the high self-perceived ability group was not willing to write in English to a Japanese student when the writing task required a certain level of personal information. Students' responses to the Open-ended L2 WTC Questionnaire also revealed a number of factors that mediated their willingness to use English with different types of interlocutors. Collectively, the findings of this study not only highlight the interpersonal nature of L2 communication, but also provide important insights into how different types of interlocutors can help maximize students' level of L2 WTC, which might in turn lead to further advancements in their level of L2 communicative competence.
    • Japanese University Students’ L2 Communication Frequency in Positive Classroom Climate

      Elwood, James Andrew; Beglar, David; Elwood, James Andrew; Beglar, David J.; Nemoto, Tomoko; Schaefer, Edward (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The primary purpose of study is to identify predictors of willingness to communicate (WTC) and of actual frequency of English communication at work inside and outside the foreign language classroom among 439 university students (male = 226, female = 213) learning English in Japan. Based on Wen and Clément’s (2003) theory of L2 WTC, I replicated Peng and Woodrow’s (2010) structural path model using the variables of state L2 communicative confidence, L2 learning motivation, positive classroom climate, L2 WTC, with the newly added variable of actual speaking frequency. A hypothesized structural model was examined in two contexts, WTC inside the classroom and WTC outside the classroom. Inside the classroom, communicative confidence was the predictor of L2 WTC. L2 WTC and L2 learning motivation were predictors of actual frequency of L2 communication. Positive classroom climate was a mediating variable that indirectly predicted L2 WTC through state L2 communicative confidence and task motivation. In contrast, outside the classroom, state L2 communicative confidence, L2 learning motivation, and positive classroom climate were the predictors of L2 WTC. State L2 communicative confidence, task motivation, and positive classroom climate were the predictors of actual frequency of L2 communication. The results supported Wen and Clément’s (2003) model and Peng and Woodrow’s (2010) study. Second, Dӧrnyei and Kormos’ (2000) study was replicated to investigate a significant difference for the four types of the students’ speaking behavior between pretest and posttest. A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed for English turns, Japanese turns, English words, and interjections with 13 students (male = 8 and female = 5) aged 18-19. The 13 participants were part of those who completed the first questionnaire. There were no significant differences for the four dependent variables. Finally, a qualitative content analysis was performed using transcribed interview data with nine university students (6 male and 3 female students), who completed the first questionnaire. Ten variables emerged from the interviews. Four variables—teacher support, group cohesiveness, L2 learning motivation, and perceived communicative competence—supported both quantitative (Peng & Woodrow, 2010) and qualitative studies (Cao, 2011; Peng, 2007, 2012). Four additional variables—security of speaking, interlocutors, small group, and topic familiarity—supported qualitative studies by Cao (2011) and Kang (2005). The other two variables—point system and tests—were new variables identified in this study. Positive classroom climate and task motivation (Dӧrnyei & Kormos, 2000) were key variables influencing state L2 communicative confidence, L2 WTC, and L2 Use. As a result, I propose that task motivation and positive classroom climate should be added into MacIntyre et al.’s (1998) L2 WTC model.
