• Gaining Entry Into a Teacher Preparation Program in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: Assessing the Most Valid Predictors

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Najera, Kristina; Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Gross, Steven Jay (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      This study assessed the most valid predictors of success of students entering into an undergraduate teacher preparation program in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Using existing institutional data from a small, private, urban university in Philadelphia, analyses of the data identified variables with the greatest predictive ability. The variables were then used to develop a prediction model that predicts performance on the Basic Skills Math Test and Basic Skills Reading Test. The results of this study provide the university with an instrument to identify students most likely to pass the basic skills test and gain entry into the teacher preparation program. The results of this study also provide the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania support for using SAT scores as a measure of proficiency of basic skills in gaining entry into an undergraduate teacher preparation program. Implications of the research on admissions practices, teacher preparation program development, and education reform are discussed in the recommendations.
    • GAKUNEN: TEACHER PRACTICES AT A PRIVATE JAPANESE HIGH SCHOOL IN THE EARLY 21st CENTURY

      Churchill, Eton, 1964-; Beglar, David J.; Aspinall, Robert W., 1962-; Bostwick, Michael; Casanave, Christine Pearson, 1944- (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      This three-year study is an ethnography of communication of a private high school in Japan. The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers at this private high school understand their environment in the context of changes in Japanese education and even larger changes in Japanese society. These changes include a decreasing population in Japan, shifting university admission policies, and changes to teacher licensing regulations. Methods of data collection include participant observations, interviews, artifact collection, and focus groups. Although the focus is on teachers, students and informants outside of the school are included in order to provide a fuller picture of the context in which the study is conducted. These data are viewed through the lens of Communities of Practice developed by Etienne Wenger and also through the Ethnography of Communication framework. The intended audience for this study includes people interested in cross-cultural studies, Japanese studies, educators teaching in or studying secondary education outside of Japan, teacher trainers, and western educators working in Japan as well as Japanese educators. The findings suggest that changes in student population numbers, university entrance requirements, and licensing procedures have all placed new demands upon teachers. Japan’s decreasing population places greater requirements upon teachers in private high schools to help with student recruitment, and one way to do this is by supporting efforts to brand the school name. In addition, shifting admission policies have placed an emphasis on the connection between high schools and their associated universities. Schools actively work to protect this relationship by introducing new elements to the curriculum in an attempt to better prepare students for the university experience. Finally, changes to teacher licensing regulations have introduced teacher training to private high schools as well as new members to the central community of practice in the school, the gakunen, or the group of teachers and students assigned to a year grade. The response to these new members has varied both among the newcomers and the teachers who were licensed before the changes were introduced. Further data collection and analysis reveal how other societal trends shape the local practices of teachers, and how the teachers in the gakunen community of practice work at times together, and at times to resolve conflicts with each other, students, and parents as they confront demands being placed on educators in Japan in the 21st century.
    • "Gamblers and Merchants" The Politics of Implementing Post-Crisis OTC Regulatory Reform: The US and EU

      Deeg, Richard; Fioretos , Karl O; Suárez, Sandra; Delaney , Kevin (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This study investigates the political sources of change in the regulatory authority for over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives that were brought about by the global financial crisis of 2008. OTC contracts have grown in popularity since the 1980s as firms in advanced market economies have increasingly used them to mitigate their exposure to international economic volatility. However, their proliferation also contributed to complex webs of financial interconnectedness that served to exacerbate the global financial crisis. In the wake of the crisis, public officials across the industrialized economies sought to reform this vast market, which previously had been exempt from direct public regulatory oversight. This dissertation documents a marked shift in regulatory authority after the crisis from a regime that reflected the preferences of the United States and United Kingdom for a deregulated model to a regulatory model that reflected new regulatory preferences in the United States and the European Union. The dissertation examines alternative explanations for this shift to a new Transatlantic regulatory consensus. It finds limited support for materialist theories based on market power, which contend that the degree of convergence around the preferences of one country should be proportional to its market power. Instead, it finds support for an agent-centered historical institutionalist approach that explains the shift in regulatory authority with attention to how marginalized regulatory actors mobilized to have their preferences realized during the implementation of post-crisis OTC reform in the United States and the European Union.
    • Games of Charitable Giving