    • JEHOIACHIN AND HIS ORACLE: THE SHAPHANIDE LITERARY FRAMEWORK FOR THE END OF THE DEUTERONOMISTIC HISTORY

      Leuchter, Mark; Schipper, Jeremy; Limberis, Vasiliki, 1954-; O'Hara, Daniel T., 1948- (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Four oracles appear in Jeremiah 21:11-23:8 detailing the failure and future of the final kings in Judah, also known as the King Collection. The final oracle against Jehoiachin (he also appears with the names Coniah / Jeconiah) precedes the announcement of the unnamed new Davidide, the Branch. The oracle against Jehoiachin appears to be unique, involving no stipulations of covenant wrongdoing, a feature of Deuteronomistic criticism of the kingship since Solomon. He is one of the most unremarkable kings in Israelite history. Yet, he is the concluding figure in both the Greek (Septuagint or LXX) and Hebrew (Masoretic Text or MT) versions of Jeremiah's King Collection, a significant change from the accounts in Kings and Chronicles. He occupies an important place in Josephus's attempts to sketch the ideal Israelite king, respectful of Roman rule. He is important to the rabbis in developing an atonement theory of the exile. In the New Testament, he appears in Matthew's genealogy of Jesus, while the other kings from the King Collection disappear. The Epistle to the Hebrews may adopt similar ideas in developing the analogy of Melchizedek, another insignificant king in Israel's history, as a precursor to Jesus. Ideas developed from the flow of the oracle in the text of Jeremiah, shaped by the polemics of exile, appear in the Acts of the Apostles' casting of Jesus' spiritual kingship on the world's stage. Precritical Jewish and Christian exegesis adopted a harmonizing approach to the oracle, importing reasons from the Deuteronomistic History and the Chronicler for its harsh judgment. Yet discussion of the oracle and its significance in the construction of the figure of Jehoiachin in Jeremiah has all but disappeared from critical scholarship following the groundbreaking work of Bernhard Duhm. Early critical scholarship, while correcting many of the mistakes of precritical exegetes, followed the new Protestant confessionalism of the 19th century. Michel Foucault locates the loss of the theology of the cross as this decisive turn in interpretive methodology. This turn caused modern Protestant interpreters, who are mainly responsible for the foundations of modern critical studies in Jeremiah, to devalue disempowered kings in Israel's history, one of the most important hermeneutical categories in classical Jewish literature, according to Yair Lorberbaum. Thus, Bernhard Duhm, and later scholarship that builds on his work, missed the significance of this oracle in the textual function of the book of Jeremiah and its polemical significance in the debates between post-exile groups of Judeans. Gerhard von Rad, in his revision of Martin Noth's theory of the Deuteronomistic History, saw the importance of Jehoiachin as a source of hope for a renewed Israel. Jack Lundbom most recently observed the development of an oracular frame moving from the center outward in which the oracle against Jehoiachin appears. Yet, to date, little work has appeared on the way the canonical form of Jeremiah frames Jehoiachin and its effect on Jeremiah's end to the DtrH. To make sense of it, we must account for what appears to be an unfulfilled prophecy in Jeremiah 22, as recorded by Jehoiachin's treatment in Jeremiah 52 where, against the expectation of the oracle, the Jewish king again appears on the world stage. Mark Roncace has written extensively on how this type of prophecy functions in the book of Jeremiah. Speech-act theory, as proposed originally by J. L. Austin, and refined by his protégé, John Searle, provides further insight into this issue. Building on the scholarship of von Rad, Lundbom, Mark Leuchter and several other scholars of the sociopolitical forces in the production of biblical texts in exile, we will reconstruct the remarkably adaptable prophetic frame developed in exile around Jehoiachin and his oracle, which set the stage for a return of a Jewish king to the world stage.
    • Job Factors that Influence Burnout in Campus Crisis Responders

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Johnson, Jennifer M., 1970-; Sahu, Subir (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Campus crisis responders are critical to ensuring the safety of students on a college campus. However, attrition in student affairs and specifically in the field of residence life (the department that most professionals that serve in an on-call rotation would fall under), continues to be a concern (Marshall et al., 2016). I assert that burnout of staff members in these roles is a large part of the problem and that managers can ameliorate some of that burnout by controlling specific job factors for those who serve as campus crisis responders. I conducted a quantitative study using an anonymous survey on the Qualtrics platform that was distributed to staff members who serve as campus crisis responders at institutions of higher education. I primarily utilized professional Facebook groups related to Housing and residence life or student affairs in addition to professional email listserves to elicit participants. The effective sample size was 233 and participants were all individuals who serve in an on-call rotation on a college campus. The survey instrument was comprised of demographic questions, as well as questions from the Live-In/Live-On Report (Horowitz 1997) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (Kristensen et al., 2005). Findings suggest that while participants who identified as female had a significantly higher rate of burnout than those who identified as male, there were no job factors that significantly affected the burnout rate of these staff members. The overall burnout rate of campus crisis responders, however, is significantly higher than that of other populations measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. With that in mind, hiring managers for campus crisis responders should look at the overall issue of burnout in their staff to address issues of attrition. Future research should include looking at staff and supervisor support, and organizational culture.
    • Jude in the Middle: How the Epistle of Jude Illustrates Gnostic Ties With Jewish Apocalypticism Through Early Christianity

      Limberis, Vasiliki, 1954-; Wagner, J. Ross; Wright, Robert B.; Pahl, Jon, 1958- (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      In the mid 1990's, Aarhus University's Per Bilde detailed a new hypothesis of how Judaism, Christianity and Gnosticism were connected. Bilde suggested that Christianity acted as a catalyst, propelling Jewish Apocalypticism into Gnosticism. This dissertation applies the epistle of Jude to Per Bilde's theory. Although Bilde is not the first to posit Judaism as a factor in the emergence of Gnosticism, his theory is unique in attempting to frame that connection in terms of a religious continuum. Jewish Apocalypticism, early Christianity, and Gnosticism represent three stages in a continual religio-historical development in which Gnosticism became the logical conclusion. I propose that Bilde is essentially correct and that the epistle of Jude is written evidence that the author of the epistle experiences the phenomena. The author of Jude (from this point on referred to as Jude) sits in the middle of Bilde's progression and may be the most perceptive of New Testament writers in responding to the crisis. He looks behind to see the Jewish association with the Christ followers and seeks to maintain it. He looks forward to what he perceives as a shift from early orthodoxy and battles that shift. My thesis is to use the text of the epistle of Jude to uncover its historical situation. I posit that it portrays an early church leader grounded in Jewish Apocalypticism and facing the beginnings of a new "heretical" movement. This is a thesis of connections, and the work lies in using the epistle of Jude to illustrate those connections. This study is significant in two respects. First, it will clarify background issues of Jude. Earlier scrutiny of Jude focused on its unique aspects, such as Jude's use of the non-canonical texts of 1 Enoch and the Testament of Moses. More recent scholarship has centered on the literary and rhetorical analysis of the text. I will concentrate on using the text of Jude within the context of this theory in order to determine a clearer view of the historical setting in which Jude wrote. Second, this work will further the theory of connections between Jewish Apocalypticism, early Christianity, and Gnosticism. Although much work has been done to validate the connections between Judaism and Gnosticism, less has been done specifically with regard to Jewish Apocalypticism and even less with Per Bilde's theory of the critical middle role of early Christianity. And no one has used Jude in this particular discussion.
    • K-8 PRINCIPAL’S ROLE IN HIGH SCHOOL SELECTION FOR EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES

      McGinley, Christopher W.; McGinley, Christopher W.; Fergus, Edward, 1974-; Burke, Katey (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      Students with disabilities are entitled to attend a school of their choice. In order for the rights of students with disabilities to be honored during the high school choice process, principals must create school structures and systems that are alignment to federal policies to lead in the best interest of students. This mixed methods, qualitative dominant study used a survey and semi-structured interviews with current K-8 school principals to better understand the experiences of principals as they support students with disabilities through high school selection. This research study was designed to answers the questions of (1) how do K-8 principals understand and implement their role in the School Selection Process for students with disabilities? (2) how do K-8 principals create conditions and school culture so that students with disabilities have choices in the school selection process?, (3) in what ways are the rights of students with disabilities honored in this large urban district’s School Selection Process? There were several themes that emerged from this research (1) the principal as an advocate for students with disabilities, (2) the principal as an ethical leader in their decision-making, (3) the principal creates organizational structures in their schools based on the knowledge that they have, (4) the principal creates a school culture built on a shared collective efficacy and (5) the principal creates a school culture where families are authentic collaborators.