      Diamantaras, Dimitrios; Leeds, Michael (Michael A.); Yilmazkuday, Hakan; Rosenthal, Edward C., 1959- (Temple University. Libraries, 2010)
      This dissertation develops models of charitable giving in the presence of uncertainty. The model of chapter 2 studies a two-stage signaling game of charitable donations with two players: a charity manager and a wealthy donor. A representative charity manager, who is perfectly informed, collects a donation from a representative donor, who has imperfect information about the manager's types. The manager uses the donation to produce a public good, and in the process decides whether to create waste in order to obtain a personal gain. I solve for separating and pooling sequential equilibria of the game, and employ the Intuitive Criterion of Cho & Kreps (1987) as a refinement to deal with the problem of multiple equilibria. I find that there exists no fully separating equilibrium in which the donor can discern all possible manager types. In addition, the results suggest that the amount of the initial donation may help the donor to induce the manager to reveal his true type. In chapter 3, I analyze the effect of competitive pressures in the philanthropic sector. I find evidence in support of market systems acting as a disciplining device, which induces the manager to play strategies that increase social welfare. Chapter 4 uses an alternative to expected utility theory, known as Choquet expected utility, to model the interaction between a wealthy donor and a charity manager in the presence of uncertainty.
    • Gamma Background Reduction in A Low Counting Facility At Shallow Depth, And Analysis of Gamma Emissions From Eight Beta Decay Contributors to the Reactor Antineutrino Spectrum Anomaly

      Martoff, Charles Jeffrey; Surrow, Bernd; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Zdilla, Michael J., 1978- (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      DarkSide-50 is a detector designed to directly detect a type of dark matter called WeaklyInteracting Massive Particles. Due to a very low event rate, a high level of radiopurity is required for the detector materials. This dissertation concerns a low background gamma counting facility at a shallow depth which we built at Temple University, to screen the potential construction materials for Darkside-50. The primary interest is in determining the radioactivity from 238-U and 232-Th decay chains, 40-K, and muon induced radionuclides. The gamma spectrometry system is based on a 100% relative eciency, n-type low background high purity germanium detector. Internal components of the detector were received from the vendor and assayed in the underground gamma ray counting facility at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso before its assembly, to ensure mBq levels of radiopurity. The sample chamber is lined with 2.5cm thick oxygen-free high thermal conductivity copper to shield against lead X-rays. The shielding enclosure has a glovebox and airlock to allow Rn decay before samples are inserted, within an airtight enclosure with eective Rn purging by LN boilo. A cosmic-ray anti-coincidence (veto) system is installed, along with borated and non-borated polyethylene panels surrounding the lead shielding for further background reduction. This resulting background level (which determines the radioanalytical sensitivity) is better than published results for the earth's-surface HPGe facility at Pacic Northwest National Laboratory. Further improvement is expected with imminent improvements to the cosmic ray veto system. In addition to DarkSide radioanalytical work, the facility was used to study ssion yields of interest in connection with the Reactor Neutrino Anomaly (RAA), a bump in the reactor antineutrino spectrum around 5 MeV wihch is under intense scrutiny in the community. Gamma rays from 252-Cf were initially studied, followed by analysis of new data from irradiation of a 235-U sample by collaborators at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), using High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Neutron Activation Analysis facility (NAA). The analysis of these spectra showed that the expected and measured gamma emissions do agree with tabulated ssion yields within 2 standard deviations, implying that the errors in the tabulated data are not causing the RAA.
    • Gamma-Delta T-Cells in Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma

      Platsoucas, Chris D.; Ashby, Barrie; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Skorski, Tomasz; Monos, Dimitrios (Temple University. Libraries, 2008)
      Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death from all cancers among women in the Western world and the most lethal of all gynecological cancers. The epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) represent approximately 90% of all human ovarian malignant neoplasm. The five-year survival rate for patients with EOC is attributed to late diagnosis and poor response to therapy. T-cells play an important role in tumor immunity of EOC, evidence includes infiltrating CD3+ T-cells in EOC lesions and a specific antigen driven immune response. Human gd TCR + T-cells are a minor subset of T-cells (1-10%) in the peripheral blood. The majority of the T cells in the peripheral blood are aß TCR + T-cells. Like the aß T-cells, gd TCR + T-cells bear a T-cell receptor that functions in antigen recognition. Most importantly most gd TCR+ T cells recognize mainly whole proteins. In contrast, aß TCR+ T cells primarily recognize peptide in association with MHC. Upon specific antigen recognition, these T cells undergo clonal expansion, generating multiple identical T cell clones. Previously in our lab clonal expansion of ab TCR+ T cells was observed in patients with EOC. Also preliminary data indicate that clonal expansion of gd TCR+ T cells in patients with EOC. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is whether clonally expanded gd TCR+ T-cells in patients with EOC, are able to recognize and kill EOC tumor cells. Data from recent studies show that tumor infiltrating gd TCR+ T cells recognize and have antitumor activity towards epithelial derived cancer cells. Following V-specific amplification of the various gd T-cell receptors (TCR) chains we observed the presence of statistically significant populations of oligoclonal g-chain and d-chain TCR+ transcripts in the EOC samples studied. To further characterize the gd TCR+ T-cells in EOC lesions, full-length transcripts of the most clonally expanded Vg(II)9- and Vd2-chain TCR transcripts from EOC tumors were constructed. These, as well as additional, full-length transcripts were transduced into a mutant TCR-negative Jurkat T cell line. The transduced cells were analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS) for expression of gd TCR on the cell surface. gd TCR+ CD3+ transduced T cells were then incubated with the ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3, CAOV3 or OV2774. Following co-culture experiments of these cancer cells with gd TCR+ CD3+ transduced T cells we observed killing of the target cell (SKOV3, CAOV3 and OV2774) by various gd TCR + T cell transduced cell lines. This killing was not observed by control T cell lines transduced either with vector only or single chain of TCR. Furthermore, the production of cysteine proteases such as caspase 3/7, procaspase 8 and 9 involved in target cell death were also observed following co-incubation experiments. These data suggest that our gd TCR+ transduced T cells induce SKOV3, CAOV3 and OV2774 cancer cell death measured by cytotoxicity and activation of cell death proteases.
    • GANYMEDE 5 – THE OPERA AND AN ANALYSIS OF KATE SOPER’S OPERA HERE BE SIRENS

      Folio, Cynthia; Clearfield, Andrea; Klein, Michael Leslie; Everett, Yayoi Uno (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      In this dissertation, I present the score for the opera Ganymede 5 – Act I and the research paper on Kate Soper’s opera Here be Sirens. Ganymede 5 was first written in the summer of 2019 and premiered at the Philadelphia Fringe Festival on 18 September 2019 by ENAensemble at the Plays and Players Studio Theatre. Following this production, the creative team (myself, the librettist Aleksandar Hut Kono, the director Rose Freeman, and our producers Nicole Renna and Anaïs Naharro-Murphy) met and decided that the opera’s first act was dramaturgically unsalvageable. Working with Aleksandar, Rose, and my composition advisor Andrea Clearfield, I set about rewriting the first act. This new act, with an entirely new libretto, new plot, and a larger orchestra is included here in full score. In the paper, I present three approaches to understanding Kate Soper’s 2014 opera Here be Sirens. In the first chapter, I develop an analytical model using Jacques Lacan’s theory of the mirror stage as a scheme to map the evolution of the sirens Polyxo and Peitho. I argue that their evolutionary arcs together form one complete cycle of the mirror stage, where Peitho begins the opera immediately before the mirror stage and finishes well in the middle, while Polyxo starts in the middle of the mirror stage and is ultimately able to exist via sublimation. With this mapping in hand, elements of the musical and dramaturgical unfolding are contextualized, and most importantly, the relationship between speaking and singing is understood. In the second chapter, I look at the diegetic/nondiegetic orientation of the opera’s musical discourse, the narratological registers within which the opera unfolds, and the role eclectic musical styles play in the plot and in the perception and meaning of time. Together, these three windows into the work illuminate a complex, dynamic set of interactions that generate an astonishingly novel but immediately accessible opera. In the third chapter, I present the transcript of an interview I conducted with Kate Soper where we discuss a variety of topics, from the symbolic meaning of spoken language to the practical considerations of using an onstage piano played by the singers. I annotate in footnotes parts of the interview that deal directly with other parts of the analysis, and specifically those parts where Soper’s statements contradict my own analytical conclusions. The last chapter is a brief, rhapsodic consideration of this work as an analyst and composer. It first presents some paths forward for future research using the tools developed and wielded in this analysis. It then moves on to the way my own compositional dispositions framed my analysis and how they are vital to understanding what is included and what is left out of this work. Soper’s compositional voice deserves consideration on a composer-to-composer level, as it challenges some of the prevailing value-systems around contemporary music. To that end, I reconsider my analysis as if it were a composition lesson, looking at what questions – such as those around technique – are not worth asking from a compositional or analytical perspective.
    • GASP-1, a New Tumor Biomarker, Contributes to Tumorigenesis in Breast Cancer.

      Tuszynski, George P.; Chang, Frank N.; Amini, Shohreh; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Hu, Wenhui (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death in United States. Using 2D-HPLE, a novel separation technology, G-protein coupled receptor-associated sorting protein 1(GASP-1) was identified in sera of patients with early stage cancer, while it could not be detected in sera from healthy individuals. This was the first indication that GASP-1 was positively correlated with breast cancer. However, the function of GASP-1 in breast cancer was unknown. In this study, I verified the 2D-HPLE results by quantifying the expression level of GASP-1 in sera and tissue specimens of cancer patients using specific antibodies against GASP-1. A GASP-1 specific ELISA was developed and used to quantify GASP-1 levels in cancer patient sera. Immunohistochemistry was performed to verify and localize GASP-1 expression in tumor. I also characterized the tumorigenic potential of GASP-1 andidentified the signaling pathways mediated by GASP-1 in breast cancer cells in vitro.GASP-1 expression levelsin MDA-MB-231 cells were modified by transfecting cells with anti-GASP-1 shRNA and over-expression plasmids. Stable cell lines were prepared and their tumorigenic potential was evaluated using cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation assays. These cells were analyzed for markers used to identify epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) using RT-PCR and western blot. They were also analyzed for NFkappaB activity, src phosphorylation, and GPR30 expression. The results showed that GASP-1 was over-expressed in sera and tissue specimens of breast cancer patients and other cancer types including brain, lung, liver and pancreatic cancer and that it correlated with early stage disease. GASP-1 positively regulated migration, and is required for cell proliferation and colony formation. GASP-1 is also necessary for the expression of EMT marker slug, increases NFkappaB activity and GPR30 expression level, while decreases the inhibitory phospho-src Tyr 530. I conclude that GASP-1 is a nearly marker for multiple cancer types. GASP-1 promotes tumorigenesis in breast cancer, possibly through multiple cancer related signaling pathways. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the mechanism of breast cancer tumorigenesis and identify new biomarkers that can be used for diagnosis and therapy of cancer.
    • GAUSSIAN CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS FOR REGRESSION IN REMOTE SENSING

      Obradovic, Zoran; Vucetic, Slobodan; Latecki, Longin; Mennis, Jeremy (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      In recent years many remote sensing instruments of various properties have been employed in an attempt to better characterize important geophysical phenomena. Satellite instruments provide an exceptional opportunity for global long-term observations of the land, the biosphere, the atmosphere, and the oceans. The collected data are used for estimation and better understanding of geophysical parameters such as land cover type, atmospheric properties, or ocean temperature. Achieving accurate estimations of such parameters is an important requirement for development of models able to predict global climate changes. One of the most challenging climate research problems is estimation of global composition, load, and variability of aerosols, small airborne particles that reflect and absorb incoming solar radiation. The existing algorithm for aerosol prediction from satellite observations is deterministic and manually tuned by domain scientist. In contrast to domain-driven method, we show that aerosol prediction is achievable by completely data-driven approaches. These statistical methods consist of learning of nonlinear regression models to predict aerosol load using the satellite observations as inputs. Measurements from unevenly distributed ground-based sites over the world are used as proxy to ground-truth outputs. Although statistical methods achieve better accuracy than deterministic method this setup is appropriate when data are independently and identically distributed (IID). The IID assumption is often violated in remote sensing where data exhibit temporal, spatial, or spatio-temporal dependencies. In such cases, the traditional supervised learning approaches could result in a model with degraded accuracy. Conditional random fields (CRF) are widely used for predicting output variables that have some internal structure. Most of the CRF research has been done on structured classification where the outputs are discrete. We propose a CRF model for continuous outputs that uses multiple unstructured predictors to form its features and at the same time exploits structure among outputs. By constraining the feature functions to quadratic functions of outputs, we show that the CRF model can be conveniently represented in a Gaussian canonical form. The appeal of proposed Gaussian Conditional Random Fields (GCRF) model is in its conceptual simplicity and computational efficiency of learning and inference through use of sparse matrix computations. Experimental results provide strong evidence that the GCRF achieves better accuracy than non-structured models. We improve the representational power of the GCRF model by 1) introducing the adaptive feature function that can learn nonlinear relationships between inputs and outputs and 2) allowing the weights of feature functions to be dependent on inputs. The GCRF is also readily applicable to other regression applications where there is a need for knowledge integration, data fusion, and exploitation of correlation among output variables.
    • GAZA: A CASE STUDY OF URBAN DESTRUCTION THROUGH MILITARY INVOLVEMENT