    • Kant and the Dual Role of the Imagination: Content, Form, and Judgments of Beauty

      Ostaric, Lara; Os?taric?, Lara; Hammer, Espen; Chamberlain, Colin; Clewis, Robert R., 1977- (Temple University. Libraries, 2022)
      In this dissertation, I argue for a novel interpretation of Kant’s faculty of the imagination. In addition to providing the prepared sensible manifold, I contend that the imagination also demonstrates a formal capacity – the ability to provide its own lawfulness. This position I term the ‘Dual Role of the Imagination,’ as a faculty capable of providing both form and content. Although the imagination’s products remain determined by the understanding in regular cognition, I demonstrate that aesthetic judgments provide instances where the imagination provides its own lawfulness inspired by beautiful objects in nature and fine art. These beautiful objects, when interacting with the free imagination engaged in harmonious play represent distinct points where nature demonstrates certain rational signs, thereby providing opportunity for the imagination to shape its own forms that demonstrate the possibility of rationality within an otherwise disinterested nature. That is, beautiful objects give the imagination the occasion to reflect on and produce a view of nature as if rationally ordered, or in accord with Kant’s Principle of Purposiveness. To fully grasp the value of aesthetic judgment within Kant’s Critical framework, I argue, the imagination must be seen in its formal capacity since only a faculty capable of forming its own lawfulness that also remains tied to sensibility can bridge the gap between nature and reason. Therefore, this project serves as a defense of the imagination as a formal faculty towards the end of bridging the ‘incalculable gulf’ Kant indicates in the introduction to the Critique of the Power of Judgment. In addition to the historical research, I turn to contemporary scholarship on Kant in terms of his aesthetics and its value to his theory of cognition. There are two prevailing approaches to Kantian aesthetics in contemporary scholarship – the cognitive approach and the interpretive approach. In the cognitive approach, aesthetics is viewed in terms of its value to future cognitions. That is, aesthetic judgments are useful insofar as they either deepen future cognitions, provide new connections for our cognitions, or reveal sensible content that goes beyond our existing cognitions. Most proponents of the cognitive approach have little to say about the power of the imagination within Kant’s transcendental framework, seeing it as an appendage to our conceptual faculty, the understanding. This provides a deflationary reading of the imagination since its products are only relevant to cognition and are not necessarily considered the results of a free and independent faculty. The interpretive approach favors an expanded view of the imagination, allowing it to exist free from the determination of the understanding in cases of aesthetic judgment. Supporters of this view consider the products of the imagination as exceeding regular cognition and opening new fields of knowledge beyond what we commonly experience. Examples of these new fields include the political, societal, historical, and aesthetic – domains of knowledge we may consider to be of a different kind than yielded through common cognition. While expanding the imagination, I argue that this view is needlessly inflationary, providing far more avenues for inquiry than Kant intended for the imagination. That is, while the imagination can demonstrate the possibility of nature as rationally ordered, and thereby span the gulf between nature and reason, this perspective is merely one amongst many possible perspectives. It does not privilege or emphasize a view that Kant clearly intended for his aesthetics. Further, I argue, that this expansion of the imagination risks severing it into two distinct faculties, since it requires a hard division between its activities in the First Critique and Third Critique. This dissertation provides a moderate path between the two prevailing approaches in Kantian scholarship. I seek to offer a reading of the imagination in its dual role within Kant’s transcendental framework. Rather than limiting the imagination’s aesthetic activities to cognition or expanding its capacities to obscure their true value, I focus on strengthening the connection between aesthetic judgment and its place as a bridge between nature and reason. I do this through the imagination as a formal, as well as sensible, faculty. On one hand, the imagination maintains its position as a faculty capable of touching the sensible world. On the other, it is capable of forming its own lawfulness inspired by this connection through natural and artistic beauty. As such, it is the imagination that is shown to be key to achieving Kant’s goal of the Third Critique, bridging the ‘incalculable gulf’ – opening a view of nature as amenable to our rational ends.