      Silberfein, Marilyn; Lucas, Susan, Ph. D.; Mennis, Jeremy (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Nicholas Adams (1993) suggests that the destruction of the built environment and architecture of a city during war is an effective way of demoralizing and even eradicating the enemy. Goonewardena and Kipfer (2007) suggest that the built environment helps establish not only the common shared spaces in which individuals live their lives, but a sense of place and community identity. When buildings and public spaces are anthropomorphized, their destruction affects every aspect of a community. Urbicide as a tactic of urban warfare has changed the look and feel of many places such as the Balkans, Germany in World War II, and The Gaza Strip. The many faces of war have changed the landscape and homogeneity of the areas affected. Long-term, continual bombardment, precision attacks, and incursions by armies have in many cases all but destroyed the pre-existing physical environment. In its stead, is created a non-permanent built environment on the verge of destruction or change by non-civil forces. This investigation uses The Gaza Strip as a case study and looks into the impermanence of the built environment. The continual violence of change has greatly affected the resident Palestinian population. I will also examine how the temporary nature of the built environment and constant threats of change and destruction have affected everyday spaces. Although the population understands the potentially transitory nature of the structures, this does not deter them from rebuilding, when materials are available. Using data obtained from different nongovernmental organisations and aid agencies, this paper examines how repeated bombardment, precision attacks, and incursions reconfigure space, buildings and the functionality of the built environment in The Gaza Strip. Changes in the form and functionality are conceptualized as continuous processes that produce constant rounds of rebuilding. The shape and composition of the built environment is evaluated after specific bombardments, attacks and incursions in order to assess the extent and form of rebuilding. The results show that each round of destruction is followed by differing degrees of reconstruction that again restructure the look of the built environment.
    • Gems for Her Crown: The Stained Glass Drum Oculi of Santa Maria del Fiore

      Hall, Marcia B.; Kline, Jonathan; Kline, Jonathan (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      The literature on the stained glass windows installed in the eight oculi of the drum of Santa Maria del Fiore are mainly found in the monographs of the four artists that provided the cartoons--Donatello, Lorenzo Ghiberti, Paolo Uccello, and Andrea del Castagno. Few studies have focused on the program in its entirety. This thesis will attempt to provide a more thorough understanding of the program. Analysis of the primary documents reveals how the windows functioned as part of the building and its liturgical and public life. In particular, the central argument is that Donatello's Coronation of the Virgin was a substitute for an altarpiece and the seven other windows act as subsidiary scenes that reinforce the primary window and its political and theological agenda.
    • Gender Construction and Manifestation in the Art of Elaine de Kooning

      Silk, Gerald; Dolan, Therese, 1946-; Gold, Susanna; Wallis, Jonathan S. (Temple University. Libraries, 2009)
      As a woman whose career lifted off during the era of Abstract Expressionism, Elaine de Kooning is precariously positioned between her gender and her career. She began painting in the midst of a male-dominated movement and in later years continued to use very masculine themes in her art; however, her gender sets her apart from her mostly male colleagues during the Abstract Expressionist period. The mid-century expectation of machismo and masculinity shaped Elaine de Kooning’s art and career, and there is a tension within her art as she tried to fit the established (male) persona of the typical Abstract Expressionist artist while also maintaining a female identity. As the wife of Willem de Kooning, Elaine is most often discussed with respect to this relationship. Her name is infrequently mentioned in scholarship without reference to Willem, and her contribution to art history has only recently been studied in any length in Jane Bledsoe’s Elaine de Kooning (1992) and in a series of smaller gallery publications. Furthermore, Elaine has become recognized and respected, in some cases, more for her critical writings for Art News during the 1950s and 1960s than for her art. She was an artist turned art critic, and this crossover has further complicated the scholarly attention devoted to her. Elaine consistently revisited male-inspired subject matter: in her portraiture she painted predominantly male sitters; in her cave painting-inspired work she reflected a society of primitive male hunters; in her series of sports paintings she depicted male basketball and baseball players in dynamic postures; in her Bacchus series she investigated a male god and the vitality of the statue’s writhing male musculature; and in her bull and bison series she worked with the clichéd animalistic symbol of masculine strength and virility. These subjects, combined with the ejaculatory style of Abstract Expressionism’s loose brushwork and vibrant swirling colors, provide a unique contrast to the artist, herself, as a female personality.
    • Gender Disparities in Diagnosis and Pain Management

      Jones, Nora L. (Temple University. Libraries, 2018)
      The proliferation of social media and other online forums has allowed female patients to share their experiences in the healthcare system. Female patients and women’s health advocates can more easily speak out about instances of gender bias in medicine, which impact women’s access to equitable healthcare and positive healthcare experiences. Although there are some medical studies addressing gender disparities in various aspects of medicine, the impacts of gender bias on healthcare remain understudied and poorly understood. Patient narratives therefore provide an essential insight into the state of gender bias in medicine today. This paper aims to explore these narratives for common themes, to determine whether the current medical literature supports the presence of gender-based disparities, and to highlight the biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors impacting any disparities. Patient narratives frequently cite frustrations with diagnostic errors or delays and inadequate pain management, and the medical literature generally supports women’s accounts of gender disparities in these areas. Several studies of diagnostic disparities show that women more frequently experience delays in diagnosis, missed diagnoses, and incorrect psychiatric diagnoses. Multiple pain management studies have found that women face longer delays in care, lower rates of analgesic administration (particularly opiates), and fewer referrals for nonpharmacologic management strategies. Explanations for these disparities are likely multifactorial, and include provider ignorance of female-specific presentations and diseases, prevalence of understudied diseases in women, misattribution of symptoms to psychogenic causes, communication differences, normalization of female pain, and misconceptions about pain tolerance.
    • GENDER EFFECTS ON FIRM CAPITAL STRUCTURE

      Anderson, Ronald; Chitturi, Pallavi; John, Kose (Temple University. Libraries, 2017)
      The literature of sociobiology and culture recognize that, statistically, females often make different choices than males across a wide range of issues. Scholars of business, economics, and finance find that females react differently than males to diverse financial and business situations. Moreover, extant research indicates that females on boards of directors exert a positive impact on monitoring, value, and performance. This dissertation extends the gender literature by empirically testing the hypothesis that female board representation limits the use of debt in firms’ capital structures because of females’ greater risk aversion, lower overconfidence, and less competitive nature compared with males. The empirical results indicate that influential female representation, such as a female chair of the board, has a causal negative and significant impact on the leverage of the company.
    • GENDER INEQUALITY IN TURKISH EDUCATION SYSTEM AND THE CAUSES

      Jordan, Will J.; Keith, Novella Zett (Temple University. Libraries, 2011)
      Education is a crucial factor for nations to advance their social, cultural and economic well being. Gender equality in education is in direct proportion to gender equality in the labor force, in equal power in household and decision making. Educating females lower mother and baby mortality rates, generates higher educational attainment and achievement for next generations, and improves economic conditions of nations. Gender inequality in educational attainment and dropout rates is an agelong problem for Turkey since it was established in 1923. Girls are still have lower enrollment rates and higher drop out rates than their male counterparts in Turkey, even though education is free at all levels, there is a compulsory education law, financial aid is provided by government for parents to send their daughters to school, and there are boarding schools and free school services for girls living in rural areas. This thesis reviews a diverse literature on female education and the barriers to female education in the Turkish education system. In this thesis the background of the Turkish education system and the place of female education in that system are explored and the main barriers to female education in Turkey are analyzed through a review of the literature on gender gap, female education, and education policies. Some social and political strategies are suggested for Turkish policy makers, teacher educators, social workers, and teachers in order to promote female education and gender equity in the Turkish education system.
    • GENDER REPRESENTATION IN CHILDREN’S YOUTUBE: PRESENCE OF GENDER-ROLE STEREOTYPES IN ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONTENT WITHIN CHILDREN-DRIVEN YOUTUBE CHANNELS

      Lombard, Matthew; Kitch, Carolyn; Culver, Sherri (Temple University. Libraries, 2021)
      This study examines the three most popular children’s YouTube channels to explore the extent to which advertisements within children’s YouTube content present gender-role stereotypes. Children today are growing up in the digital age, surrounded by media content that has been on, and continues to move onto, streaming services. While media consumption habits may be changing, today children consume more content than ever. Between the ages of 18 months to seven years, children are in the Preoperational Stage of development (Piaget, 1964), during which they begin to understand symbolic function and, therefore, representation. As such, the gender messages that children consume during this time of their lives can have lasting effects on how they perceive their gender’s role in society. Children’s advertisements are especially important to study as the characters in advertisements are often given a product or “reward” which reinforces the behavior they modeled for the viewer. This study is a content analysis of advertisements aimed at children on YouTube conducted to determine the extent of stereotypical gender roles and discuss their possible impacts on young viewers.
    • Gender Roles and the Single-Sex Environment: The Effects of Single-Sex Schooling on Gender Role Attitudes and Life Plan