    • Kant’s Proleptic Philosophy of History: The World Well-Hoped

      Hammer, Espen; Ostaric, Lara; Margolis, Joseph, 1924-; Eldridge, Richard Thomas, 1953- (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      The aim of this dissertation is to examine and helpfully elucidate Kant’s proleptic philosophy of history by pursuing lines of thought across both his critical and historical body of work. A key motivation for this goal stems from noticing certain repetitive explications of Kant’s philosophy across, among other subjects, history, biology, religion, teleology, culture, and education, which, as precise and careful in their detail, all seem to converge on key Kantian ideas of teleology and morality. Rather than concentrating on any one aspect of Kant’s proleptic philosophy, I set out to (i) investigate seemingly untenable problems with his characterization of reason in history, (ii) to counter what I take as a misreading, if not misattributions, of Kant’s proleptic, and not prophetic, thoughts on historical progress, (iii) to offer an original reflection on Kant’s use of a famous stoic phrase in two of his political essays, and (iv) to an attempt a close exegesis toward tying notions of teleology and hope with that of need. The approach that I take in these chapters is both problem centered and exegetical, and while I attempt to answer concerns in the secondary literature pertaining to Kant’s proleptic philosophy of history, I also stay close to the primary texts by providing references and citations to key claims and passages which reinforce Kant’s forceful portrait of the poietic power of human reason to create a world hospitable to its rational ends.
    • Karst Aquifer Recharge and Conduit Flow Dynamics From High-Resolution Monitoring and Transport Modeling in Central Pennsylvania Springs

      Toran, Laura E.; Muto, Atsuhiro; Grandstaff, David E.; Herman, Ellen K.; Schreiber, Madeline (Temple University. Libraries, 2019)
      Karst aquifers are dynamic hydrologic systems which are sensitive to short-term recharge events (storms) and heterogeneous recharge characteristics (point recharge at sinks, irregular soil thicknesses). These aquifers are highly productive yet also vulnerable to contamination, in large part because the conduit network is a significant unknown for predicting karst flow paths. To address these uncertainties, two adjacent karst springs, Tippery Spring and Near Tippery Spring, were monitored to better understand flow and source mixing characteristics. The two springs in central Pennsylvania’s Nittany Valley have similar discharges and are only 65 meters apart, yet they show unique behaviors in terms of water chemistry and discharge response to storms. First examined for flow characterization in 1971 by Shuster and White, the springs were analyzed in this study using high-resolution logging and new tracers such as rare earth element (REEs) and Ca/Zr ratios. This research contributes to the field of karst hydrology through innovative water sampling and monitoring techniques to investigate karst recharge and flow behavior along with conduit flow models incorporating multiple calibration target datasets such as water temperature and dye tracing. Stable isotope signatures (δD & δ18O) of storm water samples at the two springs varied based on storm intensity, but also due to their unique recharge behaviors. Increased spring discharge preceded the arrival of storm water as conduits were purged of pre-storm water, indicated by no change in isotopic composition on the rising limb. The isotopic signature then became progressively more enriched at both springs, indicating storm water recharge. At Tippery, this enrichment began around peak flow, sooner than at Near Tippery where enrichment began during the descending limb. Thus, isotopes indicated a stronger surface connection at Tippery Spring. Storm intensity also affected the relative contribution of recharging water reaching both springs, with a larger storm producing a larger recharge signature compared to a smaller storm. At Tippery Spring, for a short time the majority of emerging water was storm water, which may indicate a reversal in water exchange between the conduits and the surrounding matrix, an important consideration in karst contaminant transport. Two natural tracers were applied in new ways for this study: Ca/Zr ratios and REE patterns. Both tracers provided additional information about flow paths and recharge sources as they varied during the storm hydrograph. Ca/Zr ratios changed in timing and intensity with storm intensity, and both springs exhibited a decline in Ca/Zr ratios as calcium-rich carbonate matrix water was displaced by zirconium-rich storm recharge water from sinking streams off the clastic upland ridges. Being a storm water arrival indicator in clastic-ridge-fed Valley and Ridge springs, this relationship made Ca/Zr ratios a useful substitute for stable water isotopes while also providing information on source area. In response to storm water recharge, REE concentrations increased with the arrival of storm water. The timing and magnitude of concentration increases were influenced both by the degree of surface connectivity intrinsic to each spring and the intensity of the recharge event. Elevated REE concentrations persisted after other parameters recovered to pre-storm levels, suggesting water which has interacted with either the local carbonate matrix or the upland siliciclastics. These slower flow paths recharging the two springs were not apparent from other geochemical parameters. This study illustrated the relationships among multiple tracers to understand source waters in different periods of storm hydrographs. A flow and transport model using the Finite Element Subsurface Flow Model (FEFLOW) was calibrated using quantitative dye trace and high resolution temperature data to simulate the connection between a sinking stream and Tippery Spring. Dye was injected at the sink and monitored at the spring while temperature data was collected using loggers at both the sink and the spring. FEFLOW was used to simulate the connection between sink and spring through varying conduit geometries, sink and spring discharges, conduit conductivity, conduit cross-sectional area, matrix transmissivity, matrix porosity, and dispersivity. Single conduit models reproduced larger peak and recession concentrations than observed. A forked conduit model diverted flow from the main conduit, reducing the concentration of dye reaching the spring, provided a better match. Latin Hypercube sensitivity analysis indicated that dye concentration breakthrough curves were most sensitive to conduit conductivity and less sensitive to other model parameters. Temperature data from high-resolution loggers at the sink and spring were then incorporated into the model scenarios to reproduce seasonal spring temperature using the conduit configuration fit to the dye trace. Simulated temperature signals at the spring were sensitive to parameters in addition to conduit conductivity, most notably matrix transmissivity and inflow rates at the sink. The dual approach to karst model calibration using a temperature model set up from an initial dye trace results in greater model confidence due to a limited possible range in conduit conductivity. This study improved conceptual and numerical models for karst by examining how data from storm events and tracers can be used to better understand recharge and flow paths.
    • Katharine Drexel: Educational Reformer and Institution Builder

      Cutler, William W.; Jenkins, Wilbert L., 1953-; Woyshner, Christine A.; McGuinness, Margaret M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Amidst the racial animosity that characterized the nineteenth century, Katharine Drexel, the Philadelphia heiress, believed that education would be the equalizer between white and black America. Grounded in a strong sense of Catholic social justice, Drexel committed her fortune to providing educational opportunities that frequently eluded African Americans. She established a community of Roman Catholics nuns for that specific purpose. By combining their efforts to address the deficiencies in African American education, Drexel's religious congregation reflected the efforts of other nineteenth century groups of women who pooled their efforts to address social concerns of the larger American society.
    • Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Comparison of Sensitization and Autonomy Models and Integration with Emerging Biopsychosocial Theories

      Alloy, Lauren B.; Heimberg, Richard G.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Giovannetti, Tania; Weinraub, Marsha (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Most life stress literature in bipolar disorder (BD) fails to account for the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis states that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, there is a weakening temporal relationship between major life stress and episode initiation (Post, 1992). This process could reflect either a progressive sensitization or a progressive autonomy (i.e., insensitivity) to life stress. The present study aimed to test the kindling model in BD by examining the effect of lifetime mood episodes on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Polarity-specific tests of the model were conducted across the continuum of event severity, with respect to both impact and frequency of life events. Moreover, examination of the kindling hypothesis was embedded in the context of two emerging biopsychosocial theories of BD: the expanded Behavioral Approach System Dysregulation Model and the Circadian and Social Rhythm Theory. Data from 278 participants (146 bipolar spectrum participants and 132 normal control participants) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project. Hypotheses were polarity- and event-type specific and were in line with a stress sensitization model of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD), rather than a stress autonomy model. Results partially supported a sensitization model: there was a decreased frequency and an increased impact of major events, and an increased frequency and impact of minor events. However, results for specific polarities and event types were not fully consistent with a stress sensitization model. Implications of these findings are addressed, followed by a discussion of study strengths, limitations, and promising directions for future research.