      DuCette, Joseph P.; Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Gross, Steven Jay; Farley, Frank; Ikpa, Vivian W. (Temple University. Libraries, 2015)
      The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether or not the single-sex environment has an effect on the gender role perceptions and life paths of young women. Students were selected from two urban high schools, one all-girls and one coeducational. The schools themselves are located a short distance from each other to ensure consistency in regards to socioeconomic status. This study used a mixed methods analysis. Female students in their senior year of high school were surveyed using a gender role perception inventory (Prasad & Baron, 2009). Ten students from the original sample, five from each site, were then selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that there is little difference in gender role perception and life path between the two samples. The only exception is in the area of gender role reversal, which favors the single-sex school. As such, students from the single-sex school are more likely to indicate comfort with the inversion of conventional gender roles. In terms of life path, no significant difference between the two groups was found in terms of traditional, non-traditional, and gender-neutral career plans. Interviews with students from both sites reveal two major differences thematically. Students in the single-sex school reported that the decision to attend an all-girls school was mostly made by their parents, while students in the coeducational school reported making the decision themselves. The second difference between the two environments is that students in the single-sex school reported that they and their peers in the school feel quite comfortable acting “themselves” because of the lack of males in the environment. The students in the coeducational school corroborated that sentiment by expressing the tendency of their female peers to act differently in the presence of male peers. The results of this study do not conclusively prove that the single-sex environment is beneficial for the formation of non-traditional gender role perception and life path, with the exception of the reversal finding. The interviews, however, may indicate that the students in the single-sex environment have an advantage in terms of comfort because of the absence of their opposite sex peers. Indisputably, this study confirms that more research is needed in the area of single-sex education for females.
    • GENDERED PASSAGEWAYS IN FREEDOM SCHOOL: AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS' JOURNEYS TO WOMANHOOD

      Davis, James Earl, 1960-; Horvat, Erin McNamara, 1964-; Hunt, Portia L.; Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Evans-Winters, Venus E. (Temple University. Libraries, 2013)
      African American rites of passage (ROP) have historically contributed to adolescent gender socialization enabling Black youth to overcome the effects of racism and oppression. ROP in the schools provide lessons in Black history, traditions, and culture as they guide youth through the turbulent terrain of adolescence via the communal "coming of age" process. This study examined adolescent girls' experiences in weekly ROP classes at Ella Baker Freedom Academy (EBFA) Charter School over the course of one academic year and five months. EBFA is an African-centered Freedom School in a northeastern city in the United States. This study employed ethnographic methods within a Black Feminist/Womanist framework to investigate how rites of passage support adolescent girls' gendered ethnic identity, self-concept, and peer relations. This study fills in gaps in the literature on ROP, focusing on the participants' ROP experiences within the intersections of adolescent identity formation, womanhood and sisterhood empowerment, and culturally relevant gender socialization practices in school. Three major questions guided the study: 1) How ROP classes supported adolescent girls' intersecting and developing gender and ethnic identities; 2) How ROP classes supported students' female peer relations; and 3) How African values were utilized in ROP classes. The study revealed the interconnected ways in which ROP supported participants' developing gender/ethnic identities, and improved peer relationships, conflict resolution strategies, and personal definitions of womanhood. The ROP classes supported students by: a) developing a critical awareness of sexism, internalized oppression; i.e., colorism, negative racial/gendered stereotypes about Black women and girls in U.S. society, particularly those propagated through the media; b) building appreciation, esteem, and respect in themselves and each other; c) cultivating positive academic identities through healthy female peer relationships via critical dialogue, trust building, conflict resolution, and empowering communications; d) developing personal standards for womanhood using African-centered values; and e) revealing gendered passageways to womanhood and sisterhood in intergenerational and emotionally safe spaces, and across school contexts.
    • Gene association of a-B-crystallin with R577X polymorphism for ACTN3 and nociception in subjects with TMD-related myalgia

      Horton, Michael J.; Sciote, James J.; Godel, Jeffrey H. (Temple University. Libraries, 2016)
      Masseter muscle is one of the major muscles of mastication, and is comprised of actin and myosin myofibrils organized into sarcomeric contractile units. Structurally, sarcomeres are repeating portions of myofibrils between neighboring Z-lines (a.k.a. Z-disc, Z-band). The Z-line or Z-disc is composed of non-contractile proteins that provide mechanical stability to the sarcomere. One of the proteins of Z-disc is alpha-B-crystallin, a protein product of the gene CRYAB. Together with several other proteins of the Z-disc, CRYAB gene has been found to be up-regulated in Actn3 knock-out mice. In addition, CRYAB is suspected to be a pain mediator gene, having similar structure and function to CRYAA (alpha,A-crystallin) identified as one of the candidate genes from the Pain Research Panel, previously investigated in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) Study. Finally, in a microarray of global gene expression CRYAB was increased in subjects with facial asymmetry. We have examined CRYAB expression in masseter muscle of 64 orthognathic surgery patients to determine associations with skeletal malocclusions. Salivary DNA was genotyped for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for ACTN3 (rs1815739) and masseter muscle RNA isolated from an orthognathic surgery patient population. These genotyping and expression data have been used to identify differences in CRYAB expression in sub-groups of our patient population with Class II and III, normal, open and deep bite malocclusions who are null for ACTN3. In addition, we evaluated expression levels of CRYAB in patients with TMD-related myalgia. We found that relative quantities of CRYAB expression differed very significantly between sexes (p=0.005). ANOVA comparison between all subjects with and without TMD-myalgia indicated that males with TMD-myalgia had significantly greater (p<0.02) expression than other groups. An unpaired t-test showed that with TMD-related myalgia, CRYAB expression was significantly higher (p=0.03) in males than in females. ANOVA comparison between sexes with Class II and Class III malocclusions showed greater expression of CRYAB (p=0.005) in males with Class II. Expression was likewise greater in males with Class III malocclusion than in females with Class III (p<0.01). Among different age groups, subjects 25 years of age or younger had significantly (p value=0.025) increased expression of CRYAB gene. There were no significant differences for genotypes or facial asymmetry.
    • GENERAL MUSIC TEACHERS' PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF MULTIMODAL MEANS IN MUSIC INSTRUCTION

      Confredo, Deborah A.; Confredo, Deborah A.; Dilworth, Rollo A.; Buonviri, Nathan O.; Brooks, Darlene M. (Temple University. Libraries, 2014)
      The purpose of this study was to examine general music teachers' practices and attitudes regarding the use of multimodal pedagogy in music instruction. A survey design was used to explore the extent to which general music teachers, in a delimited geographical area in southeastern Pennsylvania, use multimodal pedagogy and their attitudes towards it. Data were gathered by contacting 600 potential participants via email and inviting them to take part. Of the 600 contacted, 170 respondents participated in the study (28% response rate). In total, 127 completed the survey and were considered by the researcher to be appropriate for analysis. General music teachers reported that the most frequent teaching modalities used while planning, teaching, and assessing their students were, in decreasing order of frequency, aural, multimodal, visual, and kinesthetic modality. However, this array of modalities was used less frequently while assessing students than planning and teaching. The majority of respondents favored the use of aural modality while assessing their students. The availability of movement materials predicted general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while planning, teaching and assessing students. Gender, teachers' educational degree, professional development, the availability of percussion instruments, and iPad and tablets predicted general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while assessing students. Attending Orff, Kodály, and Dalcroze professional development programs had a significant relationship with general music teachers' use of multimodal pedagogy while planning and assessing their students. Responses to the open-ended questions provided evidence of how general music teachers actually experience the application of multimodal pedagogy in the classroom. Specifically, the responses showed how individual teachers considered students' learning styles while planning and teaching, and assessing to secure students' success. General music teachers reported a generally positive attitude towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. The availability of Orff instruments was a positive predictor, and guitar was a negative predictor for general music teachers' attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. Attending Orff, Kodály, and Music Learning Theory (MLT) professional development workshops had a significant relationship with the music teachers' attitude towards the use of multimodal pedagogy. These factors that contributed to general music teachers' positive attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy partially because Kodály, MLT, and Orff techniques including Orff instruments encouraged general music teachers to incorporate different learning modalities inside the music classroom. The open-ended question captured the participants' voices and provided further evidence of general music teachers' positive attitudes towards the use of multimodal pedagogy and how they recognize the benefits of using it. These results have implications for music educators that include developing professional development programs designed to assist in the use of multiple modalities. Recommendations for further research include examining the effects of multimodal music pedagogy on elementary students' acquisition of specific music skills (e.g., singing voice, rhythmic achievement).