    • Kinematics and dynamics of running up granular slopes

      Hsieh, Tonia; Freestone, Amy; Spence, Andrew J.; Flammang, Brooke E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In the natural world, animals encounter terrestrial environments that range from stiff to compliant. Terrestrial locomotion across natural surfaces is highly complex, as animals must overcome substrate heterogeneity to maintain locomotor performance essential for survival (e.g., catching prey, escaping predators). Within these environments, natural substrates such as sand, gravel and cobbles, are known as granular media: a collection of discrete particles varying in material properties and behaviors when exposed to forces of different magnitude. On a single step, granular media alternates between solid and fluid-like states with potentially drastic consequences on running performance. Additionally, granular substrates at different inclinations are ubiquitous in natural environments, such as sand dunes in the desert. At the angle of repose—the maximum angle providing sand dunes their typical shape—granular media will fluidize with the slightest stress, rendering running at these angles extremely challenging. Unlike locomotion through fluids (e.g., swimming and flying), governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, how foot kinematics instigate state changes on granular media is still poorly understood, yet it is critically important for survival. The goal of my dissertation is to determine how foot use affects foot-ground interactions on granular media, with a particular focus on incline locomotion. The objectives of my dissertation are threefold: evaluate the effects of granular inclines on 1) performance and above-surface limb and foot kinematics, 2) sub-surface foot kinematics, and 3) the dynamics of foot-ground interactions using computational simulations. To fulfill these objectives, I examined three lizard species: a sand specialist (Callisaurus draconoides), a desert generalist (Crotaphytus bicinctores), and a fluid specialist (Basiliscus vittatus), selected because they have similarly shaped feet, so that differences detected among performance are due to foot kinematics rather than morphology. I ran these lizard species on a level and inclined granular trackway, while videorecording them at 500 fps using a high-speed video camera (light video) and a bi-planar high-speed fluoroscopy system (X-ray video) for the above-surface kinematics and the subsurface kinematics, respectively. Running trials were used to quantify running speed, basic stride, foot impact, and sub-surface foot kinematics, to implement on computational simulations of foot-shaped intruders entering a volume of particles to quantify force response at the particle scale. Sand specialists not only outperformed non-specialists on the incline, but maintained running speed compared to the level despite presenting some foot slip. While no significant differences across species were found for basic stride and impact kinematics, only sand specialists shifted foot intrusion angle into incline granular media to angles close to perpendicular to the substrate. At the subsurface, sand specialists maintained a stiffer foot similar to generalists, and intruded their feet shallower similar to fluid specialists. However, only sand specialists maintained toe spacings close to 6 mm on level and incline, similar to a study on intruder spacings showing peak force generation. The ground force response exhibited by the sand specialist lizard foot model revealed that by hitting the particles fast (0.7 m/s) and shallow, almost perpendicular to the substrate, toe first, with stiff feet, and toe spacings close to 6 mm, sand specialists are likely taking advantage of the inertial behavior of the particles at the angle of repose. Essentially, by paddling through the substrate’s fluid-like behaving surface, sand specialists run significantly faster than fluid specialists and generalists. My dissertation demonstrates the significance of surface and subsurface kinematics strategies to understand foot-ground interactions, especially on angled yielding substrates, contributing with knowledge to the terradynamics field and elucidating significant applications in bioengineering, bioinspiration and robotics.
    • Knowing More Than the Hero: An Exploration of Nathan Gabriel's 2011 Production of A View from the Bridge

      Wager, Douglas C. (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In 2011 Nathan Gabriel directed Arthur Miller's A View From The Bridge for his graduate thesis production at Temple University in Philadelphia. In this essay, Gabriel posits that keeping the character of Eddie ignorant about his true feelings for Catherine until the final moments of the play is crucial to making the play work. He supports his argument by pointing to the changes Miller made in the script between the one-act and two-act versions. Gabriel demonstrates how the play followed Aristotle's ideal for a classic Greek tragedy and compares this ideal with Miller's conviction that a true tragedy should not only be sad but should also teach its audience how to better live their lives. He also defends his choice to keep the true sexuality of Rodolpho ambiguous and examines the creative journey of his designers.
    • Knowledge Discovery Through Probabilistic Models

      Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Davey, Adam; Latecki, Longin (Temple University. Libraries, 2012)
      Probabilistic models are dominant in many research areas. To learn those models we need to find a way to determine parameters of distributions over variables which are included in the model. The main focus of my research is related to continuous variables. Thus, Gaussian distribution over variables is the most dominant factor in all models used in this document. I have been working on different and important real-life problems such as Uncertainty of Neural Network Based Aerosol Retrieval, Regression Learning with Multiple Noise Oracles and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for Sepsis Treatment, Clustering Causes of Action in Federal Courts. These problems will be discussed in the following chapters. Aerosols, small particles emanating from natural and man-made sources, along with green house gases have been recognized as very important factors in ongoing climate changes. Accurate estimation of aerosol composition and concentration is one of the main challenges in current climate research. Algorithm for prediction of aerosol designed by domain scientists does not provide quantitative information about aerosol estimation uncertainty. We deployed algorithm which uses neural networks to determine both uncertainty and the estimation of the aerosol. The uncertainty estimator has been built under an assumption that uncertainty is a function of variables used for aerosol prediction. Also, the uncertainty of predictions has been computed as the variance of the conditional distribution of targets given the input data. In regression learning, it is often difficult to obtain the true values of the label variables, while multiple sources of noisy estimates of lower quality are readily available. To address this problem, I propose a new Bayesian approach that learns a regression model from a data with noisy labels which are provided by multiple oracles. This method gives closed form solution for model parameters and it is applicable to both linear and nonlinear regression problems. Sepsis is a medical condition characterized as a systemic inflammatory response to an infection. High mortality rate (30-35%) of septic patients is usually caused by inadequate treatment. Thus, development of tools that can aid clinicians in designing optimal strategies for inflammation treatments is of utmost importance. Towards this objective I developed a data driven approach for therapy optimization where a predictive model for patients' behavior is learned directly from historical data. As such, the predictive model is incorporated into a model predictive control optimization algorithm to find optimal therapy, which will lead the patient to a healthy state. A more careful targeting of specific therapeutic strategies to more biologically homogeneous groups of patients is essential to developing effective sepsis treatment. We propose a kernel-based approach to characterize dynamics of inflammatory response in a heterogeneous population of septic patients. The method utilizes Linear State Space Control (LSSC) models to take into account dynamics of inflammatory response over time as well as the effect of therapy applied to the patient. We use a similarity measure defined on kernels of LSSC models to find homogeneous groups of patients. In addition to clustering of dynamics of inflammatory response we also explored a clustering of civil litigation from its inception by examining the content of civil complaints. We utilize spectral cluster analysis on a newly compiled federal district court dataset of causes of action in complaints to illustrate the relationship of legal claims to one another, the broader composition of lawsuits in trial courts, and the breadth of pleading in individual complaints. Our results shed light not only on the networks of legal theories in civil litigation but also on how lawsuits are classified and the strategies that plaintiffs and their attorneys employ when commencing litigation